The Inevitable Pipeline into Exile. Botswana’s Role in the Namibian Liberation Struggle

The Inevitable Pipeline is a study on the role Botswana played in the Namibian Liberation Struggle.
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Title: The Inevitable Pipeline into Exile
Subtitle: Botswana’s Role in the Namibian Liberation Struggle
Author: Johann Alexander Müller
Publisher: Basler Afrika Bibliographien
Basel, 2012
ISBN 9783905758290 / ISBN 978-3-905758-29-0
Softcover, 17x24 cm, 292 pages, images, maps


The role played by Botswana in various southern African liberation struggles has previously been neglected in historical studies. The country’s politics of support and mobilisation early on in Namibia’s struggle for independence from South Africa proved crucial for the formative period of both nation states. Botswana’s difficult and contradictory position as neighbour of the South African apartheid state and colonial power in Namibia are carefully dealt with, as are the challenges faced by the fragile Namibian refugee networks and liberation movements, SWANU and SWAPO, operating in Botswana for decades. The Inevitable Pipeline into Exile deals with a crucial phase of nationalism and transnational politics during the period of southern African decolonisation at the height of South Africa’s diplomatic and military aggression throughout the region. Johann Alexander Müller’s account represents an important and, in some ways, a pioneering inroad into precisely this field. His description conveys some of the foundations of regional co-operation that today are incorporated into the SADC.