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People’s Plants. A Guide to Useful Plants of Southern Africa

People’s Plants. A Guide to Useful Plants of Southern Africa

Traditional and contemporary uses of more than 650 plants in Southern Africa are described and illustrated
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978-1-875093-19-9
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People’s Plants. A Guide to Useful Plants of Southern Africa

Authors: Ben-Erik van Wyk, Nigel Gericke
Briza Publications
Pretoria, 2007
ISBN: 978-1-875093-19-9
Hard cover, 17x24 cm, 352 pages, 530 colour photographs

People’s Plants. A Guide to Useful Plants of Southern Africa Dies ist ein hochinteressantes ethnobotanisches Handbuch für den Bereich südliches Afrika über 650 Pflanzen der Volksmedizin und der Herstellung von Getränken und Lebensmitteln.


Description:

People's Plants is a photographic guide to the useful plants of southern Africa. It is the first fully illustrated ethnobotanical handbook for southern Africa.

Traditional and contemporary uses of more than 650 plants are described and illustrated in 20 chapters, each dealing with a specific category of plant use:

• FOODS & DRINKS - (1) cereals, (2) seeds & nuts, (3) fruits & berries, (4) vegetables, (5) roots, bulbs & tubers, and (6) beverages

• HEALTH & BEAUTY - (7) general medicines, (8) tonic plants, (9) mind & mood plants, (10) women's health, (11) wounds, burns & skin conditions, (12) dental care, (13) perfumes & repellents, and (14) soap plants & cosmetics

• SKILLS & CRAFTS - (15) hunting & fishing, (16) dyes & tans, (17) utility timbers, (18) fire-making and firewood, (19) basketry, weaving & ropes, (20) thatching, mats & brooms

Plants and plant-derived products of special cultural and/or commercial significance are highlighted. Key references for further reading are provided for each of the 20 categories of plant use.

More than 530 excellent photographs are included, showing the plants, plant products and the way in which they are used.

This fascinating book is a must for anyone interested in useful plants, new crop plants, medicinal plants, new product development, ecotourism, rural development, traditional crafts, African culture, ethnobotany, and botany in general.


About the authors:

Ben-Erik van Wyk is a professor of Botany at the Rand Afrikaans University in Johannesburg. He is an authority on systematic botany and indigenous plant use.

Nigel Gericke is a medical doctor and an authority on medical ethnobotany. He has a natural products consultancy in Cape Town.

Both authors passionately believe that there has to be a concerted effort to develop novel products of exceptional quality from selected "people's plants" for regional and global markets.

They want to encourage a new breed of eco-entrepreneurs to harness the synergies between indigenous knowledge systems, scientific research, and modern technologies to drive sustainable development in the southern African region for the benefit of all its peoples.


General introduction:

Southern Africa is exceptionally rich in plant diversity with some 30 000 species of flowering plants, accounting for almost 10% of the world's higher plants. The region also has great cultural diversity, with many people still using a wide variety of plants in their daily lives for food, water, shelter, fuel, medicine and the other necessities of life. This book gives a broad overview of indigenous plant use and is the first fully illustrated ethnobotanical guide for southern Africa.

In the last few decades the region has seen great changes in access to modern health care and education, shifts of populations from rural to urban areas, changes from subsistence farming to cash-crop production, migrant labour, and unprecedented environmental degradation.

These changes in the socio-cultural and environmental landscapes have severely eroded the indigenous knowledge base. The study of the use of plants by local people, or ethnobotany, is still a relatively underdeveloped discipline in southern Africa, and knowledge of indigenous plant use in the region needs urgent scientific documentation before it is irretrievably lost to future generations.

The intention of this book is primarily to raise awareness of the role plants play in people's daily lives by illustrating some of the most common and interesting traditional uses of plants, and highlighting selected categories of use for the first time. The book is not intended to be encyclopaedic in scope, and interested readers are encouraged to consult the primary references listed in each chapter.

We hope to stimulate ongoing scientific documentation of indigenous knowledge for future generations, and most importantly, the application and beneficiation of this knowledge as instruments for sustainable development in the region. Innovative mechanisms need to be created to ensure that impoverished rural communities can share directly in the benefits arising from the commercialisation of this profound knowledge base.

A new era has already dawned in southern Africa. Unique collaborations are being forged between government departments, science councils, universities, local communities, traditional healers, farmers and entrepreneurs. The first natural products are already appearing on local and international markets.


Content:

GENERAL INTRODUCTION
FOODS & DRINKS
CEREALS
SEEDS & NUTS
FRUITS & BERRIES
VEGETABLES
ROOTS, BULBS & TUBERS
BEVERAGES
HEALTH & BEAUTY
GENERAL MEDICINES
TONIC PLANTS
MIND & MOOD PLANTS
WOMEN'S HEALTH
WOUNDS, BURNS & SKIN CONDITIONS
DENTAL CARE
PERFUMES & REPELLENTS
SOAPS & COSMETICS
SKILLS & CRAFTS
HUNTING & FISHING
DYES & TANS
UTILITY TIMBERS
FIRE-MAKING & FIREWOOD
BASKETRY, WEAVING & ROPES
THATCHING, MATS & BROOMS
INDEX


Example: Beverages

Southern African has a diverse and interesting indigenous tea, wine and beer culture. The terms tea, wine and beer are not accurate and may even be misleading, because they imply a relation with the three main beverage plants of the modern world (Thea sinensis - tea, Vitis vinifera - wine, Hordeum vulgare - barley malt used for beer). Traditional drinks in southern Africa are often highly nutritious and form an important component of the diet. The diversity of alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages is highlighted below.

One of the most widely used beverages in southern Africa is sorghum beer, produced from Sorghum bicolor malt. Beer-making has become commercialised and standardised, so that the rural recipes and special ingredients are no longer used except in isolated places. The most important traditional "beer plants" such as pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) and marula (Sclerocarya birred) are no longer as widely used as in former times.

Malted beers are traditionally used daily as an item of diet. Marula and other fruit brews, however, are strictly seasonal, and are used mainly for their alcohol content, to lift the spirit. A glimpse of the diversity can be seen in the study of Quin (1959) who recorded the main traditional beers (bjalwa) of the Pedi culture. With increasing awareness and appreciation for the value of diversity, there will hopefully be a revival of the traditional art of brewing, so that more people will be able to appreciate the diversity of tastes in future.

The traditional malting and brewing methods for bjalwa were recorded in detail by Quin (1959). Malting procedures are the same for sorghum, pearl millet and even non-traditional mealies: the grain is placed in a clay pot and submerged in cold water. After 24 hours, when the grain starts to sprout, it is drained and transferred to a grass basket. After a further 24 hours, the sprouts reach a length of about five millimetres and the process is allowed to continue until the roots are about 25 millimetres long.

The mass of germinated grain is spread and allowed to dry in the sun. The dry product is ground on a grinding stone to make a coarse meal. The brewing procedure described here is for traditional sorghum beer (Quin 1959): lukewarm water is added to the malted meal in a special clay pot, the content is stirred well and then covered with a small basket as a lid.

After a day of fermentation, the supernatant liquor is transferred to an open cooking pot, brought to the boil (to reduce acidity) and the fermented mash, thinned with water, is returned to the liquor, while stirring continuously. After boiling for half an hour, the pot is left to simmer for another hour. The original clay pot is rinsed with cold water and the cooked gruel is transferred back into the pot and stored in a cool place.

After 12 hours the brew forms a gelatinous mass without any fermentation. More malted meal is added and the whole brew is stirred and left to ferment for 10 hours at room temperature. The brew is now ladled into a grass strainer and the beer is wrung into a clay pot, ready for serving.

Another important beverage is palm wine, prepared from the sap of the ilala palm (Hyphaene coriacea) and the mokola palm {H. petersiana), and to a lesser extent also the wild date palm {Phoenix reclinata). Details are given below.

In the dry parts of southern Africa, karrie or mead (honey beer) was once an important beverage. Interesting regional differences in the source materials and in the methods used, have been recorded. This is certainly a dying art, perhaps because wine and other alcoholic beverages have become readily available as alternatives to the traditional brews.

Rooibos tea (Aspalathus linearis) and honeybush tea {Cyclopia species) are the two best known indigenous teas, and have become increasingly popular as health beverages, because they are totally devoid of caffeine but rich in phenolic compounds which are nowadays claimed to have important anti-oxidant activity.

Several other teas are known, but the distinction between a tea, a tonic tea and a medicinal tea (i.e. a medicinal infusion) is somewhat blurred. In some parts of the Karoo, lidjiestee (made from Viscum capense) is still in daily use as a tonic. The same is true for devil's claw {Harpagophytum procumbens) in the Kalahari region and in Namibia.

Acacia karroo (Fabaceae) - SWEET THORN (see Chapter 18). The seeds are roasted as a coffee substitute. The seeds of Acacia erioloba (camel thorn) are reported to be used in the same way.

Aloe species (Asphodelaceae) - ALOES. Children suck nectar from the flowers of several species. The closely related Gasteria is also a rich source of nectar for children, and was reported to be cooked by the early Khoi as rice, hence the vernacular name hottentotsrys (Smith 1966).

Avonia ustulata (Portulacaceae) - MOERPLANTJIE (Afrikaans). The dried and pulverised roots and stems were once used as yeast for baking bread and also to brew mead (honey beer). It is said to be an original Khoi yeast source. The plant was previously known as Anacampseros ustulata.

Avoniapapyracea (Portulacaceae) - KAREEMOERWORTEL, moerplantjie, gansmis. The true leaves of this strange little plant are hidden by white papery scales. It is an early yeast plant used in the same way as A. ustulata. Other species reportedly used as yeast include A. quinaria and A. rhodesiaca. It is interesting to note that these plants may contain psychoactive substances (see Chapter 9), so that their use may not only have been as yeast, but to improve the "kick" of the brew.

Aspalathus linearis (Fabaceae) - ROOIBOS TEA; rooibostee, bossietee (Afrikaans).
This plant is a shrub of up to two metres high, with bright green needle-shaped leaves which turn reddish-brown after processing. The small, yellow flowers are produced in early summer, followed by small single-seeded pods.

Rooibos tea is a traditional beverage of the Khoi-descended people of the Cedarberg region in the Cape and is one of only a few indigenous plants that have become an important commercial crop. Production is still centred in its natural distribution area (the districts of Nieuwoudtville, Clanwilliam, Citrusdal and Piquetberg).

Seeds have to be treated with sulphuric acid to break the impermeable seed coat and seedlings are transplanted to deep acid sandy soils. The production area has cold wet winters and hot dry summers, with a mere 300 to 350 millimetres of rain per year. Some wild types of rooibos tea are harvested on a small scale, but only one form, the so-called red type or Rocklands type, is commercially cultivated.

Annual yields vary from about four to nine million kilograms, depending on the rainfall. The plants are mostly harvested with sickles and tied into bundles. They are then chopped into short segments, moistened, bruised and left in heaps to "sweat" or "ferment" for several hours until a sweet smell develops.

So-called "fermentation" is actually an oxidation process, during which the phenolic compounds in the plant are enzymatically oxidized. When the tea-maker is satisfied with the colour and aroma, the tea is spread out thinly to sun-dry. Marketing started in 1904, through the efforts of Benjamin Ginsberg, who bought wild tea from local people.

During the early 30's, Dr P. le Fras Nortier helped to develop rooibos as a crop plant and Mr James van Putten played a major role in later years. The Rooibos Tea Control Board was established in 1954 to stabilise producer prices through structured marketing and quality control. This Board was recently turned into a private company. Through imaginative marketing, rooibos tea has become an important commercial product, with retail and export earnings running into many millions of rands per year.

Rooibos is popular as a health beverage, prepared and used in much the same way as black tea. However, it contains no harmful stimulants and is totally devoid of caffeine. It has gained popularity as an excellent iced tea. The health properties are ascribed mainly to the low tannin content, the presence of minerals and the antispasmodic and free-radical capturing properties of several unique flavonoid C-glycosides such as aspalathin and nothofagin.

The product is also used as an ingredient in cosmetics, in slimming products, as a flavouring agent in baking, cooking, cocktails and even as a milk substitute for infants who are prone to colic. [...]


Acknowledgements:

This book has a very wide scope and many people contributed information, literature and photographic material. The publisher and authors would like to thank the institutions and individuals listed below:

The National Botanical Institute of South Africa for the use of its herbarium and library facilities. A special word of thanks to Estelle Potgieter of the library in Pretoria. Staff and students of the Rand Afrikaans University and the library staff of the University of the Witwatersrand. Staff of the Kleinplasie Farm Museum, Worcester; Frieda Bastian, Johannes Malgas, Vyver van Aardt and especially Matty Malherbe of the library.

A very special thanks to Veronica Roodt and Lenyatso July for unforgettable moments in the field. We would also like to thank the San community of Molapo for spontaneously sharing their rich knowledge of plant use. Thanks to the informants of D'Kar, Braam le Roux and Maude Brown of the Kuru Development Trust, Botswana and to the staff of the D'Kar library, for literature on San plant use. Lorella Ambrosano is thanked for translating Portuguese texts into English, and the American Botanical Council for providing HerbClip summaries.

Although based primarily on published literature, the information presented was substantially enriched and reinforced by numerous anecdotes provided by many people over a long period. All sources of verbal information are acknowledged in the text as personal communications. Our sincere thanks and appreciation to the following persons, who shared information and anecdotes, and provided logistic support with fieldwork, photography and literature searches, or agreed to be photographed:

Carl Albrecht, James Allemann, Claire Archer, Fiona Archer, Cynthia Arendse, Sophie Basson, Dawid Bester, Mrs Bester, M.C. Botha, Linda Brady, Gael Campbell, Sizwe Cawe, Bettie de Beer, Michelle de Beer, Tony de Castro, John Cloete, Stephanus Cloete, Louw Coetzer, Lita Cole, Ben Dekker, Chris de Wet, Gert Dirks, Graham Duncan, Cathy Dzerefos, Ulrich Feiter, Merissa Fillies, Lyn Fish, T.G. (Bird) Fourie, Earle Graven, Cathy Greever, Patricia Hans, Manton Hirst, Lenyatso July, Gift Kafundo, Lynn Katsoulis, Japjap Klaase, Marinda Koekemoer, Andries Kotze, Phillip Kubukele, Peter Linder, Kolie and Ina Louw, Edward Mabogo, Oswald Macunga, Solomon Mahlaba, Sylvia Malinga, Ashley Mashigo, Ncindani Maswanganyi, Matambo, Million Matonsi, David Matthe, Patricia Mawonga, Isaac Mayeng, Greg McCarthy, Lodewyk Morries, Dineo Moshe, Jan Muller, Tr. Dr. Mutwa, Vernie Naidoo, Mrs Ndlovu, Patrick Ndlovu, the Nieuwoudts of Dwarsrivier, Nathaniel Nondeyi, Caroline Ntilashe, Cassim Petker, Gail Reeves, Veronica Roodt, Colin Ruiters, John Molefi Sekaji, Seth Seroka, Gordon Sink, Gideon Smith, Roger Stewart, Nico Steenkamp, Willem Steenkamp, Livet Taferaai, Erika van den Heever, Ernst van Jaarsveld, Bosch van Oudtshoorn, Frits van Oudtshoorn, Braam van Wyk, Herman van Wyk, Mariana van Wyk, Piet van Wyk, Teodor van Wyk, Alvaro Viljoen, Deon Viljoen, Fanie Wagenaar, Buys Wiese, Pieter Winter and Menzizwa Zitoti.

Photographic Contributions:

All photographs were taken by Ben-Erik van Wyk and Nigel Gericke, except those listed below. These are arranged alphabetically from top to bottom and left to right according to photographer and page number. Sizwe Cawe: 303d; Earle Graven: 214a; Johann Pretorius: 45f; Patrick van Damme: 35ace; Piet van Wyk: 23b, 43a, 49c, 59b; Veerle van den Eynden: 35b; Add van der Walt: 225a; Frits van Oudtshoorn: 236a, 321a; Jan Vlok: 235bc; Pieter Winter: 121a.

KEY REFERENCES ON SOUTHERN AFRICAN ETHNOBOTANY:

Cunningham, A.B. 1989. Indigenous plant use: balancing human needs and resources. In B.J. Huntley (ed.), Biotic diversity in southern Africa, pp. 93-106. Cunningham, A.B., De Jager, P.J. & Hansen, L.C.B. 1992. The Indigenous Plant Use Programme. Foundation for Research Development, Pretoria. Fox, F.W. & Norwood Young, M.E. 1982. Foodfrom the veld. Delta books, Johannesburg. Gelfand, M., Mavi, S., Drummond, R.B. & Ndemera, B. 1985. The traditional medical practitioner in Zimbabwe. Mambo press, Harare. Hedberg, I. & Staugard, F. 1989. Traditional medicinal plants - traditional medicine in Botswana. Ipelegeng publishers, Gabarone. Hutchings, A. 1996. Zulu Medicinal Plants. Natal University Press, Pietermaritzburg. Jansen, P.C.M. & Mendes, 0.1983-1991. Plantas Medicinais. Seu Uso Tradicional em Mocambique. Vol. 1 - 4. Ministerio da Sude, Gabinctc de Estudos de Medicina Tradicional, Republica Poular de Mocambique. Liengme, C. A. 1983. A survey of ethnobotanical research in southern Africa. Bothalia 14: 621-629. Malan, J. S. & Owen-Smith, G. L. 1974. The ethnobotany of Kaokoland. Cimbebasia Ser. B 2,5: 131-178. Marloth, R. 1917-1925. The Flora of South Africa (3 vols). William Wesley, London. Martin, G.J. 1995. Ethnobotany. A methods manual. Chapman & Hall, London. Neuwinger, H.D. 1996. African ethnobotany: poisons and drugs: chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology. Chapman & Hall, Germany. Palmer, E. & Pitman, N. 1972. Trees of Southern Africa. (3 vols). Balkema, Cape Town. Peters, C.R., O'Brien, E.M. & Drummond, R.B. 1992. Edible wild plants of sub-Saharan Africa. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Pujol, J. 1990. Naturafrica - the herbalist handbook. Jean Pujol Natural Healers Foundation, Durban. Quin, P. J. 1959. Food andfeeding habits of the Pedi. Witwatersrand University Press, Johannesburg. Rood, B. 1994. Hit die veldapteek. Tafelberg, Cape Town. Rood, B. 1994. Kos uit die veldkombuis. Tafelberg, Cape Town. Smith, C.A. 1966. Common names of South African Plants. Mem. Bot. Surv. S. Afr. 35. Smith, A. 1888. A contribution to the South African materia medica, 2nd edn. Lovedalc, South Africa. Van Wyk, B-E., Van Oudtshoorn, B. & Gericke, N. 1997. Medicinal plants of South Africa. Briza Publications, Pretoria. Von Koenen, E. 1996. Heil-, Gift- u Essbare Pflanzen in Namibia. Klaus Hess Verlag, Gottingen. Watt, J. M. 1967. African plants potentially useful in mental health. Lloydia 30: 1-22. Watt, J.M. & Breyer-Brandwijk, M.G. 1962. The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa, 2nd edn. Livingstone, London.


Index:

aambeiwortel306
aasbossie218,219
abakhwetha229
abdominal cramps 132, 136
abdominal discomfort 124, 150,218
abdominal distension 190
abdominal pain 50, 70, 122, 124, 126,
130, 134, 144, 148, 150, 156, 162,
180, 182, 184, 186, 188, 194, 238
Abelmoschus esculentus 63
abortifacient 122, 128, 130, 150, 180,
182, 186, 188, 190, 192, 240
abortion 126, 128, 148, 168, 179, 180,
182, 184, 186, 188, 190, 192
abrasions 66, 198
abscesses 48, 124, 156, 162, 188, 197,
198, 202
absinthe 142
absinthism 142
acacia gum 205
Acacia ataxacantha 297
Acacia ataxacantha basket 296
Acacia caffra 247
Acacia cyclops 283, 284, 285
Acacia erioloba 100, 216, 283, 284,
285, 324
Acacia erubescens 285
Acacia gum 285
Acacia karroo 56, 100, 205,247, 283,
284, 285
Acacia luederitzii 237, 247
Acacia mearnsii 247, 283
Acacia melanoxylon 261, 271
Acacia mellifera 205, 238, 324
Acacia nilotica 247
Acacia saligna 283, 284
Acacia sieberiana var. woodii 247
acacias 261
Acalypha glabrata 262, 263
Acanthaceae 114, 182,205
Acanthosicyos horridus 33, 34, 35
Acanthosicyos naudiniana 34, 35
acculturation 155
Achyrocline stenoptera 216, 217
acne 44, 182, 197, 232
Acokanthera 237
Acokanthera oblongifolia 238
Acokanthera oppositifolia 179, 205,
238, 239
Acokanthera schimperi 238
acolongifloroside K 23 8
Acorus calamus 119, 186
acovenoside A 23 8
Adansonia digitata 19, 33, 120, 179,
298, 299
adaptogenic 150
adaptogenic plants 139
adaptogens 139, 148
addictive 155
addictive potential 168
Adenia 238
Adenia gummifera 238
Adenium 237, 238
Adenium boehmianum 238
Adenium multiflorum 238, 239
Adenium oleifolium 238
Adiantaceae 130,190
adulterants 142
African cabbage 68,69
African cotton 302
African cucumber 72
African cycad 81
African ebony 266
African finger millet 10,11
African ground nut 28
African hemp 308, 309
African horned cucumber 40
African indigo 188,254
African mangosteen 33,42
African mangosteen fruit 43
African medicine 119
African mulberry 270
African mythology 144,174
African pencil cedar 278
African potato 146, 147,252
African wormwood 216
Afzelia quanzensis 262
Agapanthaceae 179
agapanthagenin 180
Agapanthus africanus 179, 181
Agapanthus campanulatus 179, 180
Agapanthus praecox 179, 180, 181
Agathosma betulina 138, 139, 180,
197, 216
Agathosma crenulata 138, 139
Agathosma ovata 138, 139, 216
Agathosma pulchella 216
Agathosma serratifolia 139, 216
Agathosma species 216
Agavaceae 298
Agave americana 298
Agave sisalana 298, 299, 306
Agave tequilana 298
aggressive behaviour 160
agtdaegeneesbos 199,200
agtdaegeneesbossie 200
agurkie 40
agurkiekonfyt40
AIDS 148, 158
Aizoaceae 76,208
ajmalicine 170
ajuin 81
ajuintjie 81
akkerbone 30
Albertinia dekriet 326
Albertinia thatching reed 311, 312,
326, 327
Albizia adianthifolia 120, 205
Albizia anthelmintica 120
Albizia versicolor 262
alcohol 112, 155, 158, 172, 174
alcoholic beverages 19,50,99
alcoholics 172
Alectra sessiliflora 248
Alepidea 140
Alepidea amatymbica 155, 216
Alepidea longifolia 63
alertness 160
alkali 229
alkali ash 234
alkaloids 58,76,122,124,155,156,162,
164, 168, 170, 172, 184,212,254
allantoin 76, 200
Alliaceae 63, 134
Allium cepa 63
Allium dregeanum 63
aloctin A 230
aloctin B 230
aloe 216
aloe ash 12, 229
aloe bitters 121
aloe leaf 247
aloe lcafash216
aloe leaf gel 141
aloe-like plant 298
aloe roots 248, 249
aloe vera 197, 230
Aloe arborescens 196, 197, 230
Aloe asperifolia 180
Aloe chabaudii 180, 181
Aloe christianii 180
Aloe cryptopoda 248
Aloe dichotoma 237
Aloeferox 120,121,140,141,197,229
Aloe marlothii 247, 248
Aloe parvibracteata 248, 249
Aloe species 100, 198,216
Aloe speciosa 248
Aloe succotrina 248
Aloe transvaalensis 180
Aloe vera 140, 141, 197, 230
Aloe vera gel 198,229
Aloezebrina 180, 247, 248, 249
aloes 70, 100
aloesaponarin 248
aloesaponol 248
aloesin 229
aloin 120, 248
alpha amino acid 114
alpha-thujone 142
als 142,216
alsem 142
Althaea officinalis 90
aluin 247
alum 247
amabele 14, 16
amadada 96
amadoembie 82
amadumbe 82
amangwe 308
Amaranthaceae 64, 160
amaranths 64
Amaranthus caudatus 64, 180
Amaranthus cruentus 64, 65
Amaranthus deflexus 64
Amaranthus hybridus 63, 64, 65
Amaranthus hypochondriacus 64, 65
Amaranthus species 63, 64
Amaranthus spinosus 64
Amaranthus thunbergii 64, 180
Amaranthus tricolor 64
Amarula liqueur 114
Amaryllidaceae 124, 126, 156, 170,
184, 198, 200, 220,240
amasethole234
amatabhane 96
amatambane 96
amathunga 126
amathungulu 36, 37, 250
amazimba 14
amenorrhoea 182, 188, 192
American ginseng 139
amino acids 20,28,33,63,96,140,179
amoebicide 150
amotivational syndrome 158
amphetamine-like 160
ana tree 208
anabasine 170
anaboom 208
Anacampseros rhodesica 155
Anacampseros ustulata 100
Anacardiaceae 19,24,44,48, 56, 110,
114, 120, 134, 168, 188, 232, 252,
254, 256, 258, 276, 292
Anacardium occidentale 18, 19, 120
anaesthetic 162,205
analgesic 120, 124, 142, 146, 155,
156, 158, 164, 170, 172, 197, 198,
202, 205, 208
anandamide 155, 158
anaphrodisiac 170
ancestors 155
ancestral spirits 156
Ancylobotrys capensis 34
Ancylohotrys kirkii 34
Ancylobotrys petersiana 34
Androstachys johnsonii 262
anethole 220
£-anethone 220
animal fat 229
animal feed 300
animal gut 314, 322
animal health 150
anise flavour 220
anise-like 81
anise root 81
ankindu 52
Annesorhiza 82
Annesorhiza capensis 81
Annesorhiza macrocarpa 81
Annesorhiza nuda 81
Annesorhiza species 81
Annona chrysophylla 290
Annona senegalensis 33, 34, 205
Annona stenophylla 180
Annonaceae 34,44, 48, 180, 205
anomalous emperor moth 286
anorexia 128
anorexia nervosa 158
antenatal medicine 179
anthelmintic 36, 119, 120
anthranoid aglycones 248
anthraquinones 120,250
anthrax 200, 238
anthrone C-glycosides 248
anthrones 166
anthroquinones 180
anti-ageing 150
anti-allergic 142
anti-anxiety 160
anti-cancer 119, 142, 148, 150, 197
anti-candidal 150
anti-depressant 166
anti-diabetic 148,197
anti-diarrhoeal 134
anti-emetic 182, 186
anti-fungal 220
anti-hepatotoxic 144
anti-inflammatory 132, 140, 142, 144,
146, 150, 180, 197, 198, 210, 212,
306
anti-oedema 180
anti-oxidative 142
anti-oxidant 99, 104, 150
anti-plaque 205, 212
anti-stress 150, 160
anti-tussive 180
anti-ulcer 197
antibacterial 36, 119, 124, 132, 142,
144, 197, 198, 200, 205, 206, 210,
220, 222
antibiotic 128, 150, 202
antibiotic protection 215
anticonvulsant 120,212
antifeedant215, 226, 222
antifungal 36,119,124,142, 150,197,
200,
antihistaminic 142
antihypertensive 170
antimicrobial 130,142, 197,202,205,
232
antimony trichloride 142
antipsychotic 170
antipyretic 142
antiseptic 124, 140, 156, 197, 206
antispasmodic 100, 119, 128, 130,
139, 140, 150, 174, 188, 194
antiviral 36, 119, 144, 148, 166
anxiety 146, 148, 150, 158, 166, 172
anxiolytic 166
anyswortel 81
aphrodisiac 56, 102, 119, 124, 126.
128, 150, 162, 168, 170, 180, 190,
192, 194, 210
Apiaceae63, 74, 81, 82, 88, 108, 126,
130, 140, 155, 192, 205, 216, 220
Apocynaceae 34, 36, 122, 170, 179,
188, 205, 206, 238, 242, 244, 250
Aponogeton distachyos 62, 63, 66, 67
Aponogetonaceae 66
appelliefie54
appendicitis 144
appetite 144, 166
appetite-stimulant 70, 108, 139, 144,
146, 148, 158
appetite suppressant 70, 74, 160
April fool 200
aprilbaadjie 24
apthous ulcers 120,205
aquatic plant 66, 119
Araccac 82, 119, 194, 202, 258
Arachis hypogea 20, 28, 29
Araliaceae 68, 84, 122, 142, 160, 162,
198
architecture 311, 324
Arctopus echinatus 140, 141
areb 12
Areca catechu 156, 157
areca nut 156
Arecaceae 38, 52, 106, 108, 156, 304,
306, 320
arecoline 156
arginine 148
aril 22, 23, 24, 25, 72, 252, 284
aris 222
Aristida junciformis 312
Aristolochia heppii 180
Aristolochiaceae 180
aroena 74, 75
aromatherapy 215, 224
aromatic oils 215
aromatic plants 215
arrow poison 128, 156,210,237,238,
240, 242, 244
arrow shafts 44, 318
arrows 44, 237
Artemisia absinthium 142
Artemisia afra 142, 143, 180,205,216
arthritis 126, 130, 132, 182, 198
artistic skills 306
arum lily 82, 202, 203, 258
asbos 229, 234, 235, 322
asbosskerm 234
Ascaris roundworms 164
ascites 130, 168, 182
Asclepiadaceae 70,72,74,82,88,110,
120, 132, 136, 156, 174, 186, 190,
194, 202, 238,258
Asclepias crispa 120
Asclepias decipiens 156
Asclepias fruticosa 156
Asclepias physocarpa 156
Asclepias stellifera 238
ash 216, 229, 234
ashwaghanda 150
Asian cooking 63, 82
asiatic acid 198
asiaticoside 198
aspalathin 100
Aspalathus linearis 99, 100, 101
Asparagaceae 68,180
asparagus 68
Asparagus aethiopicus 68
Asparagus africanus 68
Asparagus capensis 68
Asparagus exuvialis 180
Asparagus laricinus 68
Asparagus officinalis 68
Asparagus racemosus 180
Asparagus retrofractus 180
Asparagus setaceus 68
Asparagus species 68, 180, 190
Asparagus suaveolens 68
Asphodelaceae 70, 78, 100, 120, 122,
140, 180, 197, 198,216, 229, 230,
248, 250
asphodeline248
Aspilia pluriseta 182, 186
assegaai 124
Aster bakeranus 120
Asteraceae 22, 36, 68, 102, 108, 120,
126, 130, 142, 144, 148, 166, 174,
180, 182, 186, 192, 198, 200, 202,
205, 206, 216, 218, 220, 222, 224,
226, 250, 258, 312, 318
asthma 72, 116, 120, 126, 128, 130,
132, 134, 142, 148, 150, 155, 158,
160, 162. 170, 174, 188, 200
asthma inhalers 162
astringent 36, 122, 134, 197, 198,206,
294
Athrixia elata 102, 103
Athrixia phylicoides 102, 103, 312
Athrixia species 312
atropine 162
attar of rose oil 224
auauroi 216
aukoreb 180
Australian blackwood 261,270, 271
Avena sativa 9
Avicennia marina 247
Avonia papyracea 100, 111
Avonia quinaria 100
Avonia rhodesiaca 100
Avonia ustulata 100, 111
Ayurvedic medicine 119, 142, 150
Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia 150
Azadirachta indica 215, 222
Azanza garckeana 33, 36
Aztecs 168
azulenic compounds 218
babala 12
Babiana ambigua 82
Babiana dregei 82
Babiana hypogea 82
Babiana namaquensis 82
Babiana sambucina 82, 83
Babiana species 82
baboon's ear 186
baby oil 24
baby powder 134
backache 124, 126, 130, 190,200,210
bagasse 112
bags 298
Baikiaea plurijuga 262, 263
bakbossie 292
bakkerbos 292, 293
Balanitaceac 142, 262
Balanites aegyptiaca 142
Balanites maughamii 142, 262, 263
Balanites welwitschii 142
ballerja 128
Ballota africana 120, 121, 174
balsam pear 72
balsemkopiva 198, 230
Bambara groundnut 28
bandage 188
bangalala 56
bangles 302
baobab 19, 33, 120, 179, 298, 299
baobab trunks 88
barbecue 283, 288
barbiturate receptor 174
bark beetles 222
bark fibre 298
bark harvesting 230
Batieria macrostegia 182
Barleria prionitis 205
Barleria randii 182
Barleria spinulosa 182
barleyS, 10
barley malt 99
baroe81,84, 85
basbessie256
basboom 302
basil 222
basil oil 215
basket designs 297
basket-making 297
basket material 254
basket patterns 297
basket types 297, 306
basket-weaving 247
basketry 14, 48, 254, 297, 300, 302,
314,318
baskets 52, 246, 296, 297, 302, 304
baskets woven from kanoti grass 303
Basotho 297
Basotho baskets 247,297
Basotho hat 297
bast fibres 308
bastard umzimbeet 268
basterboegoe 139,216
basterdawidjiewortel 128
bastcrmopanie 22
baswortel 250
bath sponges 48
Bauhinia galpinii 182, 183
Bauhinia petersiana 20, 21, 102, 182
Bauhinia thonningii 182
baviaan 82
Bayei 297
Bayei basket 247, 297
Bayei storage basket 296
beans 19
Bechium knyanum 223
bedding material 220
bee repellent 216
bee stings 292
beehive house 314
beer 12, 14, 16, 52, 81, 99, 102, 104,
108, 110, 112, 114, 116, 128, 152,
248
beer additive 155
beer basket 306
beer brewing 10, 14, 42, 44, 56, 99,
108, 110
beer containers 46
beer root 108
beer strainers 297, 298
bees 292
beesdubbeltjie 184,232,240
beitmiddel 247
belbos 148
bcls222
belskruie 222
benign prostatic hypertrophy 146
benzodiazepine receptor 74
benzylisothiocyanate 210
Bequertiodendron magalismontanum
42
ber 33, 60
Berchemia discolor 36, 37, 205, 247,
248
Berchemia zeyheri 36, 264, 265
bergboegoc 108,216
Bergdamara 218
bergmahonie266
bergseldery 130
bergsoutbos232
bergtee 104
berguintjie81
berry wax 294
Bersama lucens 122
Berula erecta 204, 205
besemgoed 318
besemriet 318
beta-asarone 119
betel chewing 156
betel nut 156, 157, 170
betel vine 156, 170, 171
beverages 99,226
bi 81, 94, 95
Bidens bipinnata 68
Bidens pilosa 63, 68
Bidens sulphureus 250
bierwortel 108, 109
biesie322
bietou 36, 37
big num-num 36
big tree 272, 273
Bignoniaceae 122,174,200,212,232,
254
bilharzia 124, 128, 188, 194
binaphthalenone glycosides 206
binary indole alkaloids 122
biological activities 119
bird plum 248
birth canal 184
a-bisabalol 224
bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids 124
bitter aloe 120, 141, 197, 229
bitter cassava 90
bitter digestive 50
bitter fennel oil 220
bitter substances 182
bitter tonic 146, 182
bitteraalwyn 120
bitterbos 182, 183
bitterghaap 70, 71
bitterwaatlemocn 38
bitterwortel 120, 136
bjalwa 99
bjalwabja leotsa 12
black-leg 232
black monkey apple 33
black nightshade 258
black quarter 232
black stinkwood 128,270
black thorn 205
black wattle 247, 283
black-current flavour 216
black-jack 68
blackberries 54
blackwater fever 188
blackwood dalbergia 266
bladder complaints 44, 122, 124, 130,
190, 192
bladder infections 120, 182, 186
bleeding 188, 190, 197,286
bleeding gums 205, 206, 212,220
bleeding stomach 186
Blepharis capensis 205
Blepharis proeumbens 205
blinkaarboesmangras 324
blister bush 130
bloekom218, 266
blood diseases 144
blood pressure 158
blood purification 130
blood purifier 124,126, 140,182, 192,
197, 200
bloodwood276
blouberglelie202
bloublomsalie 132, 133,224
bloublomsamuel 82,83
blouboontjie 242
bloucrtjie 242,243
bloulelie 179
bloupoeierkwassie 184
blouslangkop202
blouwaterlelie 72
blow-fly larvae 226
blueeommelina 185
blue gum 266
blue lily 179
blue mountain sage 224
blue sourplum 30,33,60,61, 194,212
blue sweetberry 36
blue thorn 285
blue water lily 72, 170
bluebottle stings 198
bluebush 204, 206, 207, 250, 252
bluegum 119, 126, 218
boat building 240, 264, 276
bobbejaanghaap 70
bobbejaantou 190
bobbejaanuintjie 81,92
body aches 122,180
body perfume 222
bodypowder218
body rub 24
body wash 184
boegoe 139,216
boegoeasyn 197
boegoebossie224
boegoebrandewyn 139
boegoekapok218
boegoekaroo 224
boermanna 12
boerseep 229
boesman 215
boesmangif242
boesmangras 14
bocsmankers 294
boesmansboegoe 222
boesmanseep 232,233
boesmansgif241
boesmanstee 160
boesmanuintj ie 81,86
bofepha 150
boils 48, 124, 132,160, 182, 188, 197,
198, 200, 202,240
bokboegoe218
bokhoringkies 72
bokwiet 10
bomas 311,318
Bombacaceae 120, 179,298
bone pipe 154, 163
bone-setters 164
bontaalwyn248
Boophane 237
Boophane disticha 156, 157, 164,
198, 240, 241
boot-protector 232
Boraginaceae 76, 200, 206
borassus palm 304
Borassus aethiopum 304
borer-resistance 2 78
borneol 142,216
bosboerboon 24
Boscia albitrimca 102, 103, 158
Boscia foetida 182
bosjesman 215
boslelie 184
bosnoemnoem 206
bossiestroop 110,111
bossietee 100
bottelboom 242
botterpitte 34
bottle gourd 40,46,47
bottle tree 242
bottles 46
Bourbon oil 224
bovine parabotulism 232
bow 237
Bowiea volubilis 122, 123
bowls 46, 278
bows 44
bowstring hemp 210, 306, 307
braai 288
braaiboontjic26
braaivlcis 283
braambos 54
Brabejum stellatifolium 20, 21, 22
Brachylaena discolor 290
Brachylaena species 290
Brachystegia boehmii 298
brack-roofed houses 322
brahmi 142
brain tonics 160
brake blocks 256
bramble 54
brandblare 208
brandogie 24
brandy tinctures 139, 144
Brassicaceae 72,76
bread palm 81, 86
bread wheat 8, 14
breast cancer 122, 148
bredie 66
Breonadia salicina 264, 265
brewing 99, 110, 114
Bridelia cathartica 36
Bridelia micrantha 36, 182, 264, 265
Bridelia mollis 36
Brionia 88
broad-leaved beech 268
broad-leaved turpentine grass 312,313
bronchial tumours 158
bronchiectasis 126
bronchitis 50,108,120,126, 128, 130,
132, 148, 150, 158, 174
bronchodilatory 158
broodboom 86
broom cluster fig 186
broom lovegrass 314
broomcorn 14
brooms 14, 52,96,292, 306,310,311,
312, 314, 326
brown ivory 36, 37, 205, 248
browsing 286
bruinivoor 248
bruises 156, 162, 166, 200
buchu 139, 197,216,218,224
buchu water 140
buckwheat 10,11
buffalo thorn 60, 116, 152, 202
building material 286
building methods 311
building timber 264
buite-oond 293
Bulbine frutescens 198, 199,230
Bulbine leaf gel 199
Bulbine natalensis 122
Bulbine species 198,230
Bulbinella latifolia 250
Bulbinella roots 250
bulbs 81
bulrush 81, 95, 96, 192, 193,312,326
bulrush millet 12
buphanidrine 156
buphanimine 156
buphanisine 156
bur-bristle grass 12
Burkea africana 182, 286
Burmese teak 276
burn-healing 146, 197
burns 66, 92, 120, 156, 166, 190, 197,
198, 200, 202, 230
Burseraceae 84, 206, 230, 240, 266,
290
bush boer-bean 24
bush encroachment 292
bushman 215
bushman poison bulb 156, 157, 198,
241
bushman raisin bush 44
Bushmanland 324
bushman's candle 294,295
bushman'stea 102, 155, 160
bushveld signal grass 14,15
butter bowls 256
butter pips 34
bytsoda229
C4 plants 64
cabinet work 266, 278
Cactaceae 50
Cadaba aphylla 198, 199
Caesalpinia rubra 216
caffeine 99, 100
caja 19
Cajamts eajan 20, 21
calabash 33, 40, 46, 47, 106
calabash leaves 63
calamus 119
calcium 63, 64, 74, 96, 140, 179
Callilepis laureola 198
Calodendrum capense 230, 231
Calvinia 74
camel thorn 100, 216, 283, 284,
camel thorn firewood 285
Camerebi 88
Camoa 88
campfirc288
camphor 108, 119, 124, 142, 216,222
camphor tree 124,264
camphor wood 261,265
Canavalia ensifolia 22, 23, 102
Canavalia virosa 22, 102
canavanine 148
cancer 119, 128, 139, 142, 144, 146,
J 48, 150
cancer bush 148,149,192
cancer prevention 148
cancer treatment 148
Candida 150
candle bush 294,295
candle wax 294
candles 294
candlewood 256
Canellaceae 150
Cannabinaceae 158, 300
cannabinoid receptors 155,158
cannabinoids 155, 158,300
cannabinols 158
Cannabis 168, 172
Cannabis saliva 155, 158, 159, 300
Cannabis saliva subsp. indica 158,300
Cannabis saliva subsp. saliva 158,
300, 301
Cannamois virgata 318
canned marog 64, 65
canned waterblommetjies 66,67
canoes 262, 264, 268, 276
Canthium setiflorum 262
Cape aloe 141
Cape aloe bitters 229
Cape aloe gel 140
Cape aloes 120, 121, 140, 180,229
Cape ash 266
Cape ash wood 267
Capebryoni 128
Cape cabbage tree 84
Cape chamomile 218
Cape chestnut 230
Cape coast wattle 284
Cape Dutch 222, 272
Cape gooseberry 54, 55,256
Cape gum 284
Cape honeysuckle 174, 175,212
Cape may 218
Cape mistletoe 116, 117
Cape pigweed 64
Cape pondweed 66
Cape reeds 312, 318
Cape restios 318
Cape snowbush 218
Cape sumach 256,257
Cape thatching reed 311,312
Cape Town 22, 34, 36
Cape valerian 174, 177
capers 102
Capparaceae68,102,122,158,182,198
Capparis tomentosa 122, 123, 182
cardamom 156
cardiac glycosides 237,238,244
cardiac tonic 144
cardiotonic 180
cargoe 50
Carica papaya 122, 123
Caricaceae 122
Carissa bispinosa 36, 206
Carissa edulis 36
Carissa haematocarpa 36
Carissa macrocarpa 36, 250
carminative 119, 139
carob 36
Carpanthea pomeridiana 68
carpentry 58, 268, 276
carpets 300
Carpobrotus acinaciformis 36
Carpobrotus deliciosus 36
Carpobrotus dimidiatus 198
Carpobrotus edulis 33, 36, 37, 122,
130, 198
Carpobrotus species 198
carrion-flowers 70
carrot family 81
carrot tree 192
carrying basket 306
carving 48, 250, 261, 266, 268, 276,
278, 290, 292
carving industry 266
Caryophyllaceae 54
caryophyllene222
caryopsis 9
cashew apple 19
cashew nut 18, 19, 120
cashew nut industry 19
cashew nut (propagation) 18
cashew nuts 18
cassava 81, 90, 91
Cassia abbreviata 134, 192
Cassia italica 134
Cassia laxatives 134
Cassine crocea 250
Cassine transvaalense 122, 250
Cassipourea gerrardii 230
Cassipourea malosana 230
castor oil 22, 210
castor oil seeds 23
cataracts 186
caterpillars 286
catha 156, 171
Catha edulis 102, 155, 160, 161, 166
Catharanthus roseus 122
cathine 160
cathinone 160
Catophractes alexandri 122, 123,237
caustic alkali 229
caustic soda 229
cedar 278
cedar of the Lebanon 278
cedar wood 261
CedarberglOO
cedars 261
cedarwood281
Cedrus deodara 278
Cedrus libani 278
Celastraceae 56, 122, 126, 160, 166,
250, 256
celastrin 186
centellal98
Centella asiatica 68, 142, 143, 160,
196, 197, 198
Centella glabrata 122
Ceratonia siliqua 36
Ceratotheca triloba 182, 184
cereals 9
Ceropegia multiflora subsp. tentaculata
82
Ceropegia rendalii 82, 83, 88
chacate-preto 268
Chaetacme aristata 264
chamare 82
Chamarea capensis 82
chamfuti 262
charcoal 283, 284
charm uses 155
chayote56
cheesewood 132
chemotherapy 158
chemotypes 148,172
Chenopodiaceae 68,76,166,180,232,
234
Chenopodium album 63, 68, 69
Chenopodium ambrosioides 160
Chenopodium glaucum 68
Chenopodium murale 68
cherry guava 58
chest ailments 130,126,150,152,180,
222
chest pain 130,156,168,186,192,224
chewing 156, 160, 166, 168, 172
chewing sticks 205, 206, 208
chibahwe 16
chicken pox 202
chickpeas 19
chicory 102, 144
Chinese lantern tree 222
Chinese pharmacopoeia 15 8
chipindura 134
Chironia baccifera 182, 183
Chironia krebsii 182
Chironia palustris 182
Chironia tetragona 182
chironioside 182
Chlorophora excelsa 264
chocolate 155
cholesterol 146
cholinesterase inhibitor 170
Chondropetalum tectorum 311, 312,
318
Chopi people 274
Christmas berry 183
chromone 229
Chrysanthemoides monilifera 36, 37
chrysanthenyl acetate 216
Chrysobalanaceae 52,190,210
chrysophanol 248
Chrysophyllum viridifolium 42
chufa 86
chuna 156, 171
Cichorium intybus 102, 144
cigarettes 168
cilitis 148
1,8-cineole 126, 142, 218, 220, 222
Cinnamomum camphora 119, 124,
264, 265
circulation 96, 144, 174, 192
circumcision 156
circumcision wounds 198,200
Cirina forda 286
Cissampelos capensis 124, 125
Cissampelos mucronata 124, 125, 184
Cissampelos torulosa 124
Cissus commifolia 190
Cissus quadrangularis 198, 199
Citrillus lanatus 33, 38, 39, 230
citronellol 224
Citrus family 216
Clanwilliam cedar 278,281
Clanwilliamseder 278
clavines 168
cleansing emetic 128
cleansing enemas 139
Clematopsis scabiosifolia 206
Cleome gynandra 63, 68, 69
Cleome monophylla 68
climbing cactus 198
clivacetine 184
Clivia miniata 184, 185
Clivia nobilis 184
cliviasine 184
clividine 184
clivonine 184
cloth 298
clothing 298
cloves 58
Clusiaceae 42, 166
cluster pine 272
Cnicus benedictus 144
coals 288
coastal coral tree 198
coastal red milkwood 48,49
coca leaves 155
cocaine 155
Coccinea rehmannii 46, 80, 82, 88
Coccinea sessilifolia 82
Cocculus hirsutus 297, 300, 301, 304
cochineal 247
coconut 38
coconut milk 38, 106
Cocos nucifera 38
cocoyam 82
Coffea arabica 102
Cqffea canephora 102
Coffea robusta 102
coffee 26, 102, 155
coffee substitute 20,100,102,144,284
coffins 278
coi l-constructed baskets 304
coir 38
Coix lachrvma-jobi 10
cola 155
Colchicaceae 208
cold drink 52, 54
colds 50, 122, 124, 126,128,130, 132,
134, 136, 140, 142, 144, 148, 150,
155, 158, 160, 164, 172, 180, 186,
190, 200,218,222, 284
Coleonema album 218,219
Coleonema juniperina 218, 219
Coleonema species 216,218
colic 100, 126, 134, 142, 144, 182
collecting basket 300
Colocasia esculenta 81, 82, 83
Colophospermum mopane 206, 283,
286, 287
Colpoon compressum 256
Combretaceae 184,250,264,288,308
Combretum apiculatum 283, 288
Combretum collinum 276
Combretum erythrophyllum 184, 250
Combretum hereroense 288, 289
Combretum imberbe 264, 283, 288,
289
Combretum molle 184, 264
Combretum paniculal