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The Scots in South Africa. Ethnicity, identity, gender and race 1772-1914

The Scots in South Africa. Ethnicity, identity, gender and race 1772-1914

Historical overview of the crucial and neglected impact of Scots migrants on South African society and state
MacKenzie; Dalziel
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978-1-86814-444-0
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Authors: John M. MacKenzie, Nigel R. Dalziel
Publisher: Witwatersrand University Press
Johannesburg, 2007
ISBN: 978-1-86814-444-0
Paperback, 16x24 cm, 283 pages


Description:

The description of South Africa as a 'rainbow nation' has always been taken to embrace the black, brown and white peoples who constitute its population. But each of these groups can be sub-divided, and in the white case the Scots have made one of the most distinctive contributions to the country's history.

The Scots, as in North America and Australasia, constituted an important element in the patterns of white settlement.They were already present in the area of Dutch East India Company rule and, after the first British occupation of the Cape in 1795, their numbers rose dramatically.

They were exceptionally active in such areas as exploration, botanical and scientific endeavour, military campaigns, the emergence of Christian missions, Western education, intellectual institutions, the professions, as well as enterprise and technical developments, business, commerce and journalism.

This book is the first full-length study of their role from the eighteenth to twentieth centuries. It highlights the interaction of Scots with African peoples, the manner in which missions and schools were credited with producing'black Scotsmen' and the ways in which they pursued many distinctive policies.

It also deals with the inter-weaving of issues of gender, class and race as well as with the means by which Scots clung to their ethnicity through founding various social and cultural societies. This book offers a major contribution to both Scottish and South African history and in the process illuminates a significant field of the Scottish diaspora that has so far received little attention.


About the authors:

John MacKenzie is Professor Emeritus at Lancaster University and Hon. Professor at St Andrews, Aberdeen and Stirling Universities, and Hon. Fellow at Edinburgh University. He is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh.

Nigel Dalziel is a freelance writer and researcher who holds a doctorate of Lancaster University and was formerly a museum curator.


Reviews:

Professor Tom Devine, University of Edinburgh:
Based on innovative archival research in South Africa and written in an accessible and lucid style, this is a significant contribution to South African, Scottish, imperial and emigration history.

Professor Jonathan Hyslop, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg:
An outstanding piece of scholarly research, written in a style which will make it accessible to the general reader, MacKenzie's book provides, for the first time, an historical overview of the crucial and neglected impact of Scots migrants on South African society and state.


Content:

Foreword by T. M. Devine
Acknowledgements
List of abbreviations
1 Introduction: imperialism and identities
Scots and empire
Scots, Scottish identity, Scotland and southern Africa
2 The Scots presence at the Cape
The travelling Scot
Prominent Scots in the British occupations
The Moodie settlement
The 1820 settlement
3 Radicals, evangelicals, the Scottish Enlightenment and Cape Colonial autocracy
How many Scots?
Somerset and the 'Scotch Independents'
Greig and the dissemination of the press
Reform and Emancipation
Fairbairn: commerce, finance and education
Representative government
Intellectual and scientific institutions
Conclusion
4 Scots missions and the frontier
The military frontier
The missionary frontier
Scots missionaries: politics, land and war
Mission education: the Lovedale and Blythswood
Institutions
Lovedale and medical mission
African ministers
Scots women on the frontier
Natal and the Gordon Memorial Mission
Conclusion
5 Continuing migration to Natal, the Cape and the Transvaal
Migration to Natal
Byrne and other settlements
Success stories
Ne'er-do-wells
Women and entrepreneurship
White population and later settlements
Immigration to the Cape
New Scotland
South Africa and the migration boom
6 Professionals: the Church and education
The Church
Education
7 The professionals: the environment, medicine, business and radicals

Scots and the environment
Medicine
Business
Radicals
8 Maintaining Scots identity
Caledonian and other Scottish societies
The South African Scot
The South African 'Scottish' regiments
Scotland and South African 'Scottishness'
9 Conclusion
Index


Extract: CHAPTER FOUR

Scots missions and the frontier

The histories of the Cape frontier, of Scots military figures and of missionaries are inseparably intertwined. Yet, in a significant corpus of historical writing on the frontier, they have rarely been satisfactorily combined. Moreover, until recent times the Scots missionaries have seldom been examined as a separate ethnic group with different objectives and methods, even although their activities upon the frontier were important in both white and, more particularly, black history.

The missionaries constituted a separate pressure group with connections with the imperial metropole and to Scottish society and its various Churches. They were frontier 'pioneers' who arrived when that frontier was still 'open' - that is, an incipient zone of contact between white and black, not yet fully under colonial rule. They often attempted to establish their mission stations during the period when the frontier was 'closing', that is, the time of turbulence and violence when imperial power was being established, sometimes aggressively, at times reluctantly.

They usually withdrew when war broke out, but they also weathered the vagaries of imperial policy: successively efforts to set up buffer zones and treaty systems, the prosecution of forward policies and periods of apparent retreat, and finally the pushing of the colonial border through the frontier zone. Once this had happened the frontier had been 'closed'. Blacks were forced to adjust to the new conditions. And the missionaries began to make more headway with both their spiritual and their educational objectives.

But, as Lamar and Thompson have pointed out, the white take-over of the American frontier was a great deal more complete than the southern African one.1 Despite continual and endemic violence, African societies were more resistant and, in some senses, more ready to adjust and assinu late (in the sense of a two-way assimilation) than the indigenous peoples of North America. The Eastern Cape frontier was distinctive in a number of ways.

African peoples were relatively densely settled, but the southern Nguni had no central political authority as the northern Nguni did. They constituted a set of separate chieftaincies, which both co-operated and conflicted with each other. The important chieftaincies in the mission zone were the Gaika and (beyond them) the Gcaleka.2 The region to the west and south of the Winterberg range, incorporating the Zuurveld, was, as we have seen, more or less suitable for white settlement.

It spawned a number of towns, Caledon, Cradock, Fort Beaufort within the colony; Grahamstown at its outer edge, later King William's Town beneath the Amatole range, and others deeper into what became known as Kaffraria and the Transkei. And it also had a coastal dimension which facilitated the approach of Anglophone white settlers as well as military forces. Initially the coastal bridgehead was Algoa Bay (Port Elizabeth) and later (from the late 1840s) East London. Scottish missionaries, in various societies, positioned themselves on this frontier and became embroiled in the processes of frontier closure.

They acquired relatively large tracts of land; they established complex relationships, not always benign, with African peoples; with the colonial authorities,- and also, often hostile, with settlers. The environment of the region constituted a significant underpinning of all of this activity. It seemed to offer attractive, extensively timbered and seemingly well watered land, beyond the relatively arid Karoo, suitable for some cultivation as well as the running of sheep and cattle. Yet its fertility was often exaggerated: it lurched from severe drought to excessive rainfall, and it sometimes experienced extremes of heat and cold. But its hills and river valleys also rendered it an appealing, even romantic, landscape for whites, offering some analogy with Scotland itself.
There were at least seven parties to these frontier conflicts.

The British inherited the frontier problem from the Dutch, since Boer trekkers had reached what was to become the Eastern Cape frontier in the VOC period. There they became semi-detached, and sometimes wholly detached, from company authority, disputing land and cattle with the Xhosa, matching raid with counter-raid, as well as conflicting with Bushman and Khoi.

Once British administration had been established he situation became a good deal more complicated. The Cape and the rontier became inseparably interlinked, both by administrative and military ties and by the processes of settlement, trade, labour extraction and the migration of some black people into the colony and its ^nges. The arrival of British settlers and missionaries added both to toe complexity and to the realisation that frontier policy was central the overall administrative dispensations of the Cape. Thus the first that^ ln t^lese relationships was colonial officialdom, seeking the peace would permit frugality in expenditure, the first requirement of administration, yet constantly creating fresh and costly crises through their efforts to consolidate the frontier.

The second were the southern Nguni peoples, notably the Xhosa, who sought to retain land that they considered to be theirs as well as secure fresh territory for settlement, the running of their cattle, hunting and some cultivation. The third were the white settlers, Boer and English-speaking, pressing farther into disputed territory. The fourth were the Khoisan peoples within the colony, already under severe pressure, in the Bushman case to the point of being hunted to extinction, yet also partly assimilated as workers, as settler clients in the buffer zone, as converts and as military auxiliaries.

The fifth were the missionaries themselves, seeking to establish their stations and recognising that their fortunes could be protected only by multilateral relations with the African peoples among whom they settled, the white colonists and the colonial administration. The sixth party was a diverse group of 'humanitarians', journalists, educators and incipient politicians in Cape Town observing and commenting on frontier affairs, while the seventh was the imperial government and the multiple forces and interests which operated upon it.

These parties were in a constant state of shifting alliances. The Xhosa, observing the value of missionaries as diplomats and protectors among the Griqua of the Orange River frontier, the Khoi, and later the Sotho,3 at times sought similar missionary aid. The administration also attempted an alliance with missionaries in order to gain 'intelligence' on frontier conditions. The humanitarians (examined in the previous chapter) and settlers were initially united in their loathing of the administration, but this was an unnatural alliance which soon broke up into mutual antagonism.

The Khoi allied with both missionaries and administration, but were ultimately betrayed. While Scottish missionaries also arrived in Tswana territory to the north-west of the colonial boundary, this chapter will concentrate on the Eastern Cape, which became a prime focus of evangelistic ambitions both in the southern African region and in Scotland itself. Other areas of Scottish activity included the Transkei and northern Natal.

The military frontier

The frontier wars continued intermittently over a period of a hundred years between the 1770s, when the Dutch had reached the zone during the VOC period, and the 1870s. They raged over a tract of land almost 100 miles wide, from the eastern edge of the colony to the Kei River. The British were caught up in these struggles, 600 miles and more from Cape Town, from the start of their rule. In 1798 they set the frontier of the colony at the Great Fish River. They later tried to clear the Xhosa from its fringes and form a buffer zone which became known as the ceded territory.4

But the imperial advance was inexorable. Ultimately, the boundary reached not just the Keiskamma but the Kei beyond, and the new port of East London was founded by 1848.5 Later annexations were to move northwards through the Transkei and into Pondoland, eventually reaching up to the border of Natal. Scots military men and missionaries were to be involved in this frontier region almost from the start of British entanglements there.
Robert Hart (1776-1867), from Strathaven, in Lanarkshire, arrived at the Cape with the 78th Highland Regiment in 1795.6

He was involved (as an ordinary soldier) in the suppression of the Van laarsveld revolt in Graaff Reinet in 17987 and in the following year was active in the third frontier war, against Ndlambe. For the British this frontier constituted a Boer problem as well as an African one, and Hart was caught up in both. After 1802 he went to India before returning to Scotland to marry. By now an ensign, he was back at the Cape in the 1806 invasion. He again became a frontier warrior, as adjutant of the Cape Regiment (or 'Hottentot Corps') under Colonel John Graham (see below). In 1807 his regiment cleared the Xhosa from the Zuurveld region of the frontier, driving them over the Great Fish River.

After the founding of Grahamstown in 1811-12 Hart and his wife were stationed there until 1817, at a time when the town was no more than a collection of huts and tents. He was appointed the superintendent of Somerset Farm, which supplied food and fodder to the troops at Fort Beaufort, introducing merino sheep, importing horses and building a water mill. He acted as guide to the 1820 settlers (notably his fellow countrymen, the Pringle family) and helped them with grain, seed and stock. He acquired an extensive frontier farm which he renamed Glen Avon and became heemraad for the area under the landdrost W. D. MacKay.

ctive in the building of the DRC church at Somerset East, he supported the Lovedale mission and later bequeathed £1,300 for the building of the Presbyterian church in the town. It was completed in 1870.
The career of William Don MacKay (1769-1831) also illustrates how quickly Scots were on the frontier. He was from Sutherland and arrived at the Cape in 1806.

By 1808 he was ensign with the Cape Corps. He was involved in the suppression of the Slagtersnek rebellion8 and then worked in the landdrost's offices at Graaff Reinet and Cradock before being promoted landdrost at Somerset East. He married an Afrikaans woman and was proficient in the language, as his frontier career suggests. He was later Civil Commissioner at the Cape and Simonstown. [...]


Index:

Abdurahman, Dr Abdullah 223
Abercrombie, Dr James 43, 44, 175, 193,
198n.26, 218
Adamson, Rev. James 39, 78, 85, 87-8,
176-8, 193
Afrikaner (Boer) 17, 19, 20, 34-5, 45, 55,
56, 62n.83, 80, 81, 83, 95-9 passim,
125n.7, 125n.8, 125n.l4, 129n.62,
135-6, 137, 150, 152, 153, 158-63
passim, 173, 180, 184, 188, 190,
191, 192, 200n.70, 207-8, 211, 213,
215, 216, 227, 229, 232, 241-2, 245,
250, 255, 257-8, 261, 263n.l9,
264n.42, 267-74 passim
America vii, 2, 5, 14-21 passim, 25n.34,
38, 41, 51, 66, 85, 92n.57, 94, 112,
138, 139, 147, 161, 166n.57, 179,
187, 227, 229, 232, 233, 239n.99,
240, 261n.2, 271
American Independence, War of 31, 34,
35, 57n.3, 82
Anderson, Rev. William 103, 127n.36
'Anglicisation' vii, 52, 64-5, 162, 173,
184, 189, 192, 193, 241, 260, 267-9,
272
Anglo-Boer War (1880-1) 172, 241, 242,
245, 252
Anglo-Boer War (1899-1902) 17, 19, 22,
112, 115, 153, 155, 160, 162, 173,
182, 189-92, 199n.58, 214, 215-16,
221-2, 225, 226, 229, 232, 241-55
passim, 265n.70, 267, 268, 271, 274
Anglo-Zulu War 121, 153, 227, 228
Arbuckle, Sir William 179, 224
Arbuthnot, James and Jane 139-40, 144,
149, 164n.21, 197n.l9
Australia 2, 3, 7, 8, 18-21 passim,
24n.23, 31, 35, 38, 39, 41, 66, 82,
85, 137, 138, 144, 146, 147, 151,
152, 156, 161, 162, 166n.57, 175,
190, 192, 201n.90, 207, 213, 214,
224, 230, 233, 236n.53, 236n.56,
239n.99, 240, 255, 261n.2, 271 ;.
Bain, Andrew Geddes 208-9, 211
Bain, James Thompson 228-33, 256
Baird, General Sir David 4, 36, 38
Banks, Sir Joseph 4, 25n.36, 32, 33
Barnard, Lady Anne 35, 38, 58n.29, '
58n.31-2, 59n.42
Barry, Dr James 44, 72, 91n.32, 218
Bathurst, Lord 41, 42, 51, 65, 71, 73-4,,
91n.37, 175
Beattie, Sir Jock Carruthers 194
Bell, Charles 86, 93n.75, 235n.34,
236n.42
Bell, Charles Davidson 46, 209-12
Bell, Colonel John 86, 105, 209-10
Bennie, Rev. John 104, 105, 115,
128n.45, 128n.50, 130n.65
Berry, Dr Sir William Bisset 218-19, 250
Bloemfontein 131n.82, 161, 171, 172,
179, 187-8, 192, 193, 199n.47, 230,
243, 246
Blythswood (Mfengu) mission 112,
114-15, 123, 132n.93, 132n.l04
Boers see Afrikaners
Borders, Scottish 6, 13, 15, 42, 54, 56,
67, 85, 236n.53, 273
botanic gardens 31-3, 67, 88, 110, 207,
224
Botha, Louis 195, 231
Brand, President 187
Brebner, John 183, 187-8
British South Africa Company 225, 227
Brown, John Croumbie 193, 206-8
Brown, Archibald 184, 197n.8
Brownlee, Rev. John 104, 105, 106, 107,
119, 128n.47, 129n.57, 129n.64
Bruce, Sir David 214
Bruce, Rev. John 180
Brunton, Walter 145, 165n.28
Buchan, John 163, 257, 264n.42, 273-4
Buchanan, David Dale 75, 83, 146, 183
Buchanan family 146, 183-4
Buchanan, Sir E. John 194, 250
Burns, Robert 13, 16, 18, 118, 128n.48,
167n.79, 243, 244, 245, 249,
263n.l9, 264n.44
Bushmen see Khoisan
Byrne, Joseph Charles 138-40, 143,
150-1, 164n.l6-17, 179, 180, 224
Byrne settlers see Byrne, Joseph Charles
Calderwood, Rev. Henry 109, 116,
130n.73
Caledonian Societies 24n.23, 153, 182,
188, 226, 233, 240, 241-50, 255-6,
261, 262n.7, 263n.20-l, 263n.33,
263n.36, 266n.84, 270
Campbell, General Charles 51, 6In.80,
218
Campbell, Sir Marshall 155, 167n.67
Campbell, Rev. William 179-80
Canada vii, 3, 8, 18, 19, 20, 21, 23n.ll,
28n.78, 35, 60n.68, 66, 82, 85, 141,
145, 161, 163, 179, 190, 192,
201n.90, 213, 230, 232, 233,
236n.56, 240, 261n.2, 271
see also America
Cape Town 14, 29, 32-9 passim, 43, 44,
51, 53, 61n.80, 64-75 passim, 78,
80, 81, 82, 85, 87, 88, 91n.39,
92n.59, 96, 120, 127n.36, 131n.82,
148, 151, 156, 170-8 passim, 181-5
passim, 193, 194, 198n.34, 200n.67,
201n.76, 210, 212, 217, 219-24
passim, 229, 230, 235n.34, 237n.58,
238n.89, 243, 245, 250, 253-4, 255,
264n.48, 265n.59
Cape Town Highlanders 238n.93, 253-4
Carlyle, Thomas 92n.67, 202n.l05, 228
Chalmers, Rev. John 108, 117, 189
Chalmers, Rev. William 105, 117, 118,
122
churches
Anglican 65, 132n.93, 134n.l30,
174, 175, 190, 199n.52, 211,
250
Baptist 17, 174
Catholic 4, 13, 26n.51, 149, 174,
175, 197n.l3, 197n.l8, 211
Church of Scotland 6, 48, 55, 67,
71, 101, 102, 120, 121, 128n.45,
134n.l36, 139, 156, 170, 174,
175, 177, 178, 188, 198n.25,
198n.31
Congregationalist 17, 69, 102, 145,
146, 174, 175, 179, 185,
197n.20, 206
Dutch Reformed Church 9, 17, 48,
91n.39, 97, 156, 170-9, 184,
187, 190, 192, 193, 198n.36,
202n.l01, 211, 241
Episcopalian 156, 174, 197n.l9
Free Church of Scotland 101, 108,
111, 114, 120-1, 123-4,
128n.43, 128n.45, 130n.65,
131n.82, 133n.l21, 139, 156,
174, 178, 179-80, 187, 198n.31,
201n.76
Methodist 52, 62n.86, 120, 126n.20,
130n.74, 164n.l6, 174, 198n.33
Presbyterian Church of South Africa
65, 123-4, 134n.l35-6, 181,
199n.55
United Presbyterian 101, 116,
128n.43, 128n.45, 130n.67,
131n.88
see also missions,- Presbyterian
coal 115, 120, 143, 147, 153, 156,
166n.50, 224, 226
Cole, Sir Lowry 47, 64, 74, 80, 82, 83,
90n.l7, 210
Coloured, Cape 1, 10, 83-4, 117, 177,
195, 222, 223, 261, 274
convicts 75, 81, 83, 235n.25
Cook, Captain James 32
Cradock 52, 56, 95, 97, 170, 245
Cradock, Sir John 53, 98, 103
Craig, General Sir James Henry 4, 35,
37, 58n.31, 217
Cumming, Roualeyn Gordon 215, 216
Currie, Sir Donald 213
Dalrymple, Sir William 225-6, 231, 255,
256
Dalzell, Dr James 120, 121, 125,
133n.l25
Dawson, William 184, 197n.8
diamonds 131n.82, 147, 151, 157, 219,
225, 267
Dobie, John Shedden 147
Dodds, Dr William 220-1, 222, 237n.73,
237n.80-l
Donkin, Sir Rufane 47, 52, 53, 75,
127n.39
Doyle, Arthur Conan 216, 221, 238n.82
Duff, Thomas 141-2
Dundas, General Francis 4, 35
Dundas, Henry 35, 58n.29, 58n.32
Dundee (Natal) 120, 121, 134n.l36, 152,
156, 166n.51, 166n.53, 229, 245,
253
D'Urban, Sir Benjamin 83, 125n.5,
235n.20
Durban 46, 88, 136, 137, 139, 140-9
passim, 151, 153-4, 156, 165n.28,
165n.33, 166n.63, 167n.67, 179, 182,
188, 193, 221, 224, 230, 243, 247,
255, 262n.ll
Dutch 1, 2, 9, 17, 27n.54, 29, 30, 31, 33,
34, 35, 36, 38, 41, 45, 56, 57n.3,
58n.33, 64, 67-78 passim, 82, 88,
89, 95, 96, 102, 104, 106, 140, 184,
187, 197n.l4, 217, 227, 252, 257,
268
see also Afrikaner; churches, Dutch
Reformed Church
Dutch East India Company (VOC) 29,
31, 32, 34, 57n.8, 76, 95, 96, 125n.7
East India Company 22n.4, 37-8, 58n.32,
59n.40, 137
East London 95, 97, 129n.64, 134, 157,
179, 195, 198n.38, 218, 242, 248,
262n.7
Ellis, James 144-5, 197n.20
Elphinstone, Admiral George Keith 35,
37, 238n.95
Enlightenment, the 11, 14, 25n.34, 31,
33, 55, 58n.32, 64, 82
see also Scots and intellectual life
Exhibitions 5-6, 23n.ll, 23n.l5, 215,
227, 258
Fairbairn, John 46, 48, 67-8, 71-5, 77,
78-85, 87, 91n.39, 185, 193, 211,
228
Faure, Rev. Abraham 71, 171, 197n.9
Findlay, Captain John 39, 72
Fingo, Fingoland see Mfengu
First World War 163, 225, 226, 227, 231,
232, 242, 247, 257, 260
Forbes, Alexander 148-9, 197n.20
Fort Hare (University College) 108, 110,
111, 112, 116, 134n.l36, 195-6
Fraser, Rev. Colin 171-2, 197n.8
Fraser, Rev. Colin McKenzie 171, 173,
250
Freemasonry 36, 144, 176, 210, 244, 246,
252, 264n.48, 270
frontier ('Kaffir') wars 53, 56, 63n.l04,
81, 84, 97, 99, 106-8, 109, 111, 114,
116, 119, 125n.l6, 129n.57, 130n.68,
143, 157, 208, 212, 252, 272
Gaelic 13, 31, 128n.51, 245, 254, 257
Gcaleka, chief 95, 99
Gill, Sir David 93n.82, 194, 202n.l08,
250
Gill College 187, 194
Godlonton, Robert 75, 218
gold, South African 2, 9, 15, 18, 47, 66,
115, 145, 147, 151, 153, 158, 160,
161, 162, 181, 199, 213, 225,
238n.91, 243, 248, 255, 267
Gordon Memorial Mission 112, 120-1,
133n.l21, 133n,125
Gordon, Colonel Robert J. 30-1, 32, 33
35
Govan, Rev. William 111, 131n.80
Graaff Reinet 52, 74, 86, 97, 171, 172,
174, 200n.67, 208, 218, 235n.24
Graham, Colonel John 41, 53, 97, 98, 99,
125n.l3, 209
Graham, Robert Cruikshank 232-3
Grahamstown 19, 46, 47, 52, 53,
61n.73, 74, 75, 95, 97, 98, 107,
131n.82, 132n.99, 179, 181, 189,
193, 194, 209, 218, 235n.24, 258,
265n.70
Gray, Rev. James 181, 199n.55
'Great Trek' 28n.73, 172, 173, 177,
197n,13
Greig, George 70, 71-5, 85, 91n.46
Grey, Sir George 85, 111, 237n.60
Griqua 14, 96, 103, 127n.36
Hardie, James Keir 230-1, 233
Hart, Robert 97, 200n.70
Herschel, Sir John 81, 185, 200n.67, 211
Highland games 240, 243, 244, 262n.l3
Highland Scots 13, 15, 25n.32, 41, 42,
50-1, 52, 54, 55, 123, 139, 140, 147,
245-6, 249, 252, 275n.5
see also Scots and the military
Highlands, Scottish 6, 7, 12, 13, 42,
129n.64, 137, 222, 252, 258
'Hottentot' see Khoisan
Hoy, Sir William Wilson 226-7
hunting 55, 59n.46, 86, 87, 96, 135, 136,
139, 140, 146, 158, 163n.5, 204,
208, 210, 212, 214-16, 236n.42,
236n.46
Hutcheon, Duncan 213
Hyslop, Jonathan 18, 19, 169, 228, 233,
253-7 passim
Innes family 185, 187, 200n.70
Innes, James Rose 80, 105, 183, 184-5,
188, 193, 197n.8
intermarriage 7-8, 17, 24n.22, 30, 31, 45,
51, 97, 101, 116, 117, 127n.30, 136,
172, 173, 182, 208, 222, 223, 254,
274
Irish 1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 16, 19, 22n.4, 36,
51-2, 65-6, 137, 139, 149, 155-6,
161-2, 178, 229, 231, 248, 265n.59,
269, 270
Jameson, Dr Leander Starr 219
Jameson Raid 187, 225, 229, 271
Jardine, Alexander Johnstone 85, 89, 175
Johannesburg 151, 154, 181, 189, 191,
194, 226, 227, 230, 231, 232,
238n.89, 238n.91, 243-9 passim,
255, 256
'Kaffir Wars' see frontier wars
Kaffraria 95, 107, 108, 109, 112-13, 114,
118, 121, 123, 126n.24, 126n.25,
181, 200n.61, 242
Kat River 99, 106, 107, 125n.l6, 127n.30
Kerr, Alexander 195-6
Kew Gardens 32, 33, 35, 88, 207
Khoisan 1, 25n.36, 31, 32, 33, 34, 45,
54-5, 70, 77, 78, 86, 95-106 passim,
125n.7, 125n.8, 125n.l3, 125n.l4,
127n.33, 133n.l09, 212, 274, 275n.5
Kimberley 131n.82, 179, 194, 219, 221,
225, 229, 254-5, 265n.64
King William's Town 95, 105, 107,
129n.57, 179, 182, 242, 248
Kitchener, Lord Horatio Herbert 244,
255
Knox, Dr Robert 84, 86, 130n.65, 218
Kruger, President 170, 227, 229, 243, 244
Ladysmith 143, 144, 151, 153, 156, 179,
199n.44, 214, 230, 265
Laing, Rev. James 105, 107, 118,
130n.65, 225
Laing, John 225
Lesotho see Sotho
libraries 67, 73, 80, 84-5, 88, 93n.71,
93n.72, 167n.67, 181, 186, 199n.57,
219, 268
Livingstone, David vii, 5, 23n.8, 25n.35,
55, 100, 105, 111, 173, 181, 205-6,
263n.33, 266n.84, 274
LMS see missions
Love, Rev. John 102-5 passim
Lovedale mission 97, 101, 104-8 passim,
109-13, 114, 115-16, 120, 121, 123,
124, 126n.25, 129n.64, 130n.65,
130n.74, 131n.82, 134n,130,
134n.l36, 189, 195
Lowlands, Scottish 13, 15, 42, 56, 137,
252, 264n.42, 273
Lyell (Forbes), Margaret Stewart 148-9
McCorkindale, Alexander see New
Scotland
McDiarmid, Alexander 105, 108
Macdonald, Alexander 38, 175, 198n.24
Macfarlane, John and Walter 147, 150
Mcintosh, Helen and James 151
MacKay, William Don 97-8
Mackenzie brothers (George, John,
William) 223, 247-8, 249
Mackenzie, Dr James Rutherford 222-3
Mackenzie, Rev. John 127
McKidd, Rev. Alex 173
McLaren, Rev. James 114-15
McLarty, William 223-4
MacLeod, Adam Gordon 186, 201n.76
Macvicar, Dr Neil 115-16
Mann, Dr Robert James 150, 20In.79
Maqoma, chief 106-7, 116, 129n.62
Masson, Francis 30, 31-3, 34, 35, 58n.21,
58n.28
Menzies, Judge William 92n.52, 176
merino sheep 30, 79, 80, 92n.62, 97, 153,
194
Mfengu (Fingo) 99, 108, 109, 112, 114,
117, 120, 123, 125n.l7, 131n.88
see also Blythswood mission
migration schemes 15-16, 42, 46, 47, 50,
135, 137, 142, 147, 148, 150-1, 154,
156-7, 162-3, 164n.l6, 168n.90-l,
170-2
see also Byrne, J. C.; Moodie settle-
ment; settlement of 1820
Milner, Alfred 112, 163, 168n.91, 189,
190, 191, 192, 232, 244, 264n.42, 267
missions, missionaries 4, 9, 14, 15, 17,
18, 19, 21, 22, 55, 56, 84, 92n.57,
94-134, 173, 176-9, 181, 185, 195,
196n.2, 198n.28, 198n.36, 199n.42,
205, 208, 215, 241, 242, 259, 270,
272, 274
Glasgow Missionary Society 102,
103, 104, 105, 111, 118,
128n.41, 128n.43-5
London Missionary Society 48, 72,
101, 102, 103, 106, 109,
127n.36, 130n.68, 130n.73, 170,
197n.20, 206
see also churches
Moffat, Robert 70, 86, 90n.l8, 103,
127n.30, 127n.35, 205-8
Moodie, Benjamin see Moodie settle-
ment
Moodie, Donald 40, 43, 60n.68, 138, 147,
164n.l4
Moodie family 47-8, 59n.45, 60n.68
Moodie, John 40, 45-6, 59n.46, 60n.68,
105-6, 129n.59
Moodie settlement (1817) 36, 39-48, 49,
51, 60n.57, 60n.59, 60n.61, 60n.68,
79, 81, 97, 105, 138, 218, 270
Moodie, Thomas 47, 60n.68
Muir, Dr John 219-20
Muir, Sir Thomas 114, 183, 186, 188,
250
Murray, Rev. Dr Andrew (snr) 171, 172,
197n.8
Murray, Rev. Dr Andrew (jnr) 170, 187-8
Murray, Charles 259-60
Murray family 170-2, 173
museums 5, 28n.73, 62n.83, 67, 85-7,
88, 166n.63, 207, 226, 258, 268
Namaqualand 33, 44, 103, 209, 210, 212
Napoleonic Wars 37, 40, 58n.32, 59n.46,
61n.82, 64, 98, 136, 209, 252
Natal 18, 19, 47, 60n.68, 74, 75, 86, 96,
97, 120, 121, 123, 135-156, 158, 159,
160, 161, 172, 179, 180, 181, 183,
188, 189, 194, 195, 197n.l9-20, 213,
214, 217, 221, 224, 230, 237n.60,
242-6 passim, 255, 260, 267, 271
Natal Government Railways 143, 154-5,
166n.53, 226, 243
Ndlambe, chief 97, 98, 103, 127n.38
New Glasgow (Natal) 141, 148, 164n.l6
New Scotland (Transvaal) 147, 148,
157-61, 163n.5, 245
New Zealand 2, 3, 7, 8, 18, 19, 20, 21,
23n.ll, 24n.23, 66, 85, 137, 138,
162, 183, 184, 190, 192, 224, 230,
240, 271
Ngqika (Gaika), chief 95, 102, 103, 105,
106, 107, 116, 125n.8, 127n.38
Nguni, northern 86, 95, 99, 135, 139,
141, 152, 153, 159, 167n.87, 218,
230, 231, 254, 256
see also Anglo-Zulu War; Zululand
Nguni, southern 1, 41, 53, 54, 55-6, 84,
95-108 passim, 114-20 passim, 122,
125n.7, 125n.l6, 126n.25, 127n.31,
129n.57, 208, 242
see also Gcaleka; Maqoma;
Ndlambe; Ngqika (chiefs)
Niven, Rev. Robert 108, 112
Orange Free State 18, 47, 146, 151, 158,
161, 171, 182, 183, 187-8, 189, 195,
219, 226, 241, 242, 245
Orange River Colony 189, 190, 245, 246,
250
Paterson, Francis 30, 32, 33-5, 58n.28
Paterson, John 75, 185, 200n.68, 201n.71
Philip, Dr John 26n.53, 48, 69-70, 72,
75-9, 81, 83, 87, 91n.34, 91n.39,
97-8, 102, 103, 106, 129n.59,
129n.62, 175, 193, 228, 274
Pietermaritzburg 139, 143, 146-9
passim, 153, 154, 156, 159, 165n.20,
165n.23, 165n.25, 165n.33, 165n.35,
166n.63, 179-80, 193, 199n.52, 217,
230, 243, 246, 255, 260, 263n.21
Pillans, Charles Stuart 73, 92n.55, 175,
198n.24
Pine, Lieutenant-governor Benjamin 75,
139, 140, 143, 146, 165n.33
police 113, 157
population 2, 12, 20, 36, 48, 65-6,
149-50, 155-6, 161-2, 165n.40, 178,
205
Port Elizabeth (Algoa Bay) 32, 39, 52, 54,
65, 74, 75, 79, 81, 88, 93, 95, 102,
131n.82, 132n.99, 156, 157, 167n.70,
179, 180, 185, 186, 187, 197n.l8,
198n.37, 200n.67-8, 213, 218, 243,
245, 253, 262n.9
Presbyterian 9, 17, 26n.51, 36, 39, 56-7,
57n.6, 65, 73, 78-9, 85, 87, 89,
91n.37, 97, 102, 103, 120, 124,
128n.44, 132n.99, 146, 153, 156,
162, 169-72 passim, 174-83, 188,
189, 190, 195, 197n.21, 198n.25,
198n.36, 198n,38, 199n.42,
199n.46-7, 199n.52, 199, 211, 218,
229, 241, 244, 246, 249, 252, 256,
264n.42, 270, 274
see also churches; missions
Pretoria 19, 160-1, 179, 181, 189, 190,
191, 193, 199n.46, 199n.58, 214,
244, 248, 257, 258, 275n.9
Pretorius, President 158-9
Pringle, John 37-8, 198n.36
Pringle, Thomas 44, 48-57, 59n.43,
61n.82, 62n.93, 63n. 101-2, 64,
67-75, 78-9, 85, 87, 91n.37, 91n.38,
92n.57, 228, 240, 259
Proudfoot family 136-7
racial politics 20-1, 48-9, 62n.86, 75, 77,
83^1, 89, 94, 112, 113-14, 115, 150,
177-8, 200n.70, 204, 228, 230-3,
241-2, 250, 257, 259, 260-1, 270,
271-2
railways 137, 141, 143, 150, 153-5,
165n.34, 166n.53, 166n.64, 210, 213,
221-7 passim, 246, 256, 265n.64,
269
see also Natal Government
Railways
Raitt, Alexander Seaton 232-3
Rattray, James 184, 197n.8, 200n.67
Read, James 69, 106
Reid, Joseph 185-6, 200n.67-8
Reitz, President 187, 263n.l9
Rhodes, Cecil 47, 109, 112, 114, 219,
225, 227, 238n.94, 254
Robertson, Rev. William 170, 171, 173,
184, 187, 197n.8
Romantic movement 12, 52, 55, 64, 68,
206, 251
Ross, Rev. David 171, 173
Ross, Rev. John 104, 105, 106-7, 108,
114, 119, 126n.21, 128n.50-l,
129n.64
Ross, Rev. Richard 108, 109, 114, 116,
129n.64
Russell, Rev. John Munro 178, 198n.38
Russell, Robert 183, 188
Rutherfoord, H. E. 70, 88
San see Khoisan
Sandilands, Gordon 256-7
Sandile, chief 117, 118, 132n,100
Scotch Education Department 190, 191
Scotch Irish (Northern Irish or Ulster
Scots) 3-4, 36, 65, 89
Scots and
agriculture 6, 11, 14, 38-53 passim,
55, 63n.l02, 79, 80, 88, 95, 97,
100, 103, 109, 110, 111, 115,
121, 137, 140-8 passim, 151-3,
157, 158, 163, 186, 205-6, 207,
213-14, 216, 225, 226, 269
business 5, 9, 14, 17, 20, 21, 29, 36,
37-9, 44, 45-7, 59n.43, 64, 66,
67, 70, 77-81, 122, 136-7,
140-8 passim, 149, 151, 152-5,
160-1, 164n.20, 165 n.23-5,
185, 204, 223-8, 247-8, 250-1,
264n.40, 270, 272
culture 4, 5, 13, 14, 16, 17, 20, 21,
24n.23, 45, 54, 67, 80, 142,
162, 177, 179, 186, 187,
197n.22, 201n.76, 210-11, 213,
224, 226, 235n.34, 237n.73,
238n.93, 240-51, 253, 257-61,
262n.3, 264n.44, 270-3 passim
see also Burns, Robert;
Caledonian Societies; Highland
games
education 4-5, 9, 11, 13, 38, 67-9,
79, 80, 87, 91n.39, 100, 101,
102, 105-6, 109-16, 120, 123,
126n.24, 126n.25, 132n.93,
133n,124, 141, 142, 155, 160,
169-203, 218, 219, 220, 227,
228, 241, 250, 251, 269, 272
engineering, civil 15, 44, 81, 142,
154, 161, 166n.63, 194, 204,
208, 210, 218, 225, 226, 232, 269
environment, the 9, 12, 14, 15, 18,
21, 26n.38, 26n.53, 52-6, 103
111, 204-16, 250, 258, 264n 42
273
exploration 15, 30, 31, 32, 33-4 54
86, 103, 105, 208-9, 211, 218 '
finance 80, 143, 144, 146, 148, 159,
165n,26, 167n.67, 187-8,
200n.67-8, 210, 211, 223^1,
225-6, 238n.89, 243, 247-8
forestry 9, 193, 204-8 passim, 216,
234n.ll, 234n.l3
frontiers 13, 14, 18, 41, 45, 47,
48-9, 51-6, 60n.57, 62n.83,
63n.l01, 63n.l04, 69, 70, 73,
77, 79, 81, 86, 94-134, 136,
148, 208, 210, 211, 219,
236n.42, 242, 270, 272
intellectual life 9, 13, 14, 17, 45, 56,
64, 66-7, 68, 70, 73, 84-8, 193,
210, 212, 218, 219, 227, 258
law, the 30, 36-7, 43-6, 6In.73, 76,
81, 92n.52, 143, 144, 145, 146,
147, 148, 169, 184, 200n.67,
201n.87, 211
medicine 4, 9, 22n.4, 29-30, 43, 44,
68, 72, 80, 85-6, 97-8, 113,
115-16, 120, 121, 122, 129n.64,
130n.65, 145, 202n.l08, 204,
210, 213-14, 216-23, 237n.60,
237n.75
military, the 5, 9, 18, 19, 22,
25n.32, 29-30, 31, 35-6, 37, 39,
40, 44, 52, 57n.l, 57n.3,
58n.33, 58n.34, 59n.35, 59n.38,
59n.46, 60n.68, 61n.80, 61n.82,
86, 97-9, 106-7, 136, 140,
142-3, 144, 149, 160, 163,
165n,34, 175, 176, 181,
197n.l8, 208, 209-10, 214, 215,
225, 226, 229, 231, 238n.93,
241-5 passim, 249, 252-8, 260,
261, 263n.l9, 265n.64-5,
265n.70, 272
see also Anglo-Boer War, Cape
Town Highlanders; Transvaal
Scottish Volunteers
mining 153, 162, 194, 219, 224,
225-6, 231, 232, 238n.91, 243,
256, 261, 269
'networks' 11, 14, 16-17, 26n.38,
26n.42, 39, 67-8, 89, 120,
143^1, 145, 154-5, 194, 209,
221, 236n.53, 243, 247-8, 249,
261
politics 21, 44, 47, 51, 64, 69-75,
81, 85, 90n.l7, 90n.l8,
92n.52, 103, 106-7, 134n.l36,
143-7 passim, 149, 152, 155,
161, 169, 185, 197n.l8,
200n.68, 218, 219, 223-7
passim, 228-33, 243, 249-50,
256, 258, 261, 262n.9, 268, 273
press, the 9, 12-13, 15, 16-17,
26n.39, 66-81 passim, 83,
85, 91n.46, 92n.60, 102, 103,
104, 110, 112, 131n.79,
134n.l36, 140, 141, 145, 146,
153, 155, 166n.47, 167n.67,
176, 185, 186, 200n.68, 209,
212, 214, 215, 218, 220-1, 228,
229-30, 231, 244, 248-51, 253,
275
religion 9, 13, 15, 17, 26n.51,
27n.54, 64, 67, 68, 70, 76, 78,
147, 156, 169-203, 204-8, 218,
228, 246-7, 250, 258, 264n.42,
269, 272, 274
representative government 44, 81-4,
89, 140
science and engineering 9, 11, 12,
14, 15, 30, 33, 35, 38, 67, 68,
81, 84-8, 93n.82, 122, 141, 143,
145, 147, 154-5, 162, 166n.63,
194, 196, 202n.l06, 204-9,
212-14, 216, 219-20, 226, 227,
229, 232, 248, 269, 273
social mobility 11, 12, 33, 34, 38,
46, 56, 60n.61, 73, 85-6, 88,
123, 144, 169, 208, 223, 228,
248, 254, 272-3
surveying, land 4, 9, 15, 39, 46, 76,
86, 141, 145, 152, 160, 163n.5,
194, 208-9, 210, 213, 225
trades union 18, 155, 169, 186,
223^1, 226-33 passim,
239n.l02, 242, 261, 270, 275
universities 11, 13, 25n.35, 66-7,
101, 110, 178, 186, 192-6,
202n.l06, 202n.l08, 202n.lll,
216-17, 228, 236n.56
urban society 6, 9, 11, 14, 42, 56,
69, 76, 79, 139, 152-3, 160,
205, 269, 273-4
'Scotsmen, black' 123, 134n.l29, 274
Scott, Rev. Charles 139, 179
Scott, Sir Walter 12, 16, 51, 54, 55, 64,
264n.44
settlement of 1820 36, 48-57, 61n.77,
61n.82, 62n.83, 93n.71, 99, 139,
159, 160, 200n.70, 218
Shepstone, Sir Theophilus 146, 150,
165n.40
Sivewright, Sir James 227-8, 238n.93
Skinner, Sir Harold Ross 225
slaves 8, 45, 54, 55, 70, 73, 74, 77-9, 82,
83, 92n.55, 92n.56, 115, 176-7
Smith, Rev. Alexander 105, 197n.8
Smith, Dr Sir Andrew 85-7, 89, 218,
236n.42
Smith, Sir Charles Abercrombie 194
Smith, Sir Harry 83, 109, 129n.57
Smith, Thomas Paterson 152-3
Smuts, Jan 155, 231
Smyth, Charles Piazzi 211, 212
Smythe, Charles John 151-2
Socialism 229-32 passim
Soga family 116-18, 132n.l02-6, 181,
214
Soga, Rev. Tiyo 116-18, 119, 122,
132n,98, 132n.l01, 274
Somerset, Lord Charles 42, 43, 47, 51,
53, 64, 66-74, 82, 87, 91n.32,
91n.34, 91n.39, 91n.42, 98, 104,
170, 173, 184, 267
Somerville, Dr William 217-18
Sotho 86, 96, 116, 125n.3, 146, 152, 215
South African College 38, 67, 80, 87, 88,
178, 185, 192-3, 194, 202n.l06, 206,
211, 219
South African Republic 144, 153,
201n.84, 241, 242, 245, 275n.9
South African Scot, The 241, 247-51,
259, 274
Stellenbosch 14, 16, 17, 170-3 passim,
184, 193, 194, 197n.lO, 202n.lll
Stevenson-Hamilton, James 215-16
Stewart, Rev. James 101, 110, 111-12,
114, 115, 116, 120, 121, 124, 127
n.29, 131n.81, 195, 250, 274
Steyn, President 171
Stockenstroom, Sir Andries 83
sugar 140, 142, 143, 144, 147, 149, 150,
151, 155, 156, 210
Sutherland, Dr Peter Cormac 145,
165n.35, 237n.60
Swazi 147, 152, 158, 159, 160, 167n.87
Swellendam 14, 44, 47, 48, 171, 172,
186, 200n.67
Templeton, Robert 189, 200n.70, 201n,87
Tennant, Sir David 193
Thorn, Rev. George 170-1, 175, 177, 184,
197n.8
Thomson, Rev. William Ritchie 104,
107, 116, 118, 197n.8
Transkei 95, 96, 97, 108, 109, 115, 117,
123, 195
Transvaal 9, 18, 44, 47, 86, 109, 145,
148, 151, 153, 158-63 passim,
167n.84, 173, 185, 189, 190, 191,
195, 200n.67, 216, 219, 226, 229,
232, 238n.89, 238n.91, 242, 244,
245, 275n.9
Transvaal Scottish (Volunteers) 225,
255-7
Tswana 1, 86, 96, 103, 134n.l30, 205,
208
Tullibardine, John George Murray,
Marquess of 255, 265n.65
Tyumie (Chumie) mission 102, 104-9
passim, 119, 122, 126n.25, 195
Uitenhage 105, 184, 185, 189, 200n.70
uitlander 181, 225, 229, 255
Union (of South Africa, 1910) 8, 10,
17-20 passim, 66, 152, 161, 163,
183, 185, 195, 201n.87, 219, 224,
226, 231, 237n.65, 242, 257, 259,
260, 275
Union, Act of (1707) 10, 11, 260
University of Cape Town (formerly Cape
of Good Hope) 178, 188, 193-4,
202n.lll, 217, 219, 237n.58
van der Kemp, Johannes T. 69, 102-4
VOC see Dutch East India Company
Waterston, Dr Jane 113, 119-20,
133n. 119-20, 250, 274
Witwatersrand (Rand) 66, 126, 162, 163,
169, 180, 181, 193, 194, 213, 225,
226, 229-32 passim, 243, 246,
255-6
Wodehouse, Sir Philip 114
women 11, 17, 39, 43, 49, 67, 69, 85,
100-2, 105, 106, 109-10, 111-13,
115, 118-21, 123, 126n.24,
126n.25, 127n.30, 127n.31,
131n.86, 132n.l02, 133n.ll6,
133n.ll9-20, 133n.l24, 134n.l31,
140, 144, 148-9, 152, 157, 162-3,
168n.90-l, 181-3, 186, 189-92,
195, 220, 222, 230, 259, 274
Xhosa see Nguni, southern
Yonge, Sir George 35, 70, 102, 218
Zulu see Nguni, northern
Zululand 112, 136, 142, 144, 149-50,
152, 159, 165n.40
Zuurveld 41, 95, 97, 98, 187