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What Happens after Mugabe?

What Happens after Mugabe?

This gripping, incisive book discusses many relevant issues and asks serious questions
Hill, Geoff
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Author: Geoff Hill
Zebra Press
Cape Town, 2005
ISBN: 1770071024
Soft cover, 14x21 cm, 192 pages, several photos


Description:

25 years in power, Robert Mugabe is under increasing pressure to step down and allow democratic reform in Zimbabwe. Amnesty International rates the country among the worst for torture and abuse of human rights, the Commonwealth has suspended Zimbabwe’s membership, and even in Africa there is growing outrage at what some see as a rogue state. In the past five years, millions of words have been written about the tragedy – including more than a dozen books – but few have focused on what might happen when freedom comes.

As things stand, schools and hospitals have collapsed, a third of the population lives in exile and 3 000 people die of AIDS every week. Once Africa’s second-biggest exporter of food, 70 per cent of the country lives under conditions of famine in the wake of violent land reform. What will it take to rebuild Zimbabwe? This gripping, incisive book discusses many relevant issues and asks serious questions, including:

- Will 4 million exiles go home to a country with 80 per cent unemployment?
- Should there be war-crimes trials?
- Can the economy be revived?
- Where will the billions of dollars come from that are needed to put things right?

What Happens After Mugabe is meticulously researched, with material drawn from hundreds of interviews inside Zimbabwe and among exile communities in Britain, the US and South Africa.


About the author:

Geoff Hill grew up in southern Africa and, for the past twenty-five years, has worked in Australia, the USA, Britain, Zimbabwe and several other African countries, and is currently Africa correspondent for the Washington Times. He is the first non-American to receive a John Steinbeck Award for short-story writing, and he also won the 2000 Commonwealth Short Story Award for Africa.


Author’s preface:

ON 31 MARCH 2005, ROBERT MUGABE AND HIS RULING ZANU-PF party claimed victory in an election marred by a voters' roll years out of date and a state-controlled media that not only favoured the government, but pumped out hate speech against the opposition Movement for Democratic Change (MDC).

The police, army and youth militiar had waged a five-year campaign of violence against the population, and widespread hunger left many dependent on food handouts, which, they were told, would be denied 'to those who do not vote wisely'. As if that wasn't enough, there were allegations of outright rigging.

Predictably, most Western nations dismissed the vote as a fraud, and Mugabe's win brought him no closer to the international recognition he needed if Zimbabwe was to shed its pariah status and enjoy the aid, trade and rebuilding required to pull it out of the Guinness Book of Records, where it held top place for the world's highest inflation and fastest-shrinking economy.

But, what was more interesting than the election itself was Mugabe's campaign, which centred on regime change. To a casual observer, it might have seemed that the eighty-one-year-old president was standing against British prime minister Tony Blair. In speech after speech, Mugabe denigrated Blair and US president George W Bush, telling voters that 'these two monsters' were the real enemy, not opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai and his Movement for Democratic Change.

'Bush and Blair want to make Zimbabwe their own,' he told a rally in the southern province ofMatabeleland days before the poll, 'and they want their puppet Tsvangirai in power. They are determined to effect regime change, but they will be defeated.' It was political nonsense, but Mugabe had little else to offer: unemployment stood at 90 per cent, a third of the population had gone into exile, and millions were hungry in a country that, until recently, had grown enough crops to feed itself and much of southern Africa.

Ironically, the 'enemies' that cropped up most frequently in his speeches - Britain, the US, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and the nations of Scandinavia - were former allies that, in the 1980s, had stood silent while he murdered thousands and built a political system of which the sole purpose was to keep himself and his party in power.

But, while it was laughable to suggest that a Western alliance was planning to topple Mugabe after the fashion of the Taliban or Saddam Hussein, it was clear that, on the world stage at least, Mr Mugabe had outstayed his welcome: - Zimbabwe had been ousted from the Commonwealth. - Mugabe and his ministers were banned from visiting Europe and the United States. - Their assets in those countries had been frozen. - Donor funds were being used to assist those working for change both at home and among exile groups around the globe.

But, while many wanted Mugabe to go - not least his own people - few had considered the task that would lie ahead once democracy had taken hold and those who had ruined the country were pushed from office.

Since 1990, Africa has undergone a revolution as long-time leaders, under pressure to reform, let go of their one-party states and military dictatorships and held multiparty elections. But, where change came, it was often so fast that, before much good could be done, a new elite had entrenched themselves as solidly in power as those they had replaced.

In Zambia. Malawi and Kenya, parties that had ruled since the early 1960s were voted out, but a lack of preparation meant that corruption endured, and often grew worse, while the new governments did little to tackle poverty and unemployment. Tellingly, exile populations driven out by past regimes stayed abroad, and the brain drain continued as those who felt betrayed by a new revolution gone astray left home, robbing the country of much-needed skills.

Yet, despite those lessons, by 2005, seven years after it became clear that time was running out for Mugabe and the old guard who kept him in power, donor nations and NGOs had not drawn up plans for a new Zimbabwe. Instead, there seemed to be a notion that, if only the bad guys would go, the spirit of Mother Teresa would descend from heaven and guide the new rulers as they set about creating a paradise, where people would live in joy to the end of days.

This book was originally planned as a newspaper story, but as the research progressed, I realised how little there was to go on. Many events and conversations gave me an insight into what lies ahead for the country, but two encounters convinced me to turn my proposed article into a book. In 2004, I interviewed Ambassador Andy Bearpark, CBE, who had worked as the European Union's representative in post-war Kosovo, where he was also the UN secretary general's deputy special representative.

After the fall of Saddam Hussein, he was put in charge of Iraq's reconstruction, reporting directly to US administrator Paul Bremer. But, most importantly for me, Andy had been part of the British government's aid team to post-war Zimbabwe in the 1980s.

He is now regarded as one of the world's leading authorities on reconstruction, and at a ninety-minute meeting, he gave me a list of questions I would need to ask others more closely associated with Zimbabwe.
'Each case is different,' he told me over tea at a small hotel near his home in rural England. 'But there are two constants: rebuilding a country is always more difficult than people think, and everything comes down to planning and preparation.

'Governments worry that if they pay for plans and then the event doesn't come to pass, they have wasted their money. But it is cheaper - much cheaper - to draw up blueprints that aren't used than to go into a country without plans and try to put things right.'

On the subject of cost, he said that rebuilding always took more money than expected. Infrastructure had to be restored, food imported, business and agriculture revived, skilled exiles had to be wooed home and encouraged to stay and not to go about settling scores with those who had forced them to leave.

And while all this was happening, the government had to busy itself building democracy, freeing up the media and handling the crises that are part of running any country, but more so in a hurting and fragile land. In Andy's experience, new problems arose from the very act of rebuilding. Things break down slowly, bit by bit, and only when you start to fix the problem do you realise how shambolic it really is.

I often use the analogy of a student's car with rough gears and no handbrake. The student drives it every day and knows which gears stick, when to pump the clutch and that you have to put a brick under the wheel if you park on a slope. Then someone else buys the vehicle, knowing that it's far from new but not aware of the exact problems. And, in a day, the new owner has wrecked the car. This is what happens when donor countries and their experts come in to fix a country. The people running the system know how to keep it going, but a lot of damage can be done once you start putting things right.

You can just about keep power stations going if you know where the faults are. But once they collapse completely, then, like a car that's been written off, you have to start again from scratch. Now, with the power station, you have to take the whole plant out of service and rebuild it.

So, whereas there used to be cuts, there is no power at all and people say that the old regime was better and Western donors throw up their hands, amazed that anyone could think that. We worked through the other essentials, including a free media, strong protection of human rights, a good constitution and an independent judiciary, none of which existed under Mugabe.

'But remember this,' Andy said, as we closed. 'People need to feel they are part of the process, otherwise even good moves may be resisted by the public, because they see the change as something that is being imposed on them.'

A few weeks later, I was in Rwanda with the faculty of human rights law from the University of Pretoria. I had been a guest lecturer for their master's degree programme, discussing the common ethics that should guide both writers and lawyers, such as confidentiality of sources, and the careful handling of people who have been tortured or abused. Too often, when deadlines are pressing, journalists can add to a victim's trauma by pushing for detail when the teller is clearly finding it hard to relive the experience in words. In the trade we refer to this kind of bullying as, 'Anyone here been raped and speak English?'

The faculty is led by Norman Taku from Cameroon and Martin Nsibirwa, who hails from Uganda. Both knew Rwanda from past excursions, and each of the twenty-six students, all from different countries in Africa, brought their own ideas and experiences. Adding to the mix was David Padilla, a visiting lecturer from the US, with a good knowledge of human rights from his time in South and Central America. We toured sites of the genocide, heard stories from survivors, viewed tens of thousands of skulls and other bones, still unburied, and probed officials from the Rwandan government and the UN tribunal in charge of the war crimes trials. As we asked our questions and shared our notes, the trip soon became a journey of learning for teachers and students alike, and especially for me.

I have dealt with the 1994 genocide in the book, but what amazed me was how Rwanda came through it, building a better and stronger country within a decade. Not for a moment would I equate Mugabe with the killers who took the lives of 800 000 Rwandans in just 100 days. Yes, in the 1980s, Mugabe did commit genocide in Matabeland, but even the highest estimates put the number of dead at 40 000. But for thirty years before the madness in Rwanda, the country had been misgoverned - again, to a far greater degree than Zimbabwe - yet in spite of this and the massacres, the new leaders have- turned it into a place that works.

The capital, Kigali, is a delightful town with clean streets, power, good phones and a charm that begs you to return. Tourists come mostly to see gorillas in the Virunga Mountains, three hours by road from Kigali and hell's own climb, but worth the trip. Recently, the new government of Paul Kagame has shown worrying signs of intolerance: the media is under check, there have been political disappearances and a democratic future is far from certain. But Kagame has rebuilt Rwanda in a way that can only inspire those who know how badly these things have been handled elsewhere in Africa.

Sadly, at every step he was hampered by a lack of planning. Few, it seemed, had given any thought to the idea that the previous one-party state might be toppled by its own people. By now I had decided to turn my planned article into a book, and I am indebted to many people who helped me with the task. lan Fleming once said that writing a book was as much fun as digging a very deep hole, but, in my case, the work was made lighter and better by those who have given so freely of their time, often recounting memories they would rather forget.

It is five years since I was commissioned to write The Battle for Zimbabwe, and in the course of that work and this shorter text, I have interviewed nearly 1 400 people, some alone, others in groups or forums. Each had his or her view on how things got so bad, what could be done to right the problem and how to make sure it doesn't happen again. hi the words of Ernest Hemingway, my only task was to put what I heard, saw and felt on paper 'in the best and simplest way'.

Special thanks go to my publishers, Steve Connolly and Marlene Fryer, editors Robert Plummer, Marlene Burger and Ronel Richter-Herbert, and to Natascha Adendorff and Nick Russell who, between them, came up with the cover. My appreciation also to Barnaby Phillips, who perused the final text; to Neil Higgs and Research Surveys, who carried out the opinion polls used in the epilogue; and to Dr Len Weinstein and his staff who, in treating the many torture victims I brought to their rooms, gave hope and healing to those who had paid a terrible price in their fight for justice.

Books on tyranny and its aftermath can be depressing and there is sombre detail in this one, but also uplifting stories of survival and dreams for the future, plus reports on countries like Mali, Chile, South Africa and Somaliland that have come out of hard times and built a new order. An activist once told me that her second greatest fear for Zimbabwe was five more years of rule by Mugabe's ZANU-PF party. Her greatest anxiety centred on change that might come before anyone had planned what would happen next. 'Some people are so focused on change itself, they become like a dog chasing a car,' she said. 'Lots of noise and energy, but the dog would have no idea what to do if it caught one.'

One only has to look at the democratic change that has taken place in Eastern Europe, South and Central America, and in South Africa to see that history is not on the side of those who won the 2005 election, and there is no doubt that freedom will come to Zimbabwe, even if we can't put a date on it. And, when that happens, will Britain, the US and others who took a stand against Mugabe come up with the money and programmes needed to rebuild the nation - not just to repair the decay, but to create new structures to protect democracy and ensure that the same tragedy never happens again?

In February 2005, on her first trip abroad as US Secretary of State, Condoleezza Rice used a line that will long be quoted for its truth and poignancy. 'History does not just happen,' she told an audience at the Institut d'Etudes Politique in Paris. 'History is made by men and women of conviction, of commitment and of courage, who will not let their dreams be denied.'

Zimbabwe has no shortage of such people, and they deserve our help in making sure that what happens after Mugabe stands as an example to other nations that have struggled to be free.


Also check the index:

Abacha, Gen. Sani 141
Abidjan 57
Abubakar, Gen.
Abdusalam 17
Abu Ghraib prison 135
Achebe, Chinua 25
Afewerld, Isayas 141,
146
Afghanistan 4, 5, 33, 121
African National
Congress (ANC)
89,145,158,161-2
African Union 36, 146
Aideed, Mohamed 148
AIDS 5, 19-20,28,31,
32,35,83,93,113,
115
in Britain 113
in USA 20
Alexander the Great 11
Algarve 66
Allende, Salvador 128
ambulance, ox-drawn 34
Amin,Idi 22,112, 128
amnesty 128, 134
Amnesty International
30,44,45
Angola 13, 53, 150
anti-Semitism 66
apartheid 4, 12, 23, 52,
64,77, 89
Apartheid Museum 154
Arabs 64-65
Argentina 66
Auret,Mike 48
Auschwitz 135
Australia 4,6, 12,31,
66,101,127
Australian Broadcasting
Corporation 98
Austria 146
Baldeh, Cecile 27
Banda, Hastings 144
BBC 21,94,138
banned 89
Bearpark, Andy ix-xi
Bechuanaland 74
see also Botswana
Belgium 22,34,52,65
Benin 34
Bennett,Roy 66, 152
Biafra 23
Biko, Steve 146
Bill of Rights 54
Bindura 46
Black Panthers 100
Blair,Tony vii, viii, 6,113
Blunkett, David 113
Botswana 34,60, 110,
111,120
Brazil 15,95,96
Bremer, Paul ix
Britain 13, 14,31
accused by Mugabe x
ignores abuse in
Zimbabwe 8, 138
imposes visas 112
Iraq and 6
land reform and 16
schooling in 32, 117
Zimbabwe
independence and
8,13,15
Zimbabweans living in
17, 111-118,122
British Medical Journal
33
British South Africa
Company 12,43,
75-76,90
British South Africa
Police 43,75
broadcasting 89,
97-100,104
Buckle, Cathy 18
Budiriro 39, 40 61
Buhera 119
Bulawayo 11,20,29,
33, 40,48,49,50,
77, 109,158
Burma 5, 25, 147
Burundi 5, 10,22, 146
Bush, George W vii,
viii, 6
Bushmen see San
Butare massacre 153,154
Buya, Arnold 100
Cairo 73
Cambodia 128
Cambridge University 32
Cameroon xii, 107
Canada 8, 12,34
Capital Radio 93, 199
Carrington, Lord Peter
14
Carter, Jimmy 8
Castro, Fidel 23
Centenary 71
Central Intelligence
Organisation (CIO)
8, 17,59,60,79,
91,102,133,154
torture by 8,91,
129,146
Centre for the Study of
Violence and
Reconciliation 130,
131
Chapotera, Douglas 46
Chavunduka, Mark 91
Chegutu 26
Chihuri, Augustine 44
Chikomba 45
Chile xiv,6, 128,
129,134
Chimanimani 67
Chimedza,Tinashe 48,
49
Chimwanda, Emmanuel
49
China 14, 33, 85, 127
arms Mugabe 13,33
Chinamasa, Patrick 93,
151
Chinhoyi 29
Chinoshava,Tawanda 119
Chinotimba, Joseph 60
Chipanga, Tommy 39
Chipinge 14, 116
Chisango, Karma 116
Chiweta, Laban 46
cholera 33
Choto,Ray 91
Chronicle, The 90, 92
Citibank 141
Clay, Edward 143
cobalt 73
Coltart, David 66
Commissioner's Pool 49
Commonwealth viii,
55,56
observer mission 17,
47
suspends Zimbabwe
18
Comoros 107
condoms 20
Congo, Democratic
Republic of 5,58,
141, 146
plunder of 73, 139
Conservative Party (UK)
15,113
constitution 9,16,95,149
Convention Against
Torture 54
Cornish, Dr Stephen 126
corruption
in Kenya 142-144
in South Africa
105-110
in Zimbabwe 81
Cote d' Ivoire 57, 146
cotton 18
Cranbome High School
27
crimes against humanity
23,127-139
Criminal Procedures Act
96
Cross, Eddie 79,80
Cuba 23,147
Cultural Revolution 127
Daily News 66,92,98
Darfur 57
Darter, Adrian 75
Da Silva, Luiz Inacio
Lula 95
death penalty 149-150
De Beers 73
DeKlerk,FW 89
diamonds 73
Diana's Vow 10
doctors
emigration of 19,33
donor funds 26
donkeys 9
Dowd,Mark 138
Dresden 135
dual nationality
118-120
Dube, Charlie 22
Dumukani, Zondiwa 45
Durban 106,115,120
Dzinzi, Nobbie 47
East Timor 4, 58
Economist Intelligence
Unit 80
education 28-33
collapse of 7, 26, 29
expanded by Mugabe
15,31,77
in Britain 32, 117
in Kenya 142
rebuilding after
Mugabe 32
urban growth and 15,
157-58
elections 2000 17
e-mail, tapping of 101,
102
enemies of the state 37
Eritrea 5, 90, 144, 146,
147
Ethiopia 5
European Union 84, 146
Ewans, Martin 138
exile community
in Botswana 110,
111,120
in Britain 17,
111-118,122
in South Africa 1-5,
17,105-110, 120,
123,125
return of 105-126
farming, commercial 7
black people and 16
collapse of 80
land ownership and 78
racism in 70
reestablishing 81-83
white people and 16,
23,69-70
Federation of Rhodesia
and Nyasaland 13
Financial Gazette 91
Financial Times 91
Fleming, lan xiii
Fort Salisbury 75
France 12,22,34,52,
64-65,77,82,105
Fraser, Malcolm 8
Frederick, Ivan 'Chip'
135
Freedom House 90
gacaca courts 136
Gachara, Margaret 143
Gandhi, Mahatma 77
Garwe, Fiona 117
genocide
in Cambodia 128
in Nigeria 23
in Rwanda 22, 57, 58,
64, 128,133,136
in Sudan 23,25,
57,64
in Zimbabwe 8, 137,
138
Germany 23, 63,
65,74
Jews in 52
Nazi government of
52, 127,135,153
Ghana 52,117
Gigaba, Malusi 110
Gilder, Barry 108
girigamba 112
Githongo, John 142,
143
Giyani 106
Goebbels, Josef 92
gold 12
Gono, Gideon 1,23,
140
Grain Marketing Board
84
Great Zimbabwe 11, 74
Greece 12
Green Bombers 22
Gubbay, Anthony 59,
60
Gukurahundi 15, 126,
131,134,137,138,
146,154
British silence on 138
memorial for 153
war crimes trials for
137,138
Gushiken, Luiz 96
Gweru 33
Hadzidzi 45
Haider,Joerg 146
Harare Agricultural
Show 19
Harare Central Police
Station 43
Harvard University 98
Harvest of Thorns 69
health system 7
collapse of 19
rebuilding after
Mugabe 36
Hemingway, Ernest xiii
Herald 21,90
Higgs,Neil 158
Highfield 48
Hillbrow 22, 120
Hitler, Adolf 23, 64
Hitler Youth 58
Hoess, Rudolf 135
Home Affairs,
Department of
106-111
Home Office 111-116
homelink 3
homosexuality 135-149
Hondoro, Tawanda 45
Hoosen, Junaid 130
Horticultural Marketing
Authority 84, 85
Howard, Michael 114
Human Rights Trust of
Southern Africa 55
Human Rights Watch 57
hunger 8
Hussein, Saddam viii,
ix,5,6,23, 103
Hum 22,154
Hwange 69
Ibo 23
Independent 91, 94
India 60,77,86, 113
Indonesia 4
Industrial Development
Corporation 85
Inflation 7, 18,80
Interhamwe 57, 58, 152
International Criminal
Tribunal for
Rwanda 137
International Crisis
Group 63,72,81
International
Organisation for
Migration 36, 106,
121
International Monetary
Fund 139
International Police
Association 56
Internet 101, 102
Iran 5
Iraq 5,6,23, 103, 115,
128
Ivory Coast
see Cote d' Ivoire
Jackson, Gerry 92-94,
98,99, 104
Janjaweed militia 23, 57
Japan 63,127, 143
Jefferson, Thomas 5
Jews 52,63-67, 135
Joshi, Jayany 140
Joshi, Manharlal 140
Joy TV 99,100
Judges 18,59,60
Justice for Agriculture 78
Kagame,Paul xii,xiii, 152
Kaguru,Tichaona 48
Kambale, Pascal 148
Karadzic, Radovan 133
Kariba 69
Kamocha, Lawrence 59,
60
Kaunda, Kenneth 144
Keane,Fergal 138
Kenya 15,52,74,81,
85,90,107, 112,
117,147
corruption in
141-143
media in 90
whites in 66
Kenyatta, Jomo 52
Kibaki,Mwai 141-143
Kigali xii,22,65, 152,
154
Kimberley 73, 75
Kimunya, Amos 82
King, Martin Luther 39
King Solomon's Mines
74
Konare, Alpha Omar 148
Kondozi Estate 85
Korea 63
Korekore 74
Krolllnc. 141
Kruger National Park 106
Kruger,Paul 74
KuKluxKlan 100
Kurds 6
Kuruneri, Christopher
140
Kuwadzana 46
Kuwait 6
Lagos 23
land
commission on 77
invasions 17
Kenya and 82
Mugabe threatens to
seize 64
reform 17,71-73
South Africa and
158-^1
tenure 86
Laos 5
Legal Resources
Foundation 55
Le Pen, Jean-Marie 64,
65
Lesotho 54
Liberia 57, 141, 146
Libya 5,90
life expectancy 32
Limpopo River 10,12,
61,74, 106, 112
Lisbon 74
literacy 27,61, 117
Livingstone, David 75
Lobengula, King 11, 74
defeat of 75,76, 126
signs Rudd concession
12
London 77
Lupahia, Limukani 155
M&S Syndicate 140
Mackenzie, Janet 97
Madziwa, Daniel 29
Mail & Guardian 91,94
Makamba, James 59
MakoniWest 46
Malone, Dr Beverly 121
malaria 5, 10
Malawi 10, 13, 24, 53, 74,
85,119,144,147
Malaysia 2
Mali xiv, 148
Malone, Dr Beverly 122
Manchester 116
Mandela, Nelson 7,89,
144,145, 146
Mangengwa, AM Khan
155
Mangwende, Witness
72,73
Manyika 74
Manyika, Elliot 21
Marondera 18, 46
Martin, Roger 138
Mashonaland Herald 90
Maslow, Abraham 87
Masvingo 33, 77,
129,131
Matabele
arrival in Zimbabwe
11
genocide against 15
war against BSAC
12,76
wars against Shona
11,74
Matira, Martin 50-51
Mauritius 150
Mazaranhanga, Sydney
48
Mbare 48
Mbeld, Moletsi 147
Mbeki,Thabo 89, 109,
146
Meldrum, Andrew 60
Mercedes Benz 9
Midlands Province 29
Milosevic, Slobodan
133
Missionaries 12
Mkwanazi, Jabulani
153-154
Mladic,Ratko 133
Mnangagwa, Emmerson
139,140
Moffatjohn 75
Moi, Daniel arap 81,
82, 141-143
Monomatapa 11
Morocco 82
Morris Depot 55
Morris, Erik 60
Mother Teresa ix
Mount Darwin 20,
71,74
Mount Pleasant 48
Movement for
Democratic Change
(MDC) viii,3,25,
26,92-110, 158,
AIDS 36
formed 16, 78
intimidation of 29,
44-48
murders by 133,155
rural voters and 78
supporters tortured
20, 21,44
T-shirts 3
Moyo, Bongani 20
Moyo, Edwin 85
Moyo, Gilbert 51
Moyo, Jonathan 92, 96
Moyo, Mucheri 115
Moyo, Remember 51
Moyo, Simon Kaya 1-4,
24
Moyo,Tapson 28
Mozambique 10, 14, 73,
82,85, 107, 150
Mpofu, Sazzin 50-51
Mtetwa, Beatrice 60
Muchero, Martin 84
Mugabe, Grace 59
Mugabe, Robert
assumes leadership 7
elections 2005 vii-viii
genocide xii
guerrilla leader 13
human rights xi
illegitimate rule
alleged 17
media and 65
old guard ix
spending 28
wealth 2
ZANU-PF xiv
Mulroney, Brian 8
Mungwira, Sandra viii,
59,60
Murphy, Clive 91
Mushore, Edith 60
Mutare 33,69,77,
130,158
Muzarabani 47
Muzorewa, Bishop Abel
13-14
Myers, Gary 135
Mzilikazi, King 11, 74
Namibia 53, 54
National Land Trust 83
National Party 24,
63, 146
Nazi Germany 52, 127,
135, 153,154
Ncube,Ben 28
Ncube, Solomon 49
Ncube,Trevor 91,94,
95,97,98,104
Ndebele language
whites and 66
youth and 68
Ndhlovu,Kerius 105,109
Ndiaye, Ndioro 37
Ndoro, Luckmore 67-69
New York 77, 100
New Zealand 12
Ngwenya, Matshobane
51
Nigeria 7, 10, 17, 23,
34,85,91, 107,141
Nkala, Cain
killed by MDC 59,155
murder of 50
Nkomo, Joshua 13, 14,
15,139
Nkrumah, Kwame 52
Nondo, Clara 34
non-governmental
organisations 103,
104
North Korea 25
Northern Rhodesia
see also Zambia 13
Nsibirwa, Martin xii
Nuremberg 127, 129,
135
nurses 19, 33, 34,
121,122
Nyarota, Geoff 92, 98
Nyasaland
see also Malawi 13
Ophir, fabled land of 74
orphans 28
opinion polls 158
Organisation of American Privy Council 76
States 147 prostitution 29
Padilla, David xii
Pakistan 4,5,107-110,
113
Palestine 108
Panorama (BBC) 138
Parirenyatwa, David 34
Parirenyatwa Hospital 48
Paris 77
Peta, Basildon 91,
96-98, 104
Philippines 15, 157
Phiri, Richard 40-43,61
Phiri, Sheba 48
Pienaar, Andre 141
Pinochet, Gen. Augusto
6
arrest of 128, 134
Pioneer Column 12,43,
73
Pol Pot 128
police
assault civilians 30,
44-49
formation of 43
ignore violence 44-49
in SADC countries
53,54
resist ZANU-PF 49
South African 61
training 55-57
pornography 100
Portugal 12, 13,52,74
postal votes 4
Powell,Hnoch 114
press freedom of 89-92
nationalised 9, 91
Pretoria 1,8,9,24
prisons 151^152
Raath,Jan 26-27
race relations 67-70
radio 92-94
Radio Manyoka 93
Radio Netherlands 45
rape 17,19,130
Rapid Intervention
Squad 53
Redress Trust 145
referendum
on constitution 16
Reporters Sans
Frontieres 90
Reserve Bank 1, 2
RESTART (MDC
programme) 25,
30,31
Rhodes, Cecil John 12,
43, 73, 74,75
Rhodesia 12, 14,36,43,
71,77,92, 119,
150,151,156
Rhodesia African Rifles
69
Rhodesia Herald 90
Rice, Condoleezza xiv
riots 16,92
Rome 102
Rudd, Charles 75
Rusape 10
Russia 14,23,77
Ruwa 42
Rwanda xi, xiii, 10, 119
genocide in xii, 22,
57,58,64-65
trials in 128, 129,
133,136,137
Salisbury see also
Harare 75,90
founded 1890 75
San (Bushmen) 10,
11,76
Saudi Arabia 52
Savido, Chris 100
Savimbi, Jonas 53
scale of needs 87
Scandinavia x, 8
school enrolment 27
Selous Scouts 69
Senegal 36
Sese Seko, Mobuto
144
Seychelles 107
Shaka,King 11
Shangaan 106
Shona language
whites and 66
youth and 68
Shona nation arrive in
Zimbabwe 10-11
fight against BSAC
12,76
loss of land 76
Shortwave Radio Africa
(SWRA) 93-94
Shumba, Gabriel 7-10,
118
Sibanda, Ketani 51
Sierra Leone 57,90,
128,129,133
Sikhalajob 8
Sithole,Jack 116
Sithole, Rev. Ndabaningi
14
slavery 52
Small, Derek 92
Smith, lan 13
snakes 39-42, 61
Solzhenitsyn, Alexander
127
Somalia 5, 115,148
Somaliland xiv, 148-149
South Africa 6, 12, 24,
30,58,60
media in 65
support for Rhodesia
13
South African Police
Service 54, 61
Southern African
Development
Community 36,
53,138
Southern African
Migration Project
, 111
Southern Rhodesia 76
Spain 52, 128, 140
SPCA 40
Srebrenica 133
Sri Lanka 113
Standard 91, 94
Stalin, Josef 23,127, 153
Star 91
Stevenson, Trudy 66
students 45, 115
Suangwene, Douglas 100
Sudan 5,23,25,57,64,
108, 146
Sunday Mail 90
Sunday News 90
Super Patriots and
Morons 103
Sunday Times xii
Swaziland 53, 54
Sweden 96
Sydney 66,101
Taku, Norman xii
Taliban viii, 4, 5
Tanzania 53
Taruvinga, Funwell 69
teachers 27,29,37
Tesco 85
Thailand 15, 157
Thatcher, Margaret 14
Thohoyandou 106
Tholet, Clem 155
Times (London) 26
tobacco 18, 85
torture 17,30,44-49,
53,60,91, 123,
129-131
Toure, Amadou 148
Transvaal 14, 74
Tribal Trust Lands 77
Trojan Mine 46
Truth and Reconciliation
Commission
in South Africa 129,
137
proposed for
Zimbabwe 131
Tsvangirai, Morgan
viii, x, 16, 17, 23,
143,147
loses presidential poll
17
MDC formed with 16
Tunisia 90
Turkey 113
Turuvinga, Funwell
69-70
Tutsis 22,65, 153-155
Twain, Mark 105
typhoid 33
urbanisation 157-62
Uganda xii, 22, 74, 112,
117,119
UmtaKPost 90,92
Unilateral Declaration
of Independence
13,90,92
unemployment 7, 9,
16,77
Unicef 27, 32
UNITA 53
United Nations 13, 36,
55,84,137
United States ix, xi, xiv,
xvi,84, 151
Iraq war 6
War of Independence
63
Zimbabwe elections
and 17
Universal Declaration of
Human Rights 146
University of New York
144
University of Pretoria
xi,8, 152
University of Zimbabwe
45,48
Uys, Pieter-Dirk 89
Venda 106
Victoria Falls 29
Vidigali, Edison 95
Vietnam 5
vigilante killings 126
war,Rhodesia 1972-1979
13,67,68
war veterans 17,37,42
Washington, George 13
Washington! Times 108
weapons of mass
destruction 6
Weinstein, Len 125,130
Williams, Pete 127
Wilson,Clive 91
WHson, Harold 13
witches 53
World Food Programme
84
World Health
Organisation 33
World Refugee Day 49
World War I 65
World War II 63, 127,
151
Young, Andrew 8
youth militia (Green
Bombers) 7,
20-22,30,31,37
assault opposition 46
Coted'Ivoire 57
Liberia 57
rape by 19
Sierra Leone 57
torture by 123
torture of 136
Yugoslavia 128, 129,
133
Zambezi 10, 11,74,75
Zambia 7, 10, 14, 23, 53,
54,74,85,117,119,
141,144,147,150
ZANLA 43,69
ZANU-PF 24,26
absorbs ZAPU 15
defeat at polls 16
embezzlement 73
intimidation by 22, 44
membership cards
17,30
takes power 14
Zanzibar 14, 15
ZAPU 14,139,140
dissolved 15
Zidco Holdings 140
Zimbabwe Broadcasting
Corporation 59,
92,94,97, 99, 104
Zimbabwe Exiles' Forum
118
Zimbabwe Human
Rights Association
48
Zimbabwe Lawyers for
Human Rights 45
Zimbabwe National
Army (ZNA) 17
Zimbabwe National
Students' Union 30
Zimbabwe Republic
Police (ZRP) 43, 56
Zimbabwe-Rhodesia 13
Zimbabwe Union of
Journalists 91
ZimOnline News Service
59
ZIPRA 43
Zulu nation 11