Using cones to identify the indigenous Cycads of South Africa

This is a practical easy-to-use guide, by using cones for the identification of indigenous cycad species (Encephalartos species) of South Africa.
Hugo, Cornia
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Title: Using cones to identify the indigenous Cycads of South Africa
Authors: Cornia Hugo
Publisher: Briza Publications
Expanded and revised 2nd edition. Pretoria, South Africa 2017
ISBN 9780620697675 / ISBN 978-0-620-69767-5
Softcover, 17 x 24 cm, 118 pages, 530 colour photographs

About: Using cones to identify the indigenous Cycads of South Africa

Cornia Hugo's passion for cycads led to the publication of her first book "Identification of indigenous cycads of South Africa". The guide became hugely popular in the Cycad community of South Africa and has prompted the author to present training courses on Cycad identification to members of the public, the South African Police Services as well as to Provincial and National Nature Conservation officials. In working with cycad enthusiasts it became clear that the additional use of cones to identify cycads assisted with improving the correct identification. Plants growing in unnatural conditions would also on occasion present different typical characteristics, which made accurate identification difficult. If a cycad is not planted in its natural growing habitat the appearance of the leaf will present different characteristics as the norm. Even when using the key, the identification of seedlings still proved to be problematical in some of the species. Climate will have an influence on the pollination of female cones, and on the pollen shedding of male cones. Cornia Hugo believes that using the cones when present will overcome these difficulties regarding identification.

Content: Using cones to identify the indigenous Cycads of South Africa

Legal Aspects Pertaining to Cycads of South Africa
Estimated Monetary Value of Cycads
Growing Conditions for South African Cycads
The Steps To Follow To Identify A Cycad
Group 1 - Linear Leaflets
Encephalartos ghellinckii
Encephalartos cycadifolius
Encephalartos lanatus
Encephalartos friderici-guilielmi
Encephalartos humilis
Encephalartos laevifolius (Mariepskop)
Encephalartos laevifolius (Kaapsehoop)
Group 2 - Bluish-lobed Leaflets
Encephalartos horridus
Encephalartos trispinosus
Group 3 - Green-lobed Leaflets
Encephalartos ferox
Encephalartos latifrons
Encephalartos arenarius
Group 4 - Leaflets lorate (Ribbon-shape)
Encephalartos brevifoliolatus
Encephalartos cerinus
Encephalartos caffer
Encephalartos ngoyanus
Encephalartos umbeluziensis
Encephalartos villosus
Group 5 - Bluish Leaflets entire or dentate
Encephalartos inopinus
Encephalartos princeps
Encephalartos lehmannii
Encephalartos nubimontanus
Encephalartos nubimontanus (Robustus form)
Encephalartos cupidus
Encephalartos dyerianus
Encephalartos dolomiticus
Encephalartos middelburgensis
Encephalartos eugene-maraisii
Encephalartos hirsutus
Group 6 - Green Leaflets entire or dentate
Encephalartos transvenosus
Encephalartos paucidentatus
Encephalartos heenanii
Encephalartos woodii
Encephalartos longifolius
Encephalartos altensteinii
Encephalartos natalensis
Encephalartos lebomboensis
Encephalartos lebomboensis (Mananga form)
Encephalartos lebomboenis (Piet Retief form)
Encephalartos senticosus
Encephalartos msinganus
Encephalartos aemulans