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The Forgotten Frontier. Colonists & Khoisan on the Cape’s northern frontier in the 18th century

The Forgotten Frontier. Colonists & Khoisan on the Cape’s northern frontier in the 18th century

By the end of the 18th century, the frontier had reached the Orange (Gariep) River and the Khoisan people
Penn, Nigel
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9787110130265
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The Forgotten Frontier. Colonists & Khoisan on the Cape’s northern frontier in the 18th century

Author: Nigel Penn
Double Storey Books
Cape Town, 2005
ISBN: 9787110130265
Soft cover, 15x23 cm, 400 pages


About this publication:

In South African history, the Eastern Cape has been traditionally regarded as the defining frontier between white and black.

But there was an earlier frontier in the history of the country, where the conflict between Dutch colonists and indigenous herders and hunters, the Khoi and San („Hottentots“ and „Bushmen“), was in many ways more brutal and violent in its manner, and just as significant in its effects on later South African history.

This was the frontier north of Cape Town, which from the earliest days of Dutch settlement began advancing through fits and starts into the interior.

By the end of the 18th century, the frontier had reached the Orange (Gariep) River and the indigenous Khoisan people, after initial resistance, had been defeated and absorbed as an underclass into the colonial world or else expelled beyond it, to regions where new creole communities emerged.


About the author:

Nigel Penn, whose previous book, Rogues, Rebels and Runaways, revealed him as a master storyteller with a novelist's sensitivity to plot and character and a staggering, command of the archival record, brings the same qualities to hear in recovering this epic story.

Filled with extraordinary personalities and memorable episodes, and set in the often harsh landscape of the Western and Northern Cape, this book tells an important story.


Contents:

List of maps
Preface
Introduction

PART I
The advance of the colonial frontier, 1700-1740
1. Colonial expansion and Khoisan resistance
2. Rebellion and war

PART II
Khoisan, colonists and commandos, 1740-1802
3. Khoisan and colonists of the Cape interior
4. The time of the commandos

PART III
The north-western frontier zone, 1700-1802
5. Societies of the Orange River
6. Raiders across the river

PART IV
'Civilising' the San, 1790-1799
7. Peace proposals and pacification
8. The coming of the missionaries
9. The closing of the northern frontier
Notes
Bibliography
Index

MAPS
1. The northern Cape, 1815
2. The northern Cape frontier zone, 1700-1740
3. The northern Cape frontier zone, 1705
4. The Cape interior, 1770
5. Khoisan societies of the Orange River, 1779
6. Namaqualand and the north-western Cape
7. The Cape interior, 1785
8. Cape districts and the northern boundary, 1805


Introduction:

Time becomes human to the extent that it is articulated through a narrative mode.
Paul Ricoeur, Time and Narrative

When I first began work on this book, the most important question in my mind was, 'What happened to the Khoisan societies of the Cape?'

It was clear to me that the answer was to be found in the crucial years of the eighteenth century, during which time Dutch colonists advanced into the Cape interior and confronted the Khoisan with a decisive challenge: submit, retreat or perish.

I discovered that there was no detailed or satisfactory account of this seemingly central episode in South African history. The majority of historians, if they noticed the process of colonial conquest at all, were quick to anchor their narratives to the drama of the eastern frontier, where the conflict between the Xhosa and the colonists after 1770 seemed to be of overriding importance.

The history of Khoisan-colonial contact between 1700 and 1770 was a virtual blank and, post-1770, was treated largely as a side-show of the eastern frontier. Confronted with the task of rectifying this omission, I decided to concentrate on the little-known northern frontier zone and leave the eastern frontier to others.

The paucity of historical commentary and secondary material forced me to start my enquiry almost from scratch. I was keen to consider both sides of the frontier, and attempt to recover the neglected experience of the Khoisan as well as that of the better-documented colonists.

My starting point would therefore have to be a study of the precolonial Khoisan, and the acquisition of knowledge of the terrain and environment in which they had lived. Thanks to the generous enthusiasm of members of the Spatial Archaeology Research Unit at the University of Cape Town, I was able to go some way towards realising these ambitions.

I have no qualms about including archaeological evidence amongst my sources - stone, bone and rock paintings also tell stories to the skilled reader -and much in this book concerning the Cape Khoisan has been learnt from my archaeological mentors during the course of numerous discussions and on a variety of field trips. But it was by enabling me to spend time in the outdoors that the archaeologists gave me access to the most valuable primary resource of all - the land itself.

Thanks to them, I have spent many days contemplating the various environments described in this thesis: the boiling sand of the Sandveld; the fragrant fynbos of the Cape Fold Mountains; the parched plains of the Tanqua Karoo; the sombre ridges of the Roggeveld escarpment; the flower-strewn semi-deserts of Namaqualand; the tragic melancholy of empty Bushmanland; and the long, strong waters of the Orange River. Without such knowledge this account would have lacked an important dimension.

It was clear, however, that I would also have to immerse myself in the histori-cal records of the eighteenth-century Cape colony under the Dutch East India Company (VOC). Of particular relevance were those records that dealt with the northern frontier zone, a region which, during the eighteenth century, fell under the jurisdiction of the landdrost of Stellenbosch.1

Since the records are in archaic Dutch, I had to learn how to understand them, a process involving both translation of language and interpretation of content. My first task, that of translating or comprehending the Dutch, was achieved more by a process of osmosis and endurance than by linguistic skill. While the Dutch penned by officials at Stellenbosch was usually similar to that of their educated colleagues in Cape Town, Batavia or Amsterdam, the Dutch of the frontier farmers was markedly different.

Among the incoming letters of veldwachtmeesters (local officials) and private individuals are barely legible specimens - composed in conditions unconducive to calligraphic refinement, by barely literate people whose language was neither Dutch nor Afrikaans but something in between, and whose style was innocent of punctuation, orthography or grammar.

The only way to understand such writing was to recreate it by copying it out in longhand, hoping that mimetic rhythm might clarify the obscurity of an illegible word or phrase. I copied hundreds of pages by hand and, after several years, could understand nearly all that I read. How, though, to interpret it?

After so long an exposure to documents generated by colonists and colonial officials, was there not a danger that I would end up with a distorted view of history, fooling myself into believing that documentary references to the Khoisan were adequate representations of their presence? Recorded history is usually what dominant cultures leave behind them as they relegate the dominated to the shadowy status of 'people without history'.2

Because they were comparatively well documented, I had become deeply involved with the lives and stories of certain frontier colonists; it was going to be extremely difficult to acquire the same degree of knowledge about the poorly documented Khoisan. Those Khoisan who featured in the records did so primarily as victims - with whom it was possible to sympathise, but for whom it was almost impossible to speak.

Such concerns have preoccupied all historians who have tried to rescue the losers of history from the 'enormous condescension of posterity'.3 Many, indeed, are the distinguished historians who have taught us how to recover the voices of the marginalised and oppressed from the most unpromising or unlikely sources. It is the nature of historical records to present a partial (meaning both biased and incomplete) view of the past, and it is the duty of historians to be aware of both the limitations and potentialities of the records in question.

Inevitably, however, much is unrecoverable, and it is history itself which has made it unrecoverable. This is a paradox which should be especially obvious to those historians who deal with frontier zones - particularly the great, global frontier zone which accompanied the expansion of European power during modern times.

The world of the frontier zone is the world in which 'Native' and 'Stranger'4 become bound together, and if our picture of that world is partly irrecoverable it is because in the process of that binding together some things are destroyed (or created).

Documentary evidence, with its distortions and selections, is itself an indicator of what was becoming lost in the past while the present was being made. Thus, even the gaps in a history based on documentary evidence can be revealing, gesturing mutely to that which vanished most permanently, most decisively.

The nature of the documents in question is an important component in shaping our narratives about the past. Those documents of eighteenth-century Dutch colonial rule that are housed in the Cape Archives are official documents and, like official documents anywhere, tend to reflect official concerns.

The stories preserved in government archives are very often stories that one set of officials tells to another and are concerned with themes of state control, finance, law and order. Where private individuals enter the historical record, it is usually in their capacity as subjects of the state, receiving or responding to instructions.

Isolation and under population combined to make the archival records relating to the northern Cape frontier zone sparser and less detailed than those of smaller, more densely populated districts. The district of Stellenbosch was a vast, under-administered area whose drostdy (the landdrost's office) lay hundreds of kilometres to the south of the expanding frontier regions.

The white or Christian population of the region was an estimated 7 256 in 1798, and most of these were to be found in the well-watered agricultural lands around the town of Stellenbosch in the south-western Cape.5 Further to the north, colonial farmers were few and far between, many days' journey beyond the reach of the landdrost or his deputies.

In the northern frontier districts, the authority of the landdrost (and behind him, that of the governor of the Cape) was supposed to be upheld by a handful of veldwachtmeesters or veldkorporaals - officials whose principal function became that of organising or leading commandos. [..]


Index:

Aborigines Protection Society 147-8
Afrikaaner, Jager 168, 187, 200, 217, 281-5
Afrikaaner, Klaas 168, 187, 189, 193, 198-9,
213, 214-15, 254; and Danster 212; Petrus
Pienaar 189-91, W-4, 199-200; attack
on Visagie 191-3; Burger and Nel's
attempt to arrest 195-6; raids around
Orange River 215; uprisings of colonial
Khoikhoi inspired by 211
Afrikaaner, Titus 168, 187, 200
Afrikaaner Oorlam group 168, 190, 194, 198,
207, 227, 283-4; and missionaries and
mission stations 279-80, 282-3; Petrus
Pienaar 187, 199-200; Seidenfaden 282;
Stephanos 253-4; co-operation with
government 193, 280; depredations by
190,198,200,210-11,213,215,244, 247,
250, 282; dominance of Middle Orange
River 199; identity 194; impact of flight
on northern frontier zone 202; including
San auxiliaries in raids 211, 213; raids in
Hantam 210-11; retreat (1801) 216-17;
serving white masters 189-91, 193-4
Agter Bruintjies Hoogte 128, 130-2
Albrecht, Abraham 280-1
Albrecht, Christian 280-1, 283-4
Anderson, William 249-50, 255, 257, 272,
280-1
Andries 173-4, 176-7
Andriesz, Jan 46-7 .
Anthing, Louis 286-7
April (Danster's emissary) 229
Arend, Jurgen 37
Arisie 61, 64
Aukokoa 161—3
BaTlhaping 162,198,215, 280-1
Baird, Sir David 266
Bamboesberg 133-4, 136,221-2
Barbier, Estienne 63-4, 66, 69-71, 75, 78
Barent 195
Barnard, Lady Anne 240
Barolong 280-1
Barrow, John 122, 142, 147, 208, 240, 265-6;
Collins's references to 272-3; influence on
British policies 222-4, 230, 232-3, 270-1
'Bastaard-Hottentots' 20-1; along Orange
River 178, 180, 182, 279; at Sak River 258;
beyond borders of colony 165-7; in
Namaqualand 201, 210; and commandos:
as members 111, 136-8, 165; evasion of
service 154; opinion of 112; refusal to
do service 140; regulations to ensure
availability 144; and missionaries 250-1;
colonists' opinion of 266; increasing
resistance to bondage 148; 'Ingeboekte'
139-41, 147, 165; miscegenation 209;
on opgaafrollen 140; possessing guns
and ammunition 180; reception of
Christianity 235, 248-9, 256, 274, 277;
relations with: colonists 108, 182, 195;
Khoikhoi 152, 182, 210, 279; San 152-3,
210; servants within northern frontier
zone 178-9; status 137-40, 142, 165
'Bastaards' 20-2, 107, 150, 210; in:
Bushmanland 286; Namaqualand 164-8,
201-3; Roggeveld 151-2; alliance with
Khoikhoi and slaves 152; and Afrikaaners
201, 214-16; Cape trading network
281-2; commandos: as members of 111,
119, 137-9, 165; evasion of service 139,
154, 165; and missionaries 240, 250-1,
262; as: pastoral society 15, 286; followers
of Jasper Cloete jun. 209-10; bearing
surnames of fathers 165; colonists'
opinion of 266; government attempts
to regulate 139-40, 193, 203, 205; joined
by colonial Khoikhoi 279; loan farms 165;
northward movement of 136, 139, 165-6,
201; reception of Christianity 235, 248-9,
256, 274, 277; relations with: colonists 22,
286; Tswana 280-1; rights 286; status
137-40, 165,210,279
Bastard, family 194, 217, 280
Bastard, Barend 280
Bastard, Claas 168, 170, 180, 187, 198, 202,
207,212-14
Bastard, Piet 168, 187, 202, 212-14
Baviaans Kloof 238-41, 272
Beer,Gerrit 173-4, 176, 182
Berg River 33-6
Bergh,M.A. 127-8
Beukes, Hendrik 70
Beukes, Johannes 182
Bevernagie, Joost 50, 71
Bezuidenhout, Pieter 180-1, 183
Bleek, DrWilhelm 5, 88, 90, 121, 125, 287
Bletterman, Hendrik 122, 183, 189, 191, 193-8
Bloem, )an 172, 175, 181, 187, 198-9
Biydevooruitzigt mission 213, 240-1, 243-4;
relations with Vigiland 244-5; retreat to
Sak River 244-5
Boer, Adam 167
Bok, Christian 107, 181, 190-1, 194
Bok,Michiel 181, 199-200
Bokkebaas, Capt. 104
Bokkelenberg, Daniel 58, 70, 76-7
Bokkeveld 19-20,62,72-3,76-7,83,171;
commandos 66, 116; droster gangs 152;
Khoikhoi 143, 146, 151, 179, 227; Khoisan
81, 90; San 89; see also Onder Bokkeveld
Bondelswarts (Gaminus) 158, 281-3
Booij,Cobus214-15
Booij,Platje214
Bosman, Isaac the younger 180-2
Bota,Theunis49,68,71-3
Botha, Johannes 211
Botma, Veldkorporaal 145
Botma, Abraham 278-9
Botma, Christiaan 257-9
Botma, Jan 260
Brand, Pieter 182-4
Bresler, Landdrost 222-3
Brink, Carel 160
Brooddis 229
Bruintjies Hoogte 112-13, 133-4, 223
Buijtendag, Carel Hendrik 144
Burchell, William 254
Burger, A.P. 134
Burger, Andries 62, 71, 76
Burger, Willem 189-91, 194-8, 227
Bushman policy: (c.1774) 117-18; (1798)
230-3, 263; (1800) 246; (1804) 259-60
Bushmanland 2, 18,21-2,85-6,113, 159,211,
215; 'Bastaard-Hottentots' moving into
165; 'Bastaards' moving into 165, 286;
drosters 152; Khoikhoi fleeing into 98,
286; Khoisan 90; Little Namaqua 158; San
88, 117, 158-9, 201, 234, 286; battle for
267; closure 246; commandos into 119,
171; environment 175, 242; hunting in
247, 262; missionaries 238, 240-1, 250,
255; rainfall 159, 227; seasonal treks to
and from 98, 158-9, 227, 246
Caledon, Earl Du Pre Alexander 268, 270-1,
274
Caledon Code or Hottentot Proclamation
(1809) 23, 268-75, 279; stipulations
268-9;consequences 269-70
Camdeboo 112-14, 129, 132; abandonment
of 130, 132, 171; General Commando 116,
118-19; loan farms 114; raids 127, 131,
134
Campbell, John 200, 284
Campher, Frans 94
Cape interior 136, 221; Khoisan 87-91; San
90; environment 82-7, 90-2, 108; rainfall
87
Carsten, Veldkorporaal 188
Carstens, Johannes 197
cattle bartering 39-41, 48, 52-4, 60-1, 73, 75,
178; reluctance of Khoikhoi to barter
94-7; with Xhosa 113
Chirigriqua 89
Claas 107
Claas, Cflpt. 168
Claas, Pokkebaas 65, 70
Claasen, Nicolaas 100
Cloete, Jasper 207, 209-10, 229
Cloete, Jasper junior 209-10
Cloeten, Gerrit 33, 35
Cochoqua 19, 31-2, 34-5, 40, 104; raid in
Waveren 36-7
Coetse, Dirk 134
Coetsee, Jan 68
Coetzee, Cornelis 101
Coetzee, Jac 168
Collins, Richard 99, 114, 144-5, 271, 275;
as Caledon's agent in frontier districts
271-3; on Macartney's peace proposals
266; recommendations 271, 273-4, 279
colonial authority 193, 202, 205; and the
General Commando 112-16; attempts to
register 'Bastaards' and Khoikhoi 139-40,
203-5; discomfort about conduct of
commandos 227; limited power in
frontier zone 133, 178; official concern for
rights of Khoikhoi 148-9, 178; trekboers
relying on for support 114; Batavian
259-61; British 221; and Afrikaaners 280,
284; origins of policy towards San and
colonists 221^; power 270, 277
colonial expansion 15, 19, 56, 154, 157,
159-60; after 1739 frontier war 77, 81;
attempts to curb 28; Cochoqua in direct
path of 32; confusion between Khoikhoi
and San groups 57; drosters as cutting
edge of 166; during the Van der Stels'
reigns 27, 30; halting of 81-2, 164; impact
of smallpox epidemic 42-3; impact on:
Khoikhoi 44-5, 54-5, 105, 163; Korana
163; political implications 55, 97; reasons
for 44, 59-60; see also Khoisan resistance
to colonial expansion
colonial frontier, advance of 16, 19, 21-2,
82-3, 112; retreat of 130, 135; end of 114,
144
colonists 81, 222, 231, 262; and Caledon Code
268-70; as makers of own myths 6-7;
collaboration with Cochoqua 104;
commando service 68-9; documents by as
sources of information 2-3; droster gangs
preying off 166; employing Khoikhoi 47,
88, 92-5, 99, 111-12, 149-50; breach of
contract 45-6; government control 233,
270, 276; guns and horses as preserve of
111; in Namaqualand 157, 160, 208-10;
intermarriage with Namaqua 164-5;
labour crisis as source of discontent 269,
277; livestock: bartering 180-1; holdings,
decline in 91; theft by and from 93,
123-4, 157, 262; missionaries: acceptance
of 238, 240, 244, 277; hostility towards
239, 241, 264-6, 274, 276-8; opinion of:
Khoikhoi 123; San 121, 123, 222, 242; race
attitudes of 11; relations with: 'Bastaard-
Hottentots' 108, 182; Khoikhoi 93-4, 182,
208, 275, 277; Khoikhoi servants 97, 127,
143-4; Khoisan 6, 108, 133; San 123^1,
134,158,210,221-2,232,235,262,
271-2, 275, 286; Xhosa 133; restrictions
on movements 185, 246, 264; rights 270,
286; settling on other side of Orange
River 180; see also frontier colonists/
farmers; trekboers
commandos 3-4, 110, 142, 194, 247; 1715 first
burgher affair 50-1, 57; (1728-31) 58, 60;
(1739) 65-7, 68-9, 71-3, 73-5; (1740-54)
78, 92-3; (1755-70) 82, 98-9, 107;
(1771-2) 101, 104-5; 1774 see General
Commando of 1774; (after 1774) 112-22,
123-7,131,134;(1776)128,131;
(1777-88)134-7;(1789-98)152-3,180,
188,201-2,224-7;(1799-1801)152,207,
211; (1811) 282; (1861) 286-7;'Bastaard-
Hottentots': as members 111, 136-8, 165;
evasion of service 154; refusal to partici-
pate 140; 'Bastaards' as members 111,119,
137-9, 165, 207; Khoikhoi: as members
66-8,71,73,94, 101, 111, 118-19, 124,
131, 137-9, 144, 197, 207; evasion of
service by 'Bastaards' and Khoikhoi 139,
154, 166, 170; San: assisting on 232; effect
on 117-24; male prisoners 121-2, 126;
treatment of 225, 227; and: pastoralism
108-12; unfree labour 137-42, 145, 153;
as premier political institution of frontier
78, 82, 107-8,111-12,139;capture of
women and children 60, 72; colonists
reluctant to join 68-9, 71, 76, 92-3, 116,
128-30,134,136-7,170,188, 196-8,
200, 214-15; functions 110-11, 117-18;
impact on trekboers 16, 172; leaders 110,
115-16; number of captives taken 117,
119, 126-7; Oorlams' knowledge of 167;
payment for capture of thieves 189; power
of 110-12, 115; racial attitudes 137, 140;
reports 132; role in: determining status of
frontier societies 112; trekboer economy
76, 108; servants as substitutes 131, 134,
137; shortage of ammunition 128-9,
131, 136, 188, 194, 197; transforming
power 112
Constapel 149-50
Coort, Martinus 241
Coridon 97
Council of Justice 4, 63, 106, 268; Visagie
affair 183-5
Council of Policy 48, 54, 59, 65, 189-90, 191,
225, 261; cases in: (1738) 61-2; (1739) 68,
73;(1772)106;(1776)129;(1793) 195;
and rights of Khoikhoi 143; passes for
'Bastaard-Hottentots' 139
Counitz, Carel Christoffel 63-4, 70, 73, 76
Courage 226
Courakakoup 255
Craaij, Andries and wife 202-8, 253
Cradock, Sir John 274
Craig, General 202, 221-2
Cupido 102-3, 107
Danser (Khoi servant) 97, 102-3, 105
Danser (San leader) 234
Danster 211-13, 216, 229-30
De Beer, Augustus Lodewyk 99, 102
De Beer, Johannes 93-4
De Bruyn, Pieter 63, 76-7
De Chavonnes, M.P. 49, 53
De Klerk, Jacob 128
De Kok, Cornelis 265
De la Fontaine, Jan 54
DeVilliers, Commandant 135
Debes, Hendrik 72
Dede, Daniel 37-8
desertion 107, 139-40, 148-9, 152
Diaikwain 287
Dideriks, Jan Otto 97
Dirks, Jan 46-7
Ditmar, Michiel 33
Donderstad, Godfried 36-8
Doom River 73, 77
Dorha, Copt. 28-9
Dragonder, Anthonie 77
Drakenstein 13, 27, 43
Drayer, Hans 282
Dronke Gerrit 40
drosters 13, 20-1, 54, 165; and Oorlams 167,
178; gangs 152, 166; in Namaqualand
165-6
Duikerpens 93
Duminy, Capt. 186
Dundas, F. 205, 211, 238, 240, 256
eastern frontier 12-13, 16, 98, 133, 135, 196,
274; appointment of commandant (1780)
134-5; boundaries 233; British peace
policy 221; establishment of 125-33;
insecurity 222, 265; missionaries to 237;
San: British policy towards 224; resistance
135,221-2
Ebner, Johan and wife 284
Edmond, John 237-8, 240
Edwards, William 237-8, 240-1, 243, 245, 252,
281
Einiqua 159—64, 282; and missionaries 250-2;
attached to Oorlam groups 285-6;
dealings with San 158, 161-2; language
160-1; relations with: Great Namaqua
159, 281; Little Namaqua 158-9; swept
eastwards by Afrikaaners 215; see also
Namnykoa
Eksteen, Michiel 183
Engelbrecht, Gert 173, 176
Engelbrecht, Jacobus 210
Engelbrecht, Jan 71
Engelbrecht, Jan 205-6
Engelbrecht, Paul 173-4, 176
environmental frontier 21, 82, 84, 90-1, 233
Erasmus, Widow 137
Esterhuisen, Matthias 180-3
evangelical Christianity 217, 235, 238-40, 249,
251,257
Eyland, Klyn Piet 173-4, 176
Faber, Johan Jurgen 101-2, 106
Faber, Lucas Sigismond 104, 107
Feyerabendt, Jan D. 43, 48-9, 53
Fish River 112-13, 133, 135, 158, 185
Fix 102, 105-6
Fluik, Jaco 286-7
Fortuin, Willem 243-4
Foucault, Michel 7
Fouche, Leo 10
free burghers 27, 30; and Khoikhoi 39-41, 46;
blamed for Khoisan resistance 38-9;
livestock trade: permission for 29, 31,
159-60; prohibition of 28-9, 54, 56; with
Khoikhoi 28-9, 31, 41, 53
frontier colonists/farmers 114-15, 141; and:
Khoikhoi 145, 150-1; Khoisan 108, 153;
San 230, 273; servants 148, 178;
commando duty causing discontent 172;
hymn-singing 235; mission stations and
missionaries 246, 257, 264-5; racial
attitudes 64, 127, 137, 153, 174, 177;
resentment of Caledon Code 270; rural
rebellion and social banditry 55, 63, 65,
77; seasonal treks to Orange River 187;
Van der Graaf's tour to investigate 275;
see also colonists; trekboers
frontier thesis 9-14
frontier war: (1739) 65-71, 143;
destabilisation of Khoisan groups 89-90;
origins 56-64; pacification 71-8; (c.1774)
112,132,135;(1799) 221
frontier zones 14-15, 23, 55, 133, 221;
government control 78, 178, 221, 233, 259
Frykenius, S.H. 184
Gal 61,63-4, 76
Gannema 32
Gei-//Khaum 158, 192
General Commando (1774) 123, 138; and
colonial authority 112-16; 'Bastaards' and
'Bastaard-Hottentots' as members 138-9;
captives taken 117, 119; casualty list 117,
119, 122-3; failure of 125-6; instructions
117-19, 230; leaders 115-16; operational
methods 119-20; preparations for
117-18, 137; role in: defining status
of non-European subjects 140, 238;
encouraging violence against Khoikhoi
144; routes taken 118-19
Gibbelaas, Jan 73-5
Gildenhuys, Jacobus 93
Gockelius, Nicolaas 54
Goedhart 234,260-3
Goedonsie 192
Goejeman, Barend 205
gold north of the Orange River 184—6
Gonaqua 53-4
Gonnema 49
Gordon, Colonel Robert Jacob 83-4, 86, 125,
129-30, 132-3, 158, 162^1, 168, 170,
187,232
Gous,Andries 149-50, 197
Gous, Hannes149-50, 197
Gouws, Jantjie 181-2
Graaff-Reinet 133, 135, 221-3, 226, 234, 264,
266
grazing 95, 108; availability of 82-5, 159, 179,
185, 204, 208, 246, 264, 283; competition
for 157, 228; control by commando
leaders 110-11
Great Namaqua 48, 157-8, 168, 180, 254;
(1738) illegal expedition to 60-1, 178,
182; at mission stations 281-2; com-
plaints leading to revolt (1798) 208; raids
on 182, 192, 215; relations with: Einiqua
159; Kaukoa 161; San 158
Great Namaqualand 22, 180, 208, 277, 280-1
Great Trek 10, 13, 286
Grey, George 274
Griego, Capt. 37
Grigriqua 34-6, 40, 57, 157; as nucleus of
Griqua 157, 167; relations with Namaqua
157-8
Griqua 157, 167, 280
Groene Kloof 36, 38, 54, 73
Groot Doode (Ogeis) 282
Groot Kraal 213,240,244, 246
Grootvogel, Capt. 167
guns and ammunition 199; and: Afrikaaners
190,193,198, 210,214,217,282 ; Petrus
Pienaar 193, 198; supply to natives for-
bidden 189, 203, 229; in possession of:
'Bastaard-Hottentots' 180-1; 'Bastaards'
201, 280-1; Bastard family 217; Khoikhoi
181, 192, 201, 203-5, 225; Kok family 181,
217, 280; Oorlams 202, 205; San 222, 225,
234; Viermuis and his followers 283;
Xhoas 229
Gyzikoa 162-3
Hacqua, Capt. 99
Hanekom, Jurgen 57-61, 71
Hannibal, Claas 89
Hantam 16,19,73,77,84,87,98-9,112,
170-1, 273; 'Bastaards' and Khoikhoi
leaving for Orange River 172; Khoisan
resistance 21, 107, 180, 199; San resistance
114, 171-2, 188, 191, 197-8, 235-6;
abandonment of 171, 186, 188, 190-1;
and the Van Zijis 170-8; availability of
water and grazing 85, 172; commandos
116, 180; crisis: (1786) 172; (1790) 187-8,
190; farmers 170-1; loan farms 85, 172;
non-white farm labourers 170; peace
initiative 233-4; Petrus Pienaar as
spokesman for 187; raids by Afrikaaners
210
Hartogh,Jan39,41
Heins, Daniel 28-9
Heirachabis mission 281-2
Herero 192, 285
Hermanns, Capt. 94
Hex River 49, 150-1
Hiewers, Hendrik 204-5
Hilbrand, Marten 58
Hop, Hendrik 160
Hottentot Corps 193
Hottentot Proclamation see Caledon Code
Huising, Henning 36
hunter-gatherers 21, 82, 88, 90, 121, 248
hunting by colonists 172, 197, 208, 261;
Adriaan van Ziji's 1786 party 173-5;
damage to San's lifestyle 235; licences
required 233, 246; expedition for gold in
Namibia 186; unregulated 228, 262, 264
Jaager, Capt. 71
Jacobs, Andries 99
Jacobs, Pieter 104-5, 116, 145-6
Jacobs, Stephanus 146
Jakhals Vlei 48-9
Jansen, Cornelis 265
Janssens, General J.W. 260-1, 263
Jantje (Khoi youth) 146-7
Jantje, Cupido 149
Januarie (slave) 103-4, 106
Jas 100-1
Jooste, Pieter 147
Joubert, Gideon 104
Joubert, Jacob 101
Joubert, Peter 198
Joubert, Piet 195
Joubert, Pieter 49
Jurgen, Capt. 93-4
Kamiesberg 19, 22, 159, 273, 282; colonists 81,
158, 207-8, 210; Little Namaqua 158; San
attack 202-3; Van der Graaf's visit 277-9
Kamijs, Kupido 205, 208
Kamijs, Witteboij 205, 208
Kareeberg 136, 224-6, 234, 286
Karsten,Paul 171, 173
Karstens, Johannes 153, 201
Kaukoa 161-2
Kaymap 208
Kees, Capt. 35, 37
Kees, Capt. 104-5, 138, 150, 195-7
Kees, Klaas 195
Kendelaar, Capt. 158
Keyser61,74,89
Khoikhoi 8-9, 150, 195; along Orange River
88, 126, 182, 208; in: Bokkeveld 227;
Bushmanland 286; eastern Cape 151;
Klein Namaqualand 275; Namaqualand
201-3, 205-6, 210; Roggeveld 91, 94;
south-western Cape 32, 163; abuse of 11,
143-4,146-9,151,197, 201,270; and:
Caledon Code 268-70; Company 32, 35,
93, 95-6; supplying livestock to 27-9, 39,
52-3; guns and ammunition 189, 201,
203-5; missionaries and mission stations
239-41, 244, 257, 274, 277; trekboers 44,
94, 96; as: servants to trekboers 47-8, 96,
128, 178-9, 204, 227; deserting to San
resisters 127, 152-3, 227; unfree labour
141-2, 152, 269-70; commandos 35, 110;
evasion of service 139, 154, 166; serving
in 66-8,71,73,94,101,118-19,124,131,
137-8, 144; competition for Khoi labour
98, 145, 148; drosters preying off 166;
early European images of 6; entering
colonists' service 13, 44-5, 47, 55, 58, 88,
92-9, 111-12, 143, 149-50; alliances with
other groups 152; allowed to keep own
livestock 94-7; and breach of contract
45-6; desertion 148-9, 152-3; disad-
vantage of non-slave status 147-8;
inability to leave after expiry of contract
144-7; increasing resistance to bondage
148, 150-2; maltreatment of 97, 143-4,
146-9, 151, 197, 227; payment for work
143-4, 152; restriction of freedom of
movement 145-7, 149; followers of Jan
Bloem 198; government control over 140,
203—6, 270; impact of colonial expansion
32,44,97,109,163,231; joining Orange
River Oorlam groups 201, 279; land as
communal property 43; livestock trade
with free burghers 28-9, 31, 41, 53;
northward movement away from
colonists 139, 166, 201, 279; opinion
of colonists on 123, 266; passes for 140,
268, 274; pastoral production by 11, 15,
108-10, 143; raiding by pre-colonial 109;
rebellion in eastern Cape (1799) 151-3;
reception of Christianity 235, 248-9,
256-7, 274, 277; refusal to register names
203; relations with: 'Bastaard-Hottentots'
152, 182, 210; colonists 93-5, 111, 182,
194, 275, 277, 286; Little Namaqua 157;
Namnykoa 161; San 18, 34, 52, 57, 88-90,
126, 136, 152-3,161,179,210,225;
rights/lack of 4, 46, 97, 140, 143, 148-50,
178, 201, 270, 285; seasonal treks 84, 179;
status 137-8,140,145,149-50,164-5,
206, 269, 279; uprisings by colonial
Khoikhoi 211, 221; wary of colonial
fugitives 166; women marrying white
farmers in Namaqualand 164-5; see also
'Bastaard-Hottentots'; Cochoqua;
Einiqua; Peninsular Khoikhoi
Khoikhoi-Dutch wars 32
Khoikhoi-Oorlam conspiracy 195-7
Khoisan 5, 8-9, 38; along Orange River 22,
164, 178, 281; at Kareeberg 225; in:
Bokkeveld 72-3; Hantam 180, 199;
Nieuweveld 226; Roggeveld 91-9;
Sandveld 57; of Cape interior 87-91;
advantages oftrekboers over 111; colonial
attempts to restrict freedom 193; as
servants to colonists 60, 227; collabor-
ation with frontier trekboers 58-9;
destabilised by 1739 frontier war 89-90;
fighting against trekboers 19-21, 55, 101,
108; impact of commandos on 111;
influence of: Company 55; droster gangs
166; missionaries 22; Oorlams 167, 169;
livestock theft by 35-6, 53, 60, 101, 225-6;
relations with: 'Bastaards' 22; colonists
108,133,153
Khoisan resistance to colonial expansion 13,
19-21,31,36-7,56,107,127,165,171;
(1700-8) 31, 33, 38-9; (1712-16) 48-51,
55, 57; (1731-38) 60, 62; (1739) 59-60,
62,65,72-3,81; (1740-72) 81-2,86, 112,
114; (1774)114;(1776)127-9,131;
(1777-89)135,171
Kicherer, Johannes 237-8, 240-1, 243, 257,
265-6; and: San 241-4; Stephanos 250,
253-4; as minister at Graaff-Reinet 264,
266; at Sak River 248-9, 255-9, 263-4;
blamed for mission's failure 264; Collins's
impression of 272—3; journey to Orange
River 249-55, 280; relations with Vigiland
245-6; support of farmers 257
Kiewit, Kiewit 191-2
Klein Namaqua 38, 275
Klein Roggeveld 85, 87, 93-4, 116, 118
Kleyn Booij 102-3, 105-6
Kleyn Dirk 103, 105-6
Klijne Capitein, de 37
Klynveld 97
Knoega, Klaas 205, 208
Koekemoer, Jochem 67-8
Koerikei 132
Koetse, Cornelius 137, 152
Kok, family 194, 217 253-4, 279-80
Kok, Adam I 167-8, 180-1, 206, 280
Kok, Adam II 216
Kok, Cornelis 167-8, 180, 189, 206-7, 212-16,
252-3,278-9,281
Kok, Jan Matthys 251-2, 281
Kok, Solomon 167-8, 185
Kok, Sebastiaan 278
Komaggas 209-10
Koopman, Capt. 37-8, 41
Korana 215-16, 228, 249, 285-7
Koup, the 87, 136, 226, 273; Khoisan
resistance 101, 113, 127; San 225;
abandonment of 130,136-7, 171, 225;
General Commando 116, 118-19;
re-occupation (1793) 136-7
Kramer, Cornelis 241, 245, 249-50, 255, 257,
280
Kromme Ruijter 102-3, 105
Krugel, Hendrik 89, 128
Kruger, Carel 136
Kruger, Hendrik 61, 66-7, 70, 77
Kruger, Jacob 153, 240-1, 256, 260
Kruywagen, Johannes 54, 66-70, 76
Kurib, Capt. 209-10
Kuyper, Capt. 37-8
Kwankwa, Gerrit 205-6
Lammertsz, Lammert 51
land 81, 108-9, 129; difficulty in acquiring
165, 172, 202, 279; increasing disputes
275,279
Land van Waveren 30-1, 33; invasion of by
colonists 31-2, 34, 160; Khoikhoi 31-3,
41; Khoisan theft of livestock 33, 36, 50;
San raid (1715) 49-50; military post
38,41
LangeVlei71,73,76-7
Laubscher, N. 167
Le Vaillant, Francois 187
Legassick, Martin 10-12
legplaatse 83, 85-7, 94, 172, 180-1
Leiiefontein 277-8, 282
Lichtenstein, H. 212, 252, 258-63, 266, 275
Links, family/group 174-5
Links, Capt. 208, 278
Links, Cupido 181-3
Links, Kleyn Jantje 103, 106
Links, Oude 181-3
Links, Oude Jantje 101-3, 105-7
Little Namaqua 48, 52, 54, 157, 159-60, 203-4;
and: Grigriqua 157; Seidenfaden 277;
attacks 61, 67, 73, 75; impact of Oorlams
167; relations with: Einiqua 158-9;
Khoikhoi 157; San 48, 157-8, 160;
seasonal treks 158
Little Namaqualand 160, 203-4, 206, 210, 277,
281
livestock: bartering 61, 63, 93-6; by: colonists
157; free burghers 37, 39-40; Khoikhoi
33; San 35, 123-4,131, 134-6; Ubiquase
33; trade: opening of 31, 38-41, 159-60;
closure of 54, 56, 76, 113
Lloyd, Lucy 5, 88, 90, 121, 125, 287
loan farms 16-17, 42-4, 48, 69, 135, 165, 185,
279; along Orange River 172, 187; close to
Company's pastures 59-60; in: Camdeboo
114; Hantam 85, 172; Namaqualand 160,
203; Nieuweveld 98; Olifants River valley
56; Roggeveld 81, 85, 98; Sneeuberg
district 114; impact of 1739 frontier war
77; inability to pay rent 131; supervision
of by others 58-9; trek-oxen as payment
for 59
London Missionary Society (LMS) 236, 237-9,
241-3, 257, 274; and Batavian authorities
261; dissatisfaction with LMS mission-
aries 274, 282-3; mission to the San 252,
255, 263-4; success story of Jager
Afrikaaner 284-5
Louis, Capt. 279
Lourens, Augustus 62
Lourensz, Landdrost 58, 60, 62-4, 73, 76-7
Louw, family 99, 103-4
Louw, Adriaan 99
Louw,J.A. 130
Louw, Jacobus 58, 62, 105
Louw, Jacobus Gideon 206, 211,215, 232-3
Louw, Jan 58
Louw, Leendert 58, 65, 67-8
Louw, Johannes 68, 92
Lower Orange River 157-60, 282
Lubbe, Barend 70-1, 92, 152
Lubbe, Frans 200-1
Lubbe, Johannes 195
Lynae, Oude Michiel and Freyn 198
Macartney, Earl G. Ill, 224, 228, 235, 266;
proclamation on San policy 230-3, 246,
270-3
Marais, J.S. 269-70
Marais, Zarel 128
Maritz, Frans 244
Maritz, Gerrit 137, 149, 151-3, 212-14, 224-7,
245-6, 256-7; antagonism towards Floris
Visser 229-30, 247-8, 255, 261-2
Martens, Jan 93-4
Mattroos, Jantje 145-6
meat supply 52-5, 129
Mentz, Joachim Frederik 96-7
Mentzel, O.F. 74-5, 84
Meyburg,RA. 196
Meyer, G. 209
Meyer, O.A.S. 265
Meyer, Philip 71
Michiel, Jan 198
Middle Orange River 160-4, 169, 198, 280-1;
Afrikaaners' dominance of 199, 215, 280;
San 161-2
Middle Roggeveld 85-7, 116, 118, 148-9, 247,
261-2
Mijner, Dauwijs 249
millenarian movements 150—1
mission stations 267, 277; at Riviersonderend
151; in: Great Namaqualand 280-3;
Kareeberg 286; attack on Pella 282-3;
established to pacify northern frontier
272-4; interference with labour supply
277; location and regulation 274, 276;
see also Rietfontein, Sak River
missionaries 4, 217, 235, 238-40, 246, 248,
277; at Orange River 279-87; attitude of
Batavian government towards 259;
influence on peace 276; political role 23,
238, 240, 246, 267, 285; relations with
colonists; acceptance 240, 244; hostility
239,241,265-6,274,276-8
Model, Matthias 172
Modeman, Frederick Sigmond 94
Moffat, Robert 200, 248
Moodie, D. 88-9
Mos, Gerrit 62
Mostert, Jacob 50
Mostert, Johannes 65
Mostert, Tobias 67-8; Widow 65
Muller, Nicolaas 99, 101-5
Multingh, Casper 33
Nama 281-2, 285-6
Namaqua 34-5, 157-61, 216, 284; 1738-9
fighting 63, 75, 160; 1799 uprisings 209;
addiction to brandy 208; and: colonists;
encroachment of 160; intermarriage with
164-5; trade with 180; missionaries at
Rietfontein 250-1; living and sharing with
white farmers 201-2; relations with:
Grigriqua 157-8; San 158-9, 161-2, 167,
208-10; trade with Khoikhoi and
'Bastaards' 166
Namaqua, Piet 173-4
Namaqualand 2, 19, 22, 73, 84, 143, 157-60,
201-2; 'Bastaard-Hottentots' moving
there 165, 201; 'Bastaards' moving there
136, 139, 154, 165, 201-2; Khoikhoi 151,
201-3; Khoisan 154, 167; Oorlams 167,
201-3; rebels 205-6; San 202, 228; white
farmers 160, 201-3, 206-7, 209; closing of
frontier 165; environment 159, 204; fluid
nature of social relationships in 167; loan
farms 160, 203; miscegenation 164-6, 209;
rainfall 19; revolt in 201-10; Van der
Graaf's tour 276
Namaqualand revolt (1798-99) 201-10;
origins of 202-5, 208, 210; rebels'
complaints 206; peace initiative 207-9;
further outbreaks of violence 209-10
Namib, Links 205
Namnykoa 161-2, 173-4
natural resources 81, 109, 137, 280;
competition for 82, 98, 105, 108, 144, 158,
179, 208, 261; deterioration of 86, 97-8,
108, 129-30, 228; impact of drought and
overgrazing 59-60
Nederburgh, S.C. 184
Nel, Jacobus 195-6, 227
Nel, Willem Adriaan 122, 171-2, 176-8,
179-80; challenged by Petrus Pienaar
187-9
Nieuweveld district 13, 19, 21, 84, 87, 273;
Khoisan resistance to trekboers 21,87,
113, 127-8, 226; San raids 136;
abandonment of 128, 136, 225;
commandos 101, 116, 118-19,226;
environment 87, 91, 226; loan farms 98;
tensions and turmoil 135, 252
Nieuwoud, Tilman 200
Noodt, P.G. 58-60
north-eastern frontier zone 112-14, 131, 135;
abandonment of farms 222; boundary
133; end of expansion 154, 171; Gordon's
visit 132-3
north-western frontier zone 185, 224;
'Bastaards' 164-8; drosters 165-6;
Oorlams 166-9; abandoned by
missionaries 282-3; closing of frontier
165; lawlessness and insecurity 180—2;
miscegenation 164—5; trade between
Namaqua, 'Bastaards' and Khoikhoi 166;
trekboer expansion 111, 154
northern frontier zone 2-4, 11-15, 19, 110,
133, 135,171, 189,221-2,224-5,246,
262; alliances between Khoikhoi,
'Bastaard-Hottentots'and San 152;
appointment of commandant (1780)
134-5; boundaries 224, 233, 259, 279;
closure of 16, 18, 23, 81-2, 110, 274, 276,
279, 284; commandos 78, 112, 171, 194,
199, 247; creation 27, 285; environment
19, 107; fear of independent Khoikhoi or
'Bastaard-Hottentot' groups 195; frontier
on the retreat 135; General Commando
112, 114; government control 69, 77,
95-6, 274-5; hostilities 98, 107, 137, 144,
186, 189, 203; inequalities in 110;
insecurity 265; influence of Cape Town
market 285; labourers and servants 62-3,
97-8, 107, 178-9, 227; land and labour in
41-8, 110-11, 279; load farms 114, 187;
military posts 38, 49, 51, 68; missionaries
and mission stations 217, 272-4; open
frontier stage 17; pastoral societies in
15-17; Petrus Pienaar 190, 193;
population density 81; relations between:
colonists and San 275; trekboers and
Khoikhoi labourers 47-8; seasonal treks
84; slave relations 110, 141; unfree labour
140-1, 148, 152, 285; veldwachtmeesters
3, 178, 194; see also commandos; General
Commando of 1774
Nuncquinqua 173-4
Oedasoa 32
Olifants River 48, 62, 68, 116, 130, 150; 1739
resistance 70, 73, 77; colonisation of 56,
60; competition for resources 60, 157
Olivier, J.S. 264
Ollsen, Pieter 260
Onder Bokkeveld 56, 73, 77, 83-5, 96, 116,
232,273
Onder Karoo 21, 82-3, 86
Onder Roggeveld 85-6, 96, 128
Oorlams 13, 22, 151, 166-9, 195, 201; along
Orange River 22,152,167,178-9,254,
267, 279; and: Stephanos 252-3;
missionaries 22-3, 279-87; in: Great
Namaqualand 281-2; Namaqualand
201-3, 205, 210; and drosters 152, 167;
Christianity 254, 267, 284; conflict with
Nama 282; cultural conflicts 284; impact
on: Khoisan 167, 169; Little Namaqua
167; joining Afrikaaner gang 201; multi-
ethnic identity 285-6; possession of guns
202, 205, 207; rebels 205-6, 208; status
285-6
Oortman 182
opgaafrollen91, 140
Opperman, Rudolph Gottlieb 93-4, 125-8;
as leader of General Commando 115,
119-20
Orange River 2,19,22,40,159-60,208,279;
'Bastaards' and 'Bastaard-Hottentotts'
moving to 154, 165, 178, 182; Grigriqua
157; Khoikhoi 88,126,172, 178, 182;
Khoisan 154, 167, 178; Oorlam groups
152,167,178, 279-87; and Stephanos
252-3, 254, 267; Afrikaaners' raids 215;
as: asylum for colonial outcasts 212;
haven of opportunity 166; attacks by
colonial parties on riverine societies 61,
174-5, 178; Barrow's visit 223; first
recorded European expedition 60-1; fluid
society 182; hunter groups 172-5; illegal
livestock raids 189; insecurity 179, 180-2,
228; Jan Bloem as disruptive force 198;
Kicherer's journey to 249-55; loan farms
172, 187; missionaries at 279-87
Orlam 234-6, 245
Oubaas 93
Oude Wildschutteboeken 17, 42, 44
Overberg 150-1
Overny, Jacobus 48, 57
Owies, Gerrit the elder 207-8
Pampier, Dirk 260
Parel, Jan ('Onse Liewe Heer') 150-1
Passagie, Pieter 38
pastoral production 11, 15, 94, 108-9, 231;
grazing licences beyond Berg River 30-1;
influence of environment 18-19
pastoralism and pastoralists 15-17, 82, 108-9,
121, 231; commando system and 108-12;
employment of Khoikhoi by colonists
44-5; importance of access to natural
resources 21, 82-3, 85, 87; nomadic
108-10
Paterson, William 184-5, 187
Pella 159,281-4
Peninsular Khoikhoi 32, 34-5
Philip, Dr John 269-70
Pienaar, Abel 58
Pienaar, Barend 145-6
Pienaar, Jan 58
Pienaar, Petrus 168, 170, 172, 175, 181, 187-9,
190-1, 194, 197, 199; and: Afrikaaners
187-201; Jan Bloem 198; as: commander
of northern frontier 190, 193; veldwacht-
meester 197-200; impact of his murder
202; seasonal trek to Orange River 187;
trading 187; using Klaas Afrikaaner
189-91,193-4
Pieterse, Piet 145-6
Pietersz, Jan 37
Piketberg41-3,77
Platje 234-6
Plato, Capt. 61,64
Poetsjinelle 49-50
Pokkebaas, Donderbos 181, 189, 191-2, 194-5
Portugies, Capt. 33, 36
Potgieter, Hans Jurgen 60
Potgieter, Jan Harmse 49-50
Pretorius, Wessel 147
Pretorius, Willem Sterrenberg 146
primitive accumulation 14, 111
Putter, G. 135-6
racial attitudes 11; of frontier colonists 64,
137,153,166, 174,177; gained on
commando 137, 140
Rasmus, Philip 146
Reebok, Jantje and Mary 103, 107
Rhenius, Ensign 52-3
Rhenius, I.I. 184
Ricoeur, Paul 1, 8
Riebeek-Kasteel 33, 35, 37-8
Rietfontein 250-1,255
Riviersonderend 150-1, 195, 239
Roggeveld 2, 13, 16, 19, 21, 73,77,82-4,87,
112, 143, 186, 246, 273; 'Bastaards' 151-2;
Khoisan 87, 90, 224; resistance 21, 113,
128; trekboers' impact on 91-9; Khoikhoi
88-9, 91, 151, 224; labourers 143, 146;
Korana entering 228; San 98-9, 125, 136,
234; resistance 114, 125, 137, 227, 262;
abandonment of farms 171; availability of
water and grazing 86, 95; commandos
92-3,98,104-5,136-7,152-3,188;
deserters 153; livestock theft 224; loan
farms 81, 85, 98; missionaries in 241;
rainfall 19; resistance 224-36; seasonal
treks 262; see also Onder Bokkeveld
Roggeveld Rebellion (1772) 99-107; rumour
as trigger 99-102, 106; Teutman murders
102-4
Roggevelt, Cupido 169
Roman 94
Roodezand 71; colonists reluctant to join
commandos 68-9, 71, 76; Dutch
Reformed Church 238-9, 256-7
Rossouw, Pieter 50
Roussouw, Gideon 215
Ruijter (San leader) 234, 237-8
Ruyter (Khoi servant) 173-7
Sak River 118-20, 127, 190, 259-60; mission:
Biydevooruitzigt's withdrawal to 244-6,
248; second phase of mission 255-9;
under Botma 257-8; end of mission
259—67; Collins's impression of 272-3;
Khoikhoi flocking to 256-7; San attacks
262, 264; Van der Graaf's visit 275
San 8-9, 134, 201; along Seekoei River 126;
beyond Sak River 21, 88-9; in:
Bushmanland 117; Hantam 114, 171-2,
188, 191, 197-8, 235-6; Namaqualand
202, 208, 210; Roggeveld 98, 227-8;
Sneeuberg district 90, 113-14, 118, 120,
126, 130, 132, 134, 286; the Koup 225; of:
Cape interior 90; Middle Orange River
160-4; and: Afrikaaners 190, 211, 213;
missionaries 237, 240-1, 243, 245-6,
248-9, 250-1, 262; trekboers 10, 44, 117,
122-3, 264; as: captives 121-2, 126, 140-1,
227; unfree labour 141; attached to
Oorlam groups 285-6; attempt to prevent
extirpation 189-90; coming to terms with
pastoralists 158; commandos: against 126,
135-6, 211, 222-7, 286-7; assisting
colonists on 232; effect on 112, 117-23;
General Commando 119-20, 123, 144;
treatment by 225; deterioration of
resources 228, 262, 264; Europeans' view
of 6,153-4,224,232,237,241-3;
followers of Jan Bloem 198; government
proclamation (1798) 230-3; guerrilla
tactics 124-5; hunting of cattle and sheep
18; impact of competition for resources
98, 227-8, 235; interaction with Khoikhoi
18, 57, 90, 126, 153, 161; joining Korana
uprising 287; land as communal property
43; livestock theft by 16, 35, 37-8, 49-52,
58, 62, 101, 118, 123-4, 131, 134-6, 171,
225-7, 262-4, 272, 287; men fighting till
death 119-21; narratives 5, 120-1, 125,
287; night attacks by 136; opinion of
colonists on 123; origins of British policy
towards 221-4; possessing guns 222, 225,
234; reception of Christianity 244, 248,
256, 259, 266, 274, 278-9; relations with:
'Bastaard-Hottentots' 152-3, 210, 266;
Bondelswarts 158; colonists 89, 99, 221-2,
259,271-2,275, 286; Khoikhoi 88-9,136,
152, 179, 210, 225, 266; Little Namaqua
48, 157, 160; Namaqua 158-9, 167, 208-9;
Namnykoa 161; Xhosa 121, 212; resistance
to colonial expansion 32, 92-3, 98, 221-2;
(after 1770) 98, 119-20, 123-7, 136-7,
172, 179, 202, 210, 270; sense of group
identity 90-1; status 140, 165; taste for
tobacco 89, 241, 244, 250, 255, 265, 272;
working for colonists 89, 235
Sandveld 2, 13, 19, 56-7; Khoisan 57, 77, 81;
San 157-8; competition for resources 60,
157; livestock theft in 57-8; used for
grazing by Little Namaqua and Namaqua
157,159
Sasse, Ambrosius 35-6
Schapewagter, Jantjie 181-2
Schmidt, Georg 239
Schoemacher, Volkert 172
Scholtz, Hermanus 149
Scholtz, Jacobus 245-6, 248-50, 255-7
Scholtz, Jochem junior 149, 229
Scholtz, Jochem senior 100
Schreuder, Jan 95
Scipio, Capt. 41
seasonal treks 83-7, 158-9, 233, 262
Seidenfaden, Johannes 277-8, 280-3
slaves and slavery 112, 140-1, 152-4; abolition
of trade in 269-70, 277; and missionaries
240; ban on enslaving Khoikhoi and San
141; baptism of children 238; deserters
139_40, 152, 166; killed in Khoisan
attacks 128; more valuable than Khoi
servants 147-8; San as 122
Slotsboo,Lieut.41,43,48
Sluysken, A.J. 196-7
smallpox; 1713 epidemic 42-3, 55, 157; 1724
52; amongst BaTlhaping 162
Smit 96
Smit, Gerrit 207
Smit, N. 226
Sneeuberg district 13-14, 90-1, 113, 128,
131-3, 135, 273; abandonment of 126,
128-9, 132-4, 171; Barrow's visit 223;
commandos 116, 118-19, 131, 171;
loan farms 114; San 90, 113-14, 120,
126-7, 130, 132, 134, 221-2, 286
Snyman, Gerrit 256
Snyman, Philip 137, 179
Somerville, William 215-16, 252, 280
Sonqua 49
Sonquas Drift 38, 43
Sotho-Tswana 198, 285
South African Missionary Society 239, 241,252
south-western Cape 19, 30, 32, 44, 56, 111,
130,163
Spangenberg, Frederik 149-50
Spanser 102-3, 107
Springveld 102-3, 107
Starrenburg, Johannes 39-41
Steenkamp, Willem 103, 116, 128, 135-6,
146-7,166
Stellenbosch 3-4, 27, 128, 140, 228, 259;
landdrost of 2-3,92,136,139, 167, 244;
and: Cornelis Kok 180-1; Visagie 182;
commandos 50-1, 65-6, 68; complaints
by Khoi labourers 148-9
Stephanos 250-4
Stockenstrom, Andries 147-8
Stoffel 173-4
Straus, David Frederik 176, 199
Swaarte Ruggens 127
Swartebooij (Danster's emissary) 229
Swartbooij (Khoisan leader) 59-62, 64-7,
73-5
Swartenberg 116, 126-8, 136
Swellendam 128, 151, 201, 239; burgher
rebellion 221; drostdy 150-1, 196;
landdrost 139, 143, 197
Swellengrebel, H. 64, 68-70, 73
SwyEi90-l, 114, 164
Tarka district 221-3, 273
Taus, Daniel 35
Terblanche, Etienne 37
Teutman, Johan Hendrik and wife 99, 102-5
Theron, )acobus 68
Theron, Lodewyk Jacobus 101-2
Theron, Petrus Lodewicus 179
Thunberg, C.P. 98, 105-6, 141-2
Thys 99-101, 104, 106-7
Tieltias,Jan210
Titus (Charmant) 59-62, 64-7, 73-7
Titus, Jacob 45-6
Titus of Macassar 46-7
Tkauab,Cdpt. 182-3
Toontji 100-3, 105
Toontje and Else 147
transhumance 17-19, 21-2, 31-2, 159
trekboers 10-13,44,48,81-2,111, 171,208,
285; and: Khoikhoi; employment of 45,
47-8; impact on 109; co-operation in
pastoral production 94-7; living like in
Namaqualand 201-2; Khoisan: fighting
against 19-21, 55; raiding of at Orange
River 22; collaboration with allies 58-9;
employment of 60; impact on 91-9; San:
as antagonists 117-18, 259, 264; captives
112; cruelty towards 122-3; closure of
Bushmanland 246; as pastoral society
15-18, 21-2, 44, 108-9; commandos 114,
117-18; impact of service 16, 108; dam-
aging resources 18, 228; development of
class of 30, 55; economy 114, 122-3, 145;
influence on Company 95-6; livestock
91-2, 118; seasonal treks 83-4, 86-7, 98;
see also colonists; frontier
colonists/farmers
Tremond, Capt. 186
Treurniet, Hendrik 49-51, 72
Truter.J.A. 183,252
Truter, Petrus Johannes 215-16, 265
Tswana 198, 215, 280-1; Lichtenstein and Van
der Graaf's journey to 262, 275; relations
with: 'Bastaards' 280-1; people along
Middle Orange River 162-3
Tulbagh 153-4, 259, 270; landdrost of 209,
258-9,275
Tulbagh, Ryk 96-7, 113, 181, 277
Turner, Frederick Jackson 9-11
Ubiqua 32-3, 38
VOC 27, 30, 36, 89, 127, 166-7, 171, 189; and:
Khoikhoi 27-9, 35, 46-7, 93, 143; Khoisan
55, 57, 141; blames free burghers for
Khoisan resistance 38-9; inability to
defeat San and Xhosa 221; influence on
frontier zone 95-6; journeys of
exploration 159; livestock 29, 59, 96;
losing control over frontiersmen 41, 55,
115, 172; regulating relations between
Khoisan and colonists 78, 141
Vaick, Jan 57-61
Van Arkel, Petrus 53
Van Assenburgh, Louis 38
Van Bochem, Jacob 54
Van Breda,Servaas 170
Van den Bergh, Hendrik Myntjes 127-8, 131
Van den Heever, Augustus 180-2
Van den Heever, J.A. 202-3
Van den Heever, Petrus 277-8
Van den Heever, Pieter 167
Van der Graaf, Hendrik 259-63, 270-1;
influence on Caledon 276—7; suggestions
279; tour 275-9
Van der Heever, Jan 205
Van der Heijden, Jacobus 53—4
Van der Kemp, J. 234-5, 237-40, 266, 272,
282-3
Van der Merwe, Carel 131, 134
Van der Merwe, David Schalk 131-2, 134
Van der Merwe, Nicolaas 116, 118-20, 122,
144
Van der Merwe, Schalk 50
Van der Riet, Landdrost 148-9, 202-4, 208,
214-15
Van der Stel, Simon 27-31, 44, 159
Van der Stel, Willem Adriaan 27-30, 32, 34,
35-6, 39; promotion of frontier expansion
30-1
Van der Walt, A. 126
Van der Walt, Johannes 226
Van der Westhuisen, family 200
Van der Westhuysen, Johannes Cornelius 202,
204-8,209-10,254
Van der Westhuysen, Klaas 184
Van Dyk, Sybrand 66-7
Van Eeden, Frederick 60, 71
Van Heerden, Pieter Willemsz 49, 51, 99-100,
106
Van Hoeven, Jacob 42
Van Jaarsveld, Adriaan 101, 114, 118, 120,
126-7, 129-31
Van Meerhof, Pieter 157
Van Niekerk, Adriaan 206, 209-10
Van Plettenberg, J. 104, 133-4
Van Reenen, family 98-9, 184, 186, 192, 225-6
Van Reenen, Sebastiaan Valentyn 170, 176,
184-7
Van Reenen, Willem 184-6, 192
Van Ryneveld, W.S. 222
Van Schoor, Adrian 168
Van Wijk, Veldwachtmeester 235-6
Van Wijk, Christoffel 95; Widow 102
Van Wijk, Cornelis 95-6, 102, 106
Van Wijk, Gerrit Matthys 95, 100, 104, 116,
119-20; wife Elizabeth 100
Van Wijk, Roelof 92, 94-5
Van Wijk, Willem 104
Van Wyk, Cornelius 136
Van Wyk, Johannes 211
Van Wyk, Willem 58, 61, 74
Van Ziji, family 170-8, 193
Van Zijl,Adriaan 135-6, 166, 172-3, 181, 194;
elephant hunting 173-8; encounter with
Jan Bloem 175-7; wife 177-8
Van Zijl,Andries 173, 175-7
Van Ziji, Gideon 207-8
Van Ziji, Johannes 170-1
Van Ziji, Petrus 173-4, 176-7
Van Ziji, Willem 99
Van Zyl, Albert 62, 67, 70, 75
Van Zyl, Pieter 62, 75
veldcornets 246, 269-70
Veldsman, Hendrik 94-6
veldwachtmeesters 3, 70, 116, 131-2, 178, 194,
205, 211, 232-3; and Khoikhoi 140,
148-9, 151-2,197; correspondence with
Stellenbosch landdrost 3-4, 166, 171, 246
Victor, Gert 153
Vigiland 234-6; and missionaries 237-8,
244-6
Viool 191-2
Visagie, Gerrit 96
Visagie, Guilliam 180-6, 191-4, 214; wife
Elsab (Elsie) 183-6, 192-3
Visagie, Pieter 101
Visser, Floris 203, 212-14, 224, 228-9, 261-4;
and: missionaries 238, 240, 245, 247;
peace initiative 228, 232-5, 240, 244, 247;
antagonism towards Maritz 229-30,
247-8, 255; assisting Van der Graaf 260-1;
Danster episode 229; influence on San
245,247,255-6,260
Visser, Gerrit 241, 243, 247, 256, 260-2, 277
Vlamink 226
Viermuis, Capt. 282-3
Vorster, Barend 92
Vos, M.C. 238, 252, 256
Vosloo, Johannes 51
Vry, Barend 172, 181-2, 184-6, 193
Wagenaer, Attorney 185
Walker, Eric 10
Warm Bad mission 281-3
Wassner, Company sergeant 71
water 108, 208; availability of 21, 82, 84-5,
179,204,208,215,264,283;control
by commando leaders 110—11
west coast 19-20,73
Wiese, Jan 173-8
Wietsman, Johannes Frederik 180, 183-6
Wikar 161-3,168,170
Wildschut, Capt. 167, 208
Wildschut, Jantje 277-8
Wildschut 62-3
Willemsz, Matthys 63
Wittebooij 62-3
Wolfaardt, Ernst 207
/Xam 9, 88, 90-1, 227-8; and missionaries
243-4, 255; narratives 5, 125
Xhosa: in: Nieuweveld 230; Roggeveld 228-30;
Zuurveld 274; missionaries to 237;
possessing guns 229-30; relations with
colonists 133,221-2
Yonge, G. 214
Zwaarte Booij 181-2
Zwanepoel, Pieter 51
Zwartsenburgh, Wolfgang 51-2