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Venomous Snakes of the World

Venomous Snakes of the World

Extremely accessible book, suitable for professional snake handlers and armchair herpetologists alike
O’Shea, Mark
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Venomous Snakes of the World

Author: Mark O’Shea
Publisher: New Holland
Cape Town, 2005
ISBN 9781843309727
Hardcover, dust jacket, 24x32 cm, 160 pages, throughout colour photos


Dieses wunderbar fotografierte und geschriebene Buch können wir Ihnen zu einem günstigen Preis anbieten. Es gehört in eine jede Literatursammlung von Schlangeninteressierten.


Description:

Feared, revered, and frequently misunderstood, venomous snakes have been a source of legend and nightmare since time immemorial.

In this comprehensive volume, reptile expert Mark O’Shea brings to life the world of bamboo pit vipers and deep-diving sea snakes, adders, asps and black mambas.

Discover more about the terciopelo, the massasauga, the bardick, the habu and other venomous snakes from deserts and jungles, ocean depths and mountain heights, and even domestic gardens.

There is an amazing variety of venomous snakes, and a wide range of highly toxic venoms that attack the blood, nerves, tissues and internal organs. This book begins by describing the anatomy of venomous snakes, their diversity and distribution and their venom.

The adaptions of ocean-dwelling snakes and issues of snake conservation are then discussed, before the chapters on the different continents and regions - the Americas, Africa, Eurasia, Tropical Asia, Australasia and the Oceans - showcase the individual species, which are illustrated with many stunning and rare pictures.

There are as many reasons to enjoy reading about the intriguing world of venomous snakes as there are for avoiding encounters with them.

Mark O’Shea’s encyclopaedic knowledge of and clear enthusiasm for the subject is apparent on every page, which makes this an extremely accessible book, suitable for professional snake handlers and armchair herpetologists alike.


About the Author:

Mark O’Shea is a leading authority on snakes and best known in the UK for his Channel 4 series Mark O’Shea’s Dangerous Reptiles. He is well known internationally for his natural history adventure films on Animal Planet and Discovery Channel, and for his expeditions in search of snakes in the wild – many of these exciting encounters are described in Boas and Pythons.

Mark’s previous books include Venomous Snakes, published by New Holland in October 2005, and Dorling Kindersley’s Reptiles and Amphibians.


Content:

Foreword
ANATOMY OF SNAKES
VENOMOUS SNAKE DIVERSITY AND DISTRIBUTION
SNAKE VENOMS AND THEIR ACTIONS
LIFE IN THE SEA
CONSERVATION
VENOMOUS LIZARDS
AMEPJCAS
AMERICAN ELAPIDS
True Coralsnakes
False Coralsnakes
AMERICAN PITVIPERS
Copperheads, Cottonmouths and Cantils
Lanceheads
Forest-pitvipers
Palm-pitvipers
Limping and Hognosed Pitvipere
Bush masters
North American Rattlesnakes
South American Rattlesnakes
Pigmy Rattlesnakes
VENOMOUS SNAKES OF THE CARIBBEAN
SOUTH AMERICAN REAR-FANGED COLUBRIDS
EUPASIA
EURASIAN TRUE VIPERS
Adders and Vipers
European Nose-horned Vipers
Middle Eastern Mountain Vipers
Blunt-nosed Vipers
Palestine Viper
Middle Eastern Desert Vipers
EURASIAN PITVIPERS
Mamushis
EURASIAN COBRAS
ARABIAN BURROWING ASPS
EUROPEAN RFAR-FANGED COLUBRIDS
AFRICA
AFRICAN COBRAS
African Non-spitting Cobras
Rinkhals and other African Spitting Cobras
Specialist Cobras
OTHER AFRICAN ELAPIDS
Shieldnose and African Coralsnakes
African Garter and Harlequin Snakes
Mambas
AFRICAN VIPERS
Night Adders
Carpet and Horned Vipers
Bushvipers
Specialist Vipers
Big African Vipers
Small African Vipers
North African Vipers
AFRICAN BURROWING ASPS
AFRICAN REAR-FANGED COLUBRIDS
TROPICAL ASIA
ASIAN COBRAS
Common Cobras
King Cobras
Marsh snakes
Tigersnakes
Death Adders
Small Australian Elapids
Naped Snakes
Desert Burrowers
Broad headed Snakes
SNAKES OF MELANESIA
New Guinea Endemics
Highland and Island Rarities
Solomon Island Endemics
Bougainville and Fiji Endemics
AUSTRALASIAN REAR-FANGED COLUBRIDS
THE OCEANS
SEA KRAITS
TRUE SEASNAKES
Map: Global Distiibution of Venomous Snakes
Antivenom
Further Reading
Index
Picture Oedils and Acknowledgements


Introduction:

The usual approach is to deal with venomous snake families in order: rear-ranged colubrid snakes; burrowing asps; cobras and their relatives; vipers and pitvipers. However, recent research suggests that this approach neither reflects the relationships between the families, nor their evolutionary history, the seemingly highly advanced vipers being an earlier divergence from the colubrid-elapid lineage than formerly believed.

In this book we have attempted a more challenging geographical approach by dividing the world into five terrestrial and one marine chapters. Each chapter contains representatives of all the venomous snake families that occur within its geographical area.

This approach was not without difficulties - the natural world is not readily ‘pigeon-holeable’. Several genera occur in more than one chapter: the cobras, Naja and the vipers, Echis, Cerastes, Daboia, Macrovipera, Vipera and Gloydius. It is hoped that spreading these large genera over two, in the case of Echis and Naja three, chapters does not lead to confusion.

It was also necessary to determine what constituted a venomous snake. It would have been simple to confine „venomous“ to the 300 species of front-fanged elapids and vipers, and the 18 Afro-Arabian burrowing asps. A problem of what is and what is not venomous exists in the cosmopolitan Colubridae which contains 1,700 of the known 2,800 snake species. Colubrids range from the nonvenomous American cornsnake to the dangerous rear-fanged African boomslang.

Few colubrids cause serious or fatal snakebites but the majority are technically venomous as they possess venom glands or toxin-producing Duvernoy’s glands. They are harmless only because they are small, secretive, or lack the ability to inject ‘venom’ into man.

To include ‘technically venomous’ American gartersnakes and European grass snakes would expand the scope of the book to cover an unwieldy 2.000+ species and detract from the truly dangerous cobras and vipers. It was decided to limit colubrid inclusion to a handful of dangerous or potentially dangerous species.


African Cobras:

African cobra species can be quite neatly separated into those that spit and those that don’t. In any single location there is likely to be a spitter and a non-spitter and they are usually easy to tell apart. African Non-spitting Cobras Africa is home to at least five non-spitting cobras and that number is likely to increase because one species is currently undergoing revision.

All exhibit a cosmopolitan vertebrate diet, are active by day or night, and can climb and swim well. They all cause fatal snakebites, with death resulting through respiratory paralysis.

Egyptian cobra:
Naja haje

The Egyptian cobra is the cobra of Cleopatra, the royal snake of the Pharaohs and a more likely instrument of her suicide than an ‘asp’, which would have caused a painful and unpleasant death. Egyptian cobras are large snakes that exhibit a fragmented distribution surrounding the Sahara with populations along the Mediterranean coast, across the Sahel south of the Sahara and throughout East Africa.

The black Moroccan Atlas Mountains population is sometimes recognized as a separate subspecies, as is the southwest Arabian population (see pages 64-5). Egyptian cobras are generally brown, with a dark band across the throat, and sometimes speckled with darker pigment. The head and snout are rounded. They can raise one-third of their length vertically, and spread a broad, rounded hood, with little provocation.

Range: North Africa and Arabia
Max. length: 1.8-2.5m
Venom: Postsynaptic neurotoxin; snakebite fatalities recorded
Habitat: Savanna and dry woodland to semi-desert
Prey: Mammals, birds, toads and other snakes
Reproduction: Oviparous; 15-20 eggs

I received a single fang snakebite from a medium sized Egyptian cobra and experienced the rapid onset of neurotoxic symptoms: ptosis (drooping eyelids), flaccid facial paralysis and breathing difficulties before I received antivenom. The effects were rapidly reversed by a combination of antivenom and neostigmine. I was discharged from hospital the next day.

Snouted cobra:
Naja annulifera

The snouted cobra was formerly considered the southern subspecies of Egyptian cobra but they are very different snakes, especially in appearance. The snouted cobra is heavy bodied, it spreads a longer, narrower hood and its scales are matt compared to the shiny scales of the Egyptian. The head of the snouted cobra is also more angular. Specimens may be unicolour brown or patterned with broad dark and light brown bands.

Range: Tanzania to South Africa and Namibia and Angola
Max. length: 1.9-2.1m
Venom: Neurotoxin; snakebite fatalities recorded
Habitat: Savanna and bushveldt
Prey: Mammals, birds, toads and other snakes, even puff adders
Reproduction: Oviparous, 8-33 eggs
Similar species: Angolan cobra (Naja anchetiae} from Southwest Africa was recently a subspecies

Forest cobra:
Naja melanoleuca

The Forest cobra is an agile, diurnal species that climbs well and is more aquatic than other true cobras of genus Naja. The longest African cobra, it is the most feared, by locals, and respected, by herpetologists. Specimens from West African rainforests are glossy black with black edged white scales along the lips, hence the alternative name, Black-and-white-lipped cobra.

Specimens from West African savannas have black and yellow bands, with the lighter bands heavily suffused with black. Those from East African savanna-woodlands and Natal coastal forests are matt brown with black tails. The species is under revision and is likely to be split into several species.

Range: West and central Africa and scattered populations in east and southeastern Africa
Max. length: 1.5-2.7m
Venom: Postsynaptic neurotoxin; snakebite fatalities recorded
Habitat: Rainforest and plantation, but in drier woodland habitats in the southeast
Prey: Amphibians, reptiles, mammals, birds and fish
Reproduction: Oviparous; 15-26 eggs

I consider forest cobras to be tricky and dangerous snakes. I caught a large black specimen that came down an oil palm in Cameroon but forest cobras also enter human dwellings and I have removed them from under beds and inside washrooms. Bold snakes, they will hood and advance on any threat. An aggressive 2.0m male forest cobra I kept in captivity caused more heart-stopping moments than a king cobra.

Cape cobra:
Naja nivea

The Cape cobra is the smallest and southern-most non-spitting true cobra in Africa but it has the most toxic venom. Specimens may be yellow, brown, black or speckled black on a light colour. Diurnally active, it is extremely agile, easily climbing Acacia trees to raid weaver-bird nests.

Range: Southwestern Africa from Namibia and Botswana to South Africa, as far as the Cape
Max. length: 1.5-1.7m
Venom: Postsynaptic neurotoxin; snakebite fatalities recorded
Habitat: Grassland and semi-desert
Prey: Birds, small mammals, amphibians and reptiles
Reproduction: Oviparous; 8-20 eggs

[...]


Index:

Acalyptophis peroni 147\ 147
Acanthophis gen.
A. antarcticus 126
A.laevis\26-7, 126
A. pmelongus \ 27
A.pyrrhusW, 127, 133
A welisi 127
Acrochordidae family 16
adders
Albany 86
Berg 86, 86
Desert mountain 86
Horned 86, 86
Many horned 86
Namaqua dwarf 86
Northern cross 54-5, 56, 57
Peringuey’s 86, 86
Puff 19, 84, S<85
see also death adders; night
adders; vipers
Adenorhinos barbour£83
Africa 68-89
burrowing asps 88
cobras 70-5
elapids 76-9
rear-fanged colubrids 89
vipers 80-7
‘Age of the Snakes, The’ 16
Agkutrodon gen.
A. biUneatus 35, 35
A. contorfrix34, 34
A. piscivorus 7, 34, 35
A. taylon35
Aipysurus gen. 140
A. eydouxii l42
A. folisquama l42
A.fuscus l42
A. laev£s\42, l42
Ambylodipsas gen. 88
Americas 28-53
Caribbean 52
elapids 30-3
pirvipers 34-51
rear-fanged colubrids 53
anatomy of snakes 12-4
coloration and patterning 12, 18-9
external integument, scales, sloughing 12-3
internal organs 13
jaws, teeth and fangs 14-5
sense organs 13-4
Anilius scytale 33
Aisophis gen. 53
Antivenom 154
Asia, Tropical 90-111
cobras 92-7
elapids 98-9
pirvipers 103-11
true vipers 100-2
Aspidelaps gen.
A. lubricus 76, 76
A. scutatus 76, 76
Aspidomorphus gen. 134
A. Uneaticollis 134
A. muelleri 134
Astrotia stokesi 144, 144
Athens gen.
A. ceratophorus 83
A. chlorechis 82
A. hispidus 82
A. nitschei 82, 82
A. rungweensis 82
A. squamiger 82, 82
Atractaspididae family 16-7
distribution map 152-3
diversity 17
Atractaspis gen.
A. bibroniiSS, 88
A. microlepidota 65, 66, 66
A. reticulata 14, 15
Atropoides gen.
A. mexicanzts 42, 42
A. nummifer 42
Australasia 112-37
Australian elapids 114-32
Melanesian etapids 133-6
rear-fanged colubrids 137
Austrelaps gen.
A. labialis 120
A. ramsayi 120
A. superbus 120. 120
Azemiopsfeae 19, 102, 102
Babaspul 52
Bandy-bandy, Eastern 26, 131, 131
Bardick 128, 729
Bitis gen.
B. albanica 86
B. artetans\9, 84, 84, 85
B. atropos 86, 86
B. caudalis 86, 86
B. cornuta 86
B. gabonica 68-9, 84-5
B. nasicomisS, 85, 8.5
B.schneideri 86
B.parviocula 84
B. peringueyi 86, 86
B. rhinoceros 84-5, 55
5. xeropaga 86
blacksnakes 118-19
Butler’s snake 118
Collett’s snake 118
King brownsnake 118, 118
Natal 88, 88
Papuan 25, 119, 119, 133
Red-bellied 118
Boa constrictor nebulosa. 52
boas 13, 14, 52, 126-7, 133
Boiga gen. 17
B.jusca 137
B. irregularis 137, 137
Boomslang 14, 15, 89, 89
Bothriechis gen.
B. nigroviridis 41, 41
B. schlegelH6, 18.41, 41
B. superciliaris 41
Bothriopsis gen.
B. lnlmeata4Q, 40
B. taeniata 40, 40
Bothrocophias gen.
B. hyoprora 42
B. microphthalmus 42
Bothrops gen.
/?. alcatraz37, 39
-ff. ammodytoides 37, 35
& asper36, 36
B. atrox 17, 36
A caribbaeus 52
& insularis^-^,39
B. itapetiningae 37
B. jararaca 37, 37
5. jararacussu 37
& lanceolatus 52, 52
Bougainville 136
Boulengerina gen.
& annulata74-5, 74
B. christyi 74
brownsnakes 115
Dugite 115
Eastern 20, 115, 115
King 118, 118
Western 115, 115
Bufo mannw 119
Bungarus gen.
B. caeruleus 20, 98, 98
B. candidus 98
B. fasciatus 9S
B. flaviceps 98
B. multidnctus 98
5. sindanus 98
burrowing asps
Arabian and Ein Geddi 66, ^
Bibron’s stiletto snake 88, 88
Natal blacksnake 88, 88
Reticulated 14, 15
bushmasrers 44-5
Atlantic coastal 26, 45
Black-headed 44, 45, 45
Central American 45
Chocoan 44, 45
South American 44, 45
bushvipers 18, 19, 82
Great Eakes 82, 82
Mount Rungwe 82
Rough-scaled 82
Usumbara 83
Variable 82, 82
Western 82
Cacophis squamulosw 129
Calliophis gen.
C. bivirgata 99, 99
C. intestinalis 99
Calloselasma rhodostoma 21, 22, 103, 103
cantils
Mexican 35, 35
Ornate or Taylor’s 35
Caribbean 52
carper vipers 18
Oman 62
Painted 62, 62
Pakistani 100, 700
Sri Lankan 100
West African 81, 81
White-bellied 81
Camus gen.
C. defilippiSO, 81
C. maculatus 80, 80
C. rhombeatus 80-1
Church of Lord Jesus 24, 47
Cerastes gen.
C. cerastes 49, 61, 81, 81
C. gasperettii 61, 61, 62, 81
C vipem 61,81
Cerrophidion gen.
C. godmani 42-3, ^3
C tzotzilorum 43
CITES (Convention for the International Trade in
Endangered Species) 25-6
cobras 13,24,25
African 70-5
African non-spitting 70-1
African spitting 72-3
Andaman 94
Angolan 71
Arabian 64, 65
Asian 92-7
Asian non-spitting 92, 93
Asian spitting 92, 94
Banded water 74, 74
Black-necked spitting 22, 73, 73
Black tree 74
and Buddhist/Hindu cultures 92-3
Burrowing 6, 75, 75
Cape 71, 71
Caspian 64, 64, 94
Congo water 74
Egyptian 70, 7(9
Equatorial spitting 94
Eurasian 64-5
evolution of 16
False water 53
Forest 7,71, 77,74
Gold’s tree 74
Indian or Spectacled 92, 93
Indochinese spitting 94, 94
King 17, 18, 26, .90-/, 96-7, 96, 97
Mandalay spitting 94
Mozambique spitting 72, 72
North Philippine 94
Nubian spitting 73
Red spitting 73, 73
Rinkhals 72, 73
Sinai desert 64-5, 65
Snouted70-l, 70
Southern Indonesian spitting 94, 95
Southern Philippine 94
Southwestern black spitting 73
Storm’s water 74, 75
Thai or Monoculate 72, 93, 93
West African spitting 73
Zebra spitting 73
Coluber jugularis asianus 65
Colubridae family 10, 16
distribution map 152-3
diversity of 17, 17
rear-fanged see rear-fanged colubrids
Conservation 24-6
copperheads
American 34, 34
Highland 120
Lowland 120, 120
Pigmy 120
coralsnakes 18, 30-3
African 76, 76
Amazonian 32, 32
American 12, 30-3
Andean slender 31
Aquatic 32
Babaspul 52
Blue long-glanded 99, 99
Bougainville 136, 136
Chinese 99
coloration and patterning 30
Eastern 31, 31
False 33, 33
Guianan slender 31
MacClellands 99
Monadal 31
Painted 31, 31
Peruvian 31
Philippine 99
Roatan 52
Slender 99
Solomons 135, 135
Sonoran 30, 30
South American 32, 32
Striped long-glanded 99
Texas 31
Thread 32
Triad 32
True 30-2
Venezuelan 32
Cottonmouth 7, 18, 34, 35
Crotalus gen.
C. adamenteus 46, 47
C atrox 13. 19, 28-9, 46, 46
C. basiliscus 24
C. catalinensis^, 49
C. cerastes 48, 49
C. durissus 50, 50
C. durissus unicolor26^ 50, 52, 52
C. durissus vegrandis 50
C. horridus 46-7’, 46
C. lannomi 46
C. molossus 46
C. molossus estebanensis 49
C ravus 51
C. ruber^)
C. scutulatus 46
C simus 50
C. willardi^, 49
Cryptelytrops gen. 107
C. albolabris5, 107. 707
C. insularis 108-9
Culture and snakes 24-5, 47
Daboia gen.
D. palaestinae 58, 60. 60-1
D. russelii 14, 15, 60, 100-1,707
D. russelii siamensis 101
Dasypeltis scabra 80-1
death adders 17-18, 24-5,126-7
Desert 127, 727
New Guinea 126-7, 726, 133
Northern 127
Pilbara 127
Southern 126
Deinagkistrodon acutus 104,705
Demansia gen.
D. olivacea 114
D. papuensis 114
D. psammophis 114, 114
D. vestigiata 114, 774
Dendroaspis gen.
D. angusticeps73, 79
D. jamesoni 79
D.polylepis 17, 68, 78-9, 78
D. viridis 79
Denisonia gen.
D. eievisi \22, 122
D. maculata 122
Dispholidus typus 14, 15, 17, 89, 89
Diversity of modern snakes 16-19
Atractaspididae 17
Colubridae 17, 77
Elapidae 17-18, 18
Viperidae 18-19
Drysdalia gen.
D. coronata 121
D. coronoides 121, 727
Echiopsis gen.
E. atriceps 128
E. curta 128, 729
Echis gen.
E. carinatus 100
E. coloratus 62, 62
£“. leucogaster 81
£ ocellatusS}, 81
E. omanensis 62
£, sochureki 100, 700
Elapidae family 17-8
distribution map 152-3
diversity 17-8, 18
elapids
African 76-9
American 30-3
Asian 98-9
Australasian 114-32
Elapognathus minor 121
Elapsoidea gen. 88
E. loveridgei 77
E. sundevalli 77, 77
ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay) testing 133
Emydocephalus gen.
E. annulatus 143, 143
E. ijimae 143
Enhydrina gen.
E. schistosa 145, 145
E. zweifeli 145
Eristicopht$ macmahonii 62, 62
Erythrolamprus aesculapii 32, 33, 33
Eurasia 54-67
Arabian burrowing asps 66
cobras 64-5
pitvipers 63
rear-fanged colubrids 66-7
true vipers 56-62
evolution of venomous snakes 16
Fijil22, 133,136
forest-pitvipers 40
Speckled 40, 40
Two-striped 40, 40
Funna
gen.
E barnardi 130
F. diadema 130
F. dunmalli 130
F.omata 130, 730
7’: frtsfa’5 130, 730
gaboon vipers 18, 19, 68
East African 68-9, 84-5
West African 84-5, 85
Gartersnakes
East African 77
North American 10, 77
Southern African 77, 77
Garthia chaseni 104
Gila monster 27, 27
Gloydius gen.
G. blomhoffi65
G.halys63, 63
G. himalayanus 104
G. intermedius 63
G. saxatilis 63
G. shedaoensis 63
G. tsushimaewis 63
Grayia gen. 74
Hapsidodryas gen. 79
Heloderma gen.
7f. horridum 24, 27, 27
^/. suspectum 27, 27
Hemachatus haemachatus 72, 73, 123
Hemiaspis gen.
H. damelli\n
H. signata\22, 722
Hemtbungarus calligaster 99
Himalayophis gen. 107
Homoroselaps gen.
H. dorsalis 77
H. lacteus 77, 77
Hoplocephalus gen.
H. bitorquatus 132
H. bungaroides 26,132, /32
H. stephensii 132
horned vipers
Arabian 61, 6^
False 67,62
Sahara 81, <?7
Sahara sand 86, 56
Southern African 61, 81
Hydrelaps darwiniensis 151
Mydrodyncistes gen. 17
Hydrophis gen.
H.elegans 148-9, 7^5-9
H. gradlis W
H. semperiW
H. sibuensis 149
Hypnale gen.
H. hypnalel04, 105
H. nepa 105
Jararaca 37
False 53
keelbacks
Common 123, 723
Red-necked 66
Yamakagasht 67
kraits 98
Banded 98
Common 20, 98, 98
Malayan 98
Many-banded 98
Sind 98
Yellow-headed 98
Lachesis^en.
L. acrochorda 44, 45
L. melanocep/yala44, 45, 45
L. muta 44, 45
L. muta rhombeata 26, 45
L. stenophrys 45
Lampropeltis triangulum 31, 33, 33
lanceheads 25, 36-9, 44
Alcarraz Island 37, 39
American 36-9
Asian 106
Common 36, 36
Golden 38-9, 39
Jararaca 37, 37
Jararacussu 37
Jerdon’s 106
Martinique 52
Patagonian 37, 38
Sao Paulo 37
St Lucia 52
Terciopelo 36, 36
Lapemis gen.
L. curtus curtus 146
L. curtus hardwicki 146, 7^
Laticauda gen.
Z. colubrina 7< 75, 138, 140, 7^0
I. crockeri 140-1
L.frontalis 141
L. laticaudata 140-1, 747
7,. schistorhynchus 141
Z. semifasciata l4l
Z. sp. nov. 735-9
LD^o tests 20
Leptomicrurus gen.
L.collaris31
7-. narducci 31
Leptophis ahaetulla 53
Lichtensreins green racer 53, 53
lizards
Beaded 24, 27, 27
Gila monster 27
Komodo dragon 94
Spiny 65
Velvet gecko 132
venomous 27
Loveridgelaps elapoides 135,735
Macrelaps microlepidotus 88, 88
Macrovipera gen.
M^ffi’59,87
M. lebetina 59, 59
M. mauntanica 59, 87, 87
M. schweizeri 26, 59
Malpolon gen.
A^. moilensis 66
M. monspessulanus^66-7^, 6^7
mambas 18, 78-9
Black 17, 68, 78-9, 7S
Eastern green 79, 79
Jameson’s 79
Western green 79
mamushis 63
Chinese Asian piNiper 63
Japanese and Chinese 63
Rock 63
Shedao pirviper 63
Siberian pirviper 63, 63
Tsushima 63
marine snakes see sea kraits; seasnakes
Massasauga 51
Melanesia 133-6
Microcephalophis gen. 149
Micropechis ikaheka 133, 733, 135
Micruroides euryxanthus 30,30
Micrurus gen.
M. corallinus 31, 37
M. filiformis 32
M.julvius^\,3l
M. isozonus 32
M. lemniscatus 32, 32
M. nigricinctus babaspul 52
M. peruvianus 31
M. ruatanus 52
M. spixii 32, 32
Af. surinamensis 32
M ^wr31
Middle Eastern
desert vipers 61-2
mountain vipers 58
Monadal coralsnakes 31
Montatheris hindii 26, 83
Morelia spilota 1123
Naja gen.
N. anchetiae 7 1
N. annulifera7Q-\, 70
N. a^ 94
N. haje70, 70
N. A<yc arabica 64, 65
N. kaouthia 12, 93, .93
N. katiensis 73
N. mandalayensis 94
N. melanoleuca 1, 71, 77, 74
N. mossambica 72, 72
N n^ 92, 93
N. nigridncta 73
N nigricollis22,7^, 73
N. nivea 71, 77
N. nuhiae 73
N. oxiana 64, 64
N.pallida73, 73
N. philippinensis 94
N. romani 64
N. sagittifera 94
N samarewis 94
N. siamensis 94, 94
N. sputatrix 94, 95
N. sumatrana 94
N. woodi 73
New Guinea 133-4
night adders 19
Snouted 50, 81
Rhombic 80
West African 80, 50
Notechis gen.
N.aterW, 125
N. ater humphreysi 120
N. ater occidenalis 124
N. scutatus 124, 724
Oedura lesueurii 132
Ogmodon vitianus 26, 136, 736
Okinawa
habu 106, 706
hime-habu 104
Ophiophagtts hannah 7, 17, 18, 96-7, 96, 97
Ophryacus gen.
0. melanurus 43
0. undulatus 43
Oropel 41
Ovophis gen.
0. monticoU 104, 704
0. okinavensis 104
Oxyuranus gen.
0. microlepidottts 20, 117, 777
0, scutellatus 74, 75, 20, 772-73, 115,116, 776; 118
palm-piNipers 7, 41
Black-speckled 41, 47
Blotched 41
Eyelash 6; 18,41, 47
Pamdemansia gen. 116
Parahydrophis mertoni 150-1,757
Paranaja multifasciata 6, 75,75
Parapistocalamus hedigeri\^6, 136
Parias gen. 107
P. flavomaculattis mcgregori 108
PelamisplaturusW, 150-51
Peltopelor gen. 107
Phalotris gen. 17
/? lemniscatus 53
Philodryas gen. 17
P.olfersii\7, 53,53
Philothamnus gen. 79
phylogeny of snakes 18
piNipers 14, 19, 63
Amazonian toad-headed 42
American 34-51
Asian 103-11
Black-tailed horned 43
Caribbean 52
Central American jumping 42,42
Central Asian 63
Chasens 104
Chinese 107
Cottonmouth 7, 18, 34. 35
Green 107
Eurasian 63
Godman’s montane 42-3, 43
Himalayan 104
Hundred-pace 104, /05
Indian humpnose 104, 705
McGregor’s 109
Madura 111
Malabar 107-8, 108-9
Malayan 21,22, 103. 703
Mangshan26, 111, 777
Mexican horned 43
Mexican jumping 42
Mountain 104, 704
Okinawa habu 106, 706
Okinawa hime-habu 104
Popes 107
Rainforest hognosed 43
Shedao 63
Siberian 63, 63
Slender hognosed 43
Small-eyed toad-headed 42
Sri Lankan green 108, 709
Sri Lankan humpnose 104
Sunda Island 108-9
Three-horned 770, 111
Tzotzil moncane 43
Waglers temple 110-11, 770
Wall’s humpnose 104
White-lipped 5, 107, 707
see also bush masters; canrils; copperheads; forest-
picvipers; lanceheads; mamushis; palm-picvipers;
rattlesnakes
Popeia. gen. 107
P.popeiorum 107
Porthidium sen.
P. nasutum 43
P. ophryomegas 43
Proatheris superciliaris^, 83
Protobothrops gen.
P. flavoviridis 106, 706
P. jerdoni 106
Pseudechis gen.
P.australis 116, 118-9, 77$
P. butleri
P. colletti 118
P.papuanusl5, 119, 779, 133
P. porphyriacus 118
Pseudocerastes persicus 67,62
Pseudohaje gen.
P.goldii 74, 74
P. nigra 74
Pseudonaja gen.
P. affinisW
P. nuchalis\15, 115
P.textilislQ, 115, 775. 116-7
Ptyas mucosus 96-7
pythons 13, 14
carpet 123
rattlesnakes 19, 24,46-51
Aruba Island 26. 50, 52, 52
Autlan 46
Black-tailed 46
bites from 46
Canebrake 47
Eastern diamondback 46, 47
Massasauga 51, 57
Mexican pigmy 51
Mexican west coast 24
Middle American 50
Mojave 46
North American 46-9
Pigmy 51,^
Red diamond 49
Ridge-nosed 49, 49
round-ups of 24
San Esteban Island 49
Santa Catalina Island 49, 49
Sidewinder 48, 49
South American 50, 50
Timber 46-7, 46
Uracoan 50
Western diamondback 13, 19, 28-9, 46, 46
rear-ranged colubrids 16
African 89
Australasian 137
Eurasian 66-7
South American 53
Rhabdophis gen. 17
R. subminiatus 66
S. tigrinus 17, 67
Rhinopiocephalus gen.
R. nigrescens 128, 128-9
R. pallidiceps 128
Rinkhals 72, 73
River jack 85, 85
Satomonelaps par 135
Savanna twigsnake 89, 89
seakraits23, 138, 140-1
Brown-lipped 140-1, 141
Crocker’s 140-1
Erabu 141
New Caledonian 138-9
Niue 141
Vanuatu 141
Yellow-lipped 14, 15, 140, 140
seasnakes 12, 23, 138, 142-51
Annulated turtle-headed 143,143
Arafura mangrove 150-1, 150-1
Beaked 145, 145
Dusky 142
Elegant 148-9, 148-9
Eydoux’s 142
Hardwicke’s 146, 146
Horned 147, 147
Japanese turtle-headed 143
Lake Taal 149
Leaf-scaled 142
Olive 142, 142
Pelagic 151, 151
Short-tailed 146
Sibau River 149
Small-headed 149
Stokes’ 144, 144
Yellow 148
Zweifel’s 145
Shark of the Jungle 134, 134
Simoselaps gen.
S. australis 131
S.semifasaataW,131
Sinomicrurus macclellandi 99
Sistrurus gen.
S. catenatus 51, 51
S. miliarius 51, 51
small-eyed snakes
Eastern 128, 128-9
New Guinea 133, 133
Northern 128
Solomons 135, 135
snakes
anatomy of 12-14
Argentinian black-headed 53
Bibron’s stiletto 88, 88
charmers 25, 93
De Vis’banded 122,/Z2
Dunmall’s 130
Eastern small-eyed 128, 128-9
endangered 26
evolution of venomous 16
Fijian burrowing 122, 1.33,136
Golden crowned 129
Grey-headed 130. 130
marine snakes see sea kraits; seasnakes
Milk 33, 33
Miola 66
Montpellter 66, 67
Mullers 134
New Guinea small-eyed 133, 133
Northern small-eyed 128
Orange-naped 130, 130
Parrot 53
phylogeny of 18
Purple-glossed 88
Red-naped 130
Rough-scaled 123, 123
Shieldnose 76, 76
Short-railed 53
Solomons small-eyed 133, 135, 135
Southern shovel-nosed 131, 131
Spotted 128
Spotted forest 134, 134
Spotted harlequin snake 77, 77
Striped crowned 134
Striped harlequin snake 77
Yellow-naped 130
Snakebite fatalities 24-5
Solomon Islands 135
South American rear-fanged colubrids 53
Stegonotus cucullatus 130
Suta punctata 128
Tachymenis gen. 17, 53
taipans 17, 116-17
Coastal 14, 15,20, 772-73,116, 116
Inland 20, 117, 777
Terciopelo 36, 36
Thelotornis gen. 17
T. capensis 89, 89
Thrasops^w. 79, 89
tigersnakes 18, 124-5
Black 125, 725
Chappell Island 125
Eastern 124, 124
Tasmanian 120, 725
Western 124
Toxicocalamus gen. 134
T. spilolepidotus 134, 134
Toxicodryas gen. 17
T. blandingi 70-77,74,89
treesnakes 12
Banded 137
Blandings 70-77, 89
Boomslang 14, 75, 89, 89
Brown 137, 737
Lich ten stein’s green racer 53, 53
Savanna twignake 89, 89
Triceratolepidophis sieversorum 110, 111
Trimeresurus gen. 107
T. malabaricus 107-8, 108-9
T. trigonocephalus 108, 109
Tropidechis carinatus 122, 123,723
Tropidolaemus gen.
T. huttoni 111
T. wagleri 110-11,770
Tropidonophis mairii 123, 723
Uromastyx gen. 65
venoms 20-2
3-finger toxins 16
anrivenom 154
coagulants 21
cyro toxins 22
Duvernoy’s gland secretions 10, 16
haemolytic 21
haemorrhagins 21
haemotoxins 21
LD50 tests 20
myotoxins 22
necro toxins 22
nephrotoxins 22
neurotoxins 16, 20-1
proteolytic 22
sarafotoxins 22
Vermicella gen. 11
V.annulata 131,737
V. multifasciata 131
Vipera gen.
l^ ammodytes 37, 57, 57
Vf aspis 57
I; ^crw 5^-5, 56, 57
V.lataste£57, 57,87
K monticola 57, 87
Km(^’58,5S
Vf renardi 56
l^ seoanei 56
l^ transcaucasiana 57
K ursini 56, 5(?
1^ wagneri 58
Vxanthina58, 58
Viperidae family 18-9
distribution map 752-3
diversity 18-9, 7.9
vipers 10, 12, 17, 18-19
African 80-7
Arabian horned 61, 61
Armenian rock 58, 58
Asian 100-2
Asp 57
Atlas mountain 57, 87
Desert 59, 87
Ethiopian mountain 84
Eurasian 56-62
European sand 57, 57
evolution of 16
False horned 61, 62
fangs 14, 17, 18-19
Fea’s 19, 102, 702
head-scale fragmentation 19
Kenya mountain 26, 83
Lacasces 57, 57, 87
Levant 59, 59
Lowland swamp 83, 83
MacMahon’s 62, 62
Middle Eastern 58, 61-2
Milos 26. 59
Mole 14-5, 66, 88
Moorish 59, 87, 87
North African 87
Orsini’s meadow 56, 56
Ottoman 58, 58
Palestine 58, 60, 60-1
Rhinoceros 8, 85, 85
Russell’s 14, 75, 60. 100-1,707
Saharan horned 81, 57
Transcaucasian sand 57
Udzungwa worm-eating 83
Wagner’s 58
see also adders; bushvipers; carpet vipers; gaboon vipers;
horned vipers; pirvipers
Viridovipera gen. 107
V. stejnegeri 107
Walterinnesia aegyptia 64-5,65-6
West Indies see Caribbean
whipsnakes 114
Greater black 114
Jordanian 65
Lesser black 114, 114
Olive 114
Yellow-faced 114, 114
White-lipped snake 121, 727
Xenodon gen. 17, 53
X. rhabdocephalus 53
X. severus 53
X. werneri 40
Yamakagashi 67
Zhaoermia mangshanensis 26, 111, 777