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Butterflies and Barbarians. Swiss missionaries and systems of knowledge in South-East Africa

Butterflies and Barbarians. Swiss missionaries and systems of knowledge in South-East Africa

How missionaries formulated and ordered knowledge about the African continent
Harries, Patrick
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Butterflies and Barbarians. Swiss missionaries and systems of knowledge in South-East Africa

Author: Patrick Harries
Publisher: Witwatersrand University Press
Johannesburg, 2007
ISBN: 978-1-86814-448-8
Paperback, 17x24 cm, 260 pages, several colour and bw photos


Description:

Swiss missionaries played an important role in explaining Africa to the literate (European) world in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

This title emphasises how these European intellectuals, brought to deep rural areas of south-eastern Africa by their vocation, formulated and ordered knowledge about the continent.

Central to this group was Henri-Alexandre Junod who became a pioneering collector in the fields of entomology and botany. He would later examine African society with the methodology, theories and confidence of the natural sciences.

On the way he came to depend on the skills of African observers and collectors. Out of this work emerged, between 1898 and 1927, a classic in the field of South African anthropology, The Life of a South African Tribe.

The author examines how local people absorbed imported ideas into their own body of knowledge. Through a process of interchange and compromise, Africans adapted foreign ways of seeing and doing things, and rapidly made them their own.

This is a history of new ideas and practices that shook African societies before and during the early years of colonialism. It is equally a history of ordinary people and their ability to adapt and subvert these ideas.


Contents:

List of Maps and Figures
Chapter Openings
Acknowledgements
Colour Plates between

Introduction

Switzerland
Evangelism and Identity
Political Revolution and Religious Change
The Independent Church of Neuchatel
Missionary Origins

African Itineraries & Swiss Identities
Africa Comes to Switzerland
African Images and Swiss Identities
Europe's Past in Africa's Present
Africa in Switzerland

Christianity
Native Christianity or the Limits of Tolerance
Mission Christianity
Economic Development and Evangelical Expansion

Landscape
Landscape and Identity: Switzerland
The African Landscape
Landscape and Society
Creating a Sense of Place: Cartography

Natural Sciences
Collecting in Switzerland
Science in Support of Religion
African Adventures in Taxonomy
Social Evolution and Natural Imperialism

Language
Defining a Written Language
Adapting Borders: Classification
Language and Structures of Power
Adapting Borders: the Ronga Language

Literacy
Reading in western Switzerland
The Transformative Powers of the Word
Literacy as a Local Skill
Ways of Reading
Literacy and Politics

Anthropology
New Knowledge
Anthropology and the Scientific Method
Salvage Anthropology
Evolutionism
Race and Politics

Politics
Anthropology and Social Change
Bantu Heritage and History
Conclusion
Bibliography
Index


Introduction:

In 1936 the anthropologist Max Gluckman reached the top of the low range of mountains separating the north-western edge of KwaZulu-Natal from southern Mozambique. As he looked down from the Lebombos onto the coastal plain, Gluckman raised his hat in tribute to a Swiss missionary whose anthropological work in the region had laid the foundations of the discipline in South Africa.1

Henri-Alexandre Junod had died two years earlier in Geneva and his ashes were interred at Rikatla near the graves of his infant son Henri-Alexis, his second wife, Helene Kern and Paul Berthoud, one of the founders of his Mission. At Shiluvane, in the Lowveld to the west of the Lebombos, lay the graves of Junod's first wife, Emily Biolley and the remains of their unborn child, as well as that of Helen Kern's infant daughter Eveline.

In fact the graves of Junod's colleagues and their companions marked his entire area of fieldwork, from the foothills of the Zoutpansberg down to the coastal plain south of the Limpopo river.

The young Gluckman was unaware of these grim reminders of the high price of early missionary anthropology, nor was he aware of the collective intellectual enterprise that had supported Junod's anthropological work. Gluckman's teachers had established anthropology as a professional discipline in South Africa and were increasingly critical of the methodology employed by amateurs like Junod.

By the mid-1930s, the importance of missionaries had declined in the field, and they had lost their foothold in the universities. The new university professionals believed that the missionary was unable to look at African societies in an objective and scientific way because of his vocation.

Missionaries like Junod had seen themselves as friends of the native; the professional anthropologists increasingly viewed them as part of the problem of change besetting the native and his world. Anthropologists criticized the theory and method employed by missionaries who were unwilling to leave the safety of the verandah; their evolutionist ideas were outdated, unhelpful and increasingly racist in inspiration and effect.

In many ways, anthropologists had defined the professional borders of their discipline in opposition to the amateur missionary-in-the field. Although it went unsaid, this figure often challenged the anthropologist, partly because of the missionary's linguistic skills and his knowledge of deep rural communities and partly because he was a real or potential competitor for funds and professional posts.2

Although Junod's work inevitably fell out of fashion, it retained the respect of the anthropological profession. In 1951 Evans-Pritchard called his The Life of a South African Tribe 'one of the best anthropological monographs ever written'.3 Fourteen years later Gluckman would still regard this work as 'a classic . . . one of the best books that we have on a single tribe'.4

In the 1970s-80s, French-speaking structuralists examined Junod's ethnography with a new eye, just as British anthropology sank into a fog of embarrassment over the outdated approaches used by authors like Junod.5 But even during these difficult years for the British school, Adam Kuper could refer to Junod's monograph as one of its 'magisterial ethnographies'.6

In 1994 Adrian Hastings called it a 'masterpiece', the finest work produced in Africa before the arrival of professional anthropology.7 More recently, in perhaps the greatest tribute to the missionary-anthropologist, W.D. Hammond-Tooke used Junod's picture as the frontispiece to his reflection on the history of modern anthropology in South Africa, a place from which the missionary-anthropologist casts a patriarchal gaze on the professional work of subsequent generations.8

One of the major themes I pursue in this book is an examination of the factors that predisposed a young theological student from Neuchatel in Switzerland, the author of an 1885 thesis on 'The Perfect Holiness of Jesus Christ', to become an internationally renowned anthropologist.9

But this book is not a biography of Junod nor is it a study of his missionary society, a theme that has received the attention of several generations of worthy scholarship.10 My main concern is to undertake a microstudy of one small missionary society as a site for the construction of knowledge about Africa. In the process I focus on the interaction between the Swiss missionaries and the people who, at least partly under their influence, would come to see themselves as members of the Thonga or Tsonga ethnic group.

In this book I am less concerned with capturing subaltern experience than I am with showing how a small group of European intellectuals came to portray Africa and, in the process, to construct an 'African voice'.11 I look at how their ideas were shaped and ordered by their social origins and interests in Europe and by the context of the times in which they lived; how these ideas changed through contact with a richly eclectic variety of traditions in the growing fields of missiology, the natural sciences, linguistics and anthropology.

I am particularly concerned to examine the way in which their partial immersion in the field led them, and later their congregants and others, to construct systems of knowledge that gave meaning to their changing world. In the process, I look at the various narrative practices employed by the missionaries, as well as the institutions that legitimated and spread their representation of Africans and their environment, and how disputes and differences within the mission changed their perspectives.

The Kulturträger of the Swiss Romande Mission were resolutely middle-class and generally highly educated. They carried to Africa a series of experiences and values forged during a period of social and political upheaval in French-speaking, western Switzerland. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries they applied to Africa a series of scientific practices, rooted in the Enlightenment, that quickly cast them, once in Africa, as experts on 'the native question'.

Their representation of tribal life had a strong influence on various leaders of public opinion in southern Africa, stretching from lawmakers to jurists and politicians to those who adopted a Thonga ethnic consciousness.12 This book emphasizes how these European intellectuals, who were brought by their vocation from a country without colonies to deep rural areas of Africa, formulated and debated, ordered and arranged, knowledge about Africa.

In the early part of the nineteenth century, scientific and secular ideas associated with the Enlightenment were altering the way in which the Swiss related to their environment and to each other. Romanticism and waves of religious revival added to the chaos of comprehension as people and communities attempted to provide their tumultuous world with order and understanding.

Their notion of space was transformed as much by the telescope and microscope as by new geographical discoveries. At the same time, advances made in geology, glaciology and palaeontology hurtled the age of the world backwards. As the Swiss struggled to orientate themselves in space and time, their views of everything from religion to landscape and politics underwent a rapid and shifting transformation.

The missionaries took this experience of rapid change to Africa where they used a number of established practices to give meaning to their new world. Their propaganda described Africa as a continent of darkness to which missionaries carried the light of spiritual and secular salvation. Through a mixture of religion and science and with the help of their supporters at home, they promised to raise a population of enigmatic pagans from a state of intellectual childhood to a responsible maturity.

But in another genre of literature, aimed at a more secular readership and carried by the journals of scientific and geographical societies, as well as by specialized religious magazines, the missionaries described a very different Africa. In the picture of the world carried by this literature, Africans contributed to the vision of the missionary Aufklarer in various ways.

African evangelists, guides, collectors, translators and specialists in anything from medicine to music, plant life to linguistics, supplied the missionaries with the knowledge needed to make sense of the environment and its inhabitants. Most missionaries were only interested in the raw data provided by their informants. Henri-Alexandre Junod stands out, however, because his curiosity extended to the ways in which his informants organized and regulated their knowledge and, in so doing, infused their world with meaning.

He was particularly impressed by the grammatical structures of the languages he studied and by the patterns of music, folklore and kinship he observed. Although he viewed the ways people arranged their knowledge of plant- and animal-life as archaic and outmoded, and advocated more 'modern' and 'universal' ways of understanding nature, he took seriously native systems of framing data and making sense of it.

Like Junod, Africans adopted and adapted foreign ways of seeing and doing things and rapidly made them their own.13 This book is a history of the swirling interaction of ideas, beliefs and practices in one part of Africa before and during the early years of colonialism. But it is equally a history of ordinary people and of their ability to challenge, adapt, change and subvert those ideas.

The book starts with an examination of the Christian revival that swept across western Switzerland in the early nineteenth century. This gave birth to various Free Churches, an important missionary society, and an intellectual milieu that produced individuals such as Adolphe Mabille, Frederic Ellenberger, Henri-Alexandre Junod, Henri Berthoud, Edouard Jacottet, Heli Chatelain and Henri Perregaux, who would make pioneering contributions to the field of African Studies.

The chapter draws attention to the turbulent nature of a church produced by the dramatic politics and religious changes of mid-nineteenth-century Switzerland. The consequences for the mission of the struggle to create a church independent of government controls, but responsive to the ideals of the Christian revival, are traced in later chapters.

These include the emergence of a new and dynamic church equipped with a particularly tolerant theology but unsure of its position and place in Switzerland and the world.


List of Maps & Figures:

Maps
1 Western Switzerland
2 Delagoa Bay and Hinterland
Figures

2.1 (a) A popular image in missionary literature portrayed Africans as victims of the slave trade, (b) Several generations of Sunday school children followed Fritz Ramseyer's account, written in the early 1870s, of his captivity in the Asante kingdom. This illustration of the king's executioners was published in a wide range of missionary periodicals.
2.2 Fund-raising was a crucial aspect of missionary activity: the 'thank you' box was redesigned to take the shape of an African hut and the ‘tirelire a negre' is still to be found in a few parishes.
2.3 The Swiss missionaries took pride in the size of their mission field. This map, published in 1893, showed their field of operations to be far larger than Switzerland.
2.4 Mission propaganda often featured 'before' and 'after' images. One flyer contrasts a 'witchdoctor' with a 'native pastor' (Calvin Matsivi Mapope), another contrasts a young man 'still pagan!' with a group of industrious 'future primary school teachers'.
3.1 Yosefa Mhalamhala and Zebedee Mbenyane, early converts.
4.1 Swiss missionaries started to photograph the environment in 1884. In this picture, taken north of Pretoria, human figures are lost in an empty veld and dwarfed by an engulfing sky.
5.1 Henri-Alexandre Junod hunting butterflies on the escarpment near Shiluvane.
5.2 African collectors provided Junod with a range of plants and insects.
5.3 Butterfly and insect trays.
6.1 Henri-Alexandre Junod and Henri Berthoud.
7.1 Jim, Paulus and Philemon Ximungana.
8.1 Left out of this illustration of 'Thonga weapons' is the most common weapon of all by the 1890s: the second-hand or remaindered European gun.
8.2 (a) The diviner Hokoza and his assistants, (b) The diviner and his Swiss visitors.
8.3 (a) Photograph of Ntchoungi, a Khosa sub-chief, leaning against a chair of European manufacture. In the illustration (b) taken from the photograph, the chair has been removed.
9.1 Calvin Matsivi Mapope and Henri-Alexandre Junod.

Chapter Openings:

Henri-Alexander Junod's beetles, used as chapter openings, are from the Transvaal Museum, Coleoptera collection. Specimens were selected by its curator Mr James du Guesclin Harrison, and the digital images were taken and processed by Mr Dries Marais (20 February 2006):

Chapter 1
File PA5720, Fam. Cerambycidae, Genus Oxyprosopus, Spec. junodi
Chapter 2
File PA5721, Fam. Cerambycidae, Genus Hypsideroides, Spec. junodi
Chapter 3
File PA5722, Fam. Cerambycidae, Genus Peleconus, Spec. junodi
Chapter 4
File PA5723, Fam. Cerambycidae, Genus Phantasis, Spec. carinatus
Chapter 5
File PA5725, Fam. Cerambycidae, Genus Monochamus, Spec. leuconotus
Chapter 6
File PA5727, Fam. Cerambycidae, Genus Prosopocera, Spec. lactator
Chapter 7
File PA5728, Fam. Staphylinidae, Genus Paederus, Spec. junodi
Chapter 8
File PA5730, Fam. Cerambycidae, Genus Tetralux, Spec. junodi
Chapter 9
File PA 5731, Fam. Cerambycidae, Genus Saphronica, Spec. junodi


Index:

abortion 207, 238n6
Academies, Lausanne 15, 17;
Neuchatel 22, 25-6, 126-7, 129-30,
149nl9, 207,214
Agassiz, Louis 44, 57, 125-8, 130, 142,
153nll3,234
Albasini, Joao (snr) 110, 121n89, 155,
162, 184; Joao (jnr) 200; Francisco
Joao 147, 194, 204n72
alcohol 82, 109-10, 143, 240n55;
absinthe 27, 49
Alps 10, 26, 50, 61, 97-101, 118nl9,
124, 147, 183
amaTonga 162
American Board of Commissioners for
Foreign Missions 87-8, 157, 163,
167, 176, 122nl23, 131,221-2
Andrade, Freire de 122nl23, 131, 221-2
Anglican Church 86ff, 171, 200
anthropology 6, 206ff, 214, 249ff;
evolution 208, 223, 228-32, 238nll,
242nl07, 243nl20, 243nl23,
245nl67, see also Hartland; kinship
228-30, 250-2, see malume; method
46, 216-19, 241n65, 241n74, see also
Libombo,Viguet; physical 207-8,
214, 216-17, 236, 238nl0, 240n62,
see also Pittard; salvage 212, 217-28,
252, 255-7, 262; and social change
221, 250-7, 259n45, see also 'pass
laws'; religion 231-2, see Tilo
Antioka 73, 75, 85, 90, 114-15, 171,
193, 207, 210, 224, 228
ants, see entomology
anti-slavery 19, 40-1
apartheid 262-3
Appia, Henry 129, 243nl43; Louis 19
art xv, 4, 52-3, 65nl06
Aryans 44
Attinger brothers 29
Bachofen, Johann 207-8, 243nl22
Baker, A. W. 191
baloyi, see witchcraft
Barbey, William xv, 30nl5, 130, 132,
150n35, 151n53, 153nll3,211
Barber, Mary 142, 153nlll
Barroso, Antonio 89
Berlin Missionary Society 68-9,155,158
Basel Mission 21, 61n3, 62n21
Bastian, Adolphe 207,219
Benoit, William 228
Berthoud, Eugenie 69, 104-5, 150n45,
156
Berthoud, Henri (snr) 21, 31n39,
32n57
Berthoud, Henri (jnr) 3, 21, 52, 69, 73,
75, 78, 101-2, 197, 207, 210, 238n9;
as explorer and cartographer 71,
114-15; on language 159-64, 168-77,
174, 178n38, 178n39, 185
Berthoud, Paul 1, 21-2, 68-70, 73-80,
84-5, 104, 113-14, 184-5,196, 207,
254; as biologist 130, 136, 151n53;
as linguist 156, 158-71, 174
Berthoud-Junod, Ruth 50, 115, 111,
130, 166, 169, 191
Bible 11, 13-14, 19, 23, 38,113,115,
128, 158, 165-6, 167-8, 170, 175-6,
183, 193, 201n3, 209, 238nl4. See
also buku
Biolley, Alexis 27; Emilie 1, 27, 36,
111,211
Bleek, Wilhelm 47, 162, 179n50, 186
Boissier Herbarium xv, 130
Boissier, Pierre-Edmond 130-1
Boissier, Valerie 30nl5
Boas, Franz 208, 235
Bost, Ami 10-12
botany xvi, xvii, 3, 5, 55, 98, 123-33,
137-40, 144-5, 209, 261
Bourquin, Charles 254, 258n8
Breckenridge, Keith 204n70
Bridel family 29
British and Foreign Bible Society 13,
30nl4
Brookes, Edgar 247-48, 253, 255,
258n8
Bryce, James 101-2, 106, 140, 209-12,
238n20, 241n80
Bugnion, E. 135
fe£«71,91nll, 159-60, 165-6, 171,
178n27, 198
Buisson, Ferdinand 25, 33n71
Burtt-DavyJ. 151n68
Burckhardt, Jakob 51, 236
butterflies, see entomology
Buys, Coenrad de 110
Callaway, Henry 64n68, 223, 243nl34
Calvin 11-12, 79, 183
Calvinism 11-13, 79
cannibalism 42, 63n42, 111, 207
cartography xvi, 56, 71, 113ff, 218
Casalis, Eugene 31n43, 50, 53, 202n23
Cendrars, Blaise, 52, 215
Chambers, Robert 24
charivari 16
Chatelain, Henri 3, 29, 52, 65nl03
Chopi 80, 87, 111, 163; language
94nl09
Christian Union 27-8
Christianity 4-5, 11-13, 19, 21, 25, 44,
49,51,67-91,98, 101, 112, 123,
127-9, 144, 146, 148, 166, 184, 191-
3,221,231-2, 246,251-2
Church of Scotland 16, 142, 149n29
civilization: primitive 45-6, 48-9, 58,
63n65, 96-9, 100, 109-12, 125;
mission and, 90, 113, 116-17;
science and 144-6; unhealthy 81-2,
143, 146
clan 172, 218
CoetzeeJ. M. 103
Coillard, Francois 18, 42, 62n21, 68,
156
Colenso, William 86, 162, 223
collections 4-5, 47, 52, 54-5, 65nl03,
124-5, 130-5, 148n7, 166, 171-2,
192, 201, 206-7, 210, 214, 216, 218.
See also Neuchatel, ethnographic
museum
Congo scandal 58
Conrad, Joseph 47-8, 96, 102, 224
conversion 74-7, 83-5, 92n42, 183-4,
210
Courvoisier, Fritz 27
Creationism 24, 128-9, see also
Agassiz, Guyot, Darwin
Creux, Ernest 21-2, 69, 93n65, 104,
198, 207
Cust, Robert 159, 162
Cuvier, Georges 44, 126, 128
Darwin, Charles 24, 33n67, 44,
65nl26, 127, 130, 140-4, 147,
152nlll
Davel, Major 15, 38
Desor, Edouard 126, 206
diseases 81, 110-11, 143
Distant, W. L. 135, 141
diviners 76-7, 83, 115, 121n90, 147,
228. See also Hokoza and Libombo.
Djonga 158, 160-1, 164, 170, 176,
178n38
dreams 74, 92n43, 193
Droz, Numa 25
Druey, Henri 17
Drummond, Henry 142, 144,
153nll4, 154nl25
Dubejohn 220
Dubied, Arthur 214; Edouard 27;
Gustave 27; Marie 26-7, 211
Dunant, Henri 19
Durand, Thomas 133
Durkheim, Emile 211, 214, 220, 232,
239n39, 240n43
Du Pasquier, James 23, 26
Dutch Reformed Missionary Society
68, 155, 158
Duvoisin, Louis 18, 32n44
Earthy, Dora 163, 243nl42, 258n23,
264n4
Edinburgh Missionary Conference,
(1910)213,249
education, colonial 211-12, 236-7,
239n29, 246, 249
Eisenstein, Elizabeth 185
Elim 70, 115, 196
Ellenberger, Frederic 3, 18, 31n43, 206
Elton, Frederick 162
Ennes, Antonio 89
entomologv xvii, 55, 130-1, 133ff,
141ff, 151n72, 151n73,209
Erskine, St. Vincent 162
eugenics 143
evolution 24, 47-8, 92n27, 126,
131, 140-4, 153nll3, 164-5, 185,
208, 213, 217-19, 223-5, 228-35,
242nl07, 243nl23, 245nl67, 249,
250-2
exhibitions 54-5, 65nll7, 65nll8, 217-
18, 257
Farel, Guillaume 12
folklore 4, 47, 52, 64n68, 172, 201,
209, 220
Forel, Auguste31n37, 135, 139, 143,
150n43,154nl24
forced labour 221-3, 242n95, 262
forests 107, 132, 134
Free Church of the Canton ofVaud 4,
16-21, 29, 31notes32, 37, 38 and 39,
247
Frazer, James 48, 212-13, 223
Freud, Sigmund 48, 215
Gaugin, Paul 53
Gaza kingdom, 80, 85, 87-8,90, 141,
163-4. For ChiNgoni see Ngoni,
language
Gebuza, Thomas 90-1, 95nl38
gender 13, 56-7, 76, 79, 82, 107, 220,
234-5
Geneva 1 Iff
Geographical Societies 32n48, 206-
7; of Bern 19, Geneva 19, 32n48;
Lisbon 216; Neuchatel 19, 206-7,
211,213-14,216
geology 3, 101-2, 126-9, 150n35
Germond, Paul 18, 32n44, 103
Glardon, Auguste 18, 39, 150n35
Gluckman, Max 1-2, 261
Goba, Cetewayo 87, 200
Gobat, Samuel 23, 32n61, 37, 206
Godet, Charles-Henri 127, 149n23;
Frederic 23, 25, 33n71, 44, 49,
127-8, 149n24; Georges 127, 130,
149n24; Paul 127, 133, 149n24;
Philippe 127, 149n24, 210
Gonin, Henri 18, 32n44
Goody, Jack 185
Gould, Stephan Jay 126
Grandjean, Arthur 27-8, 54, 79-80, 83-
4, 114, 169, 224, 240, 240n59
Greene, Sandra 119n36
Gungunyana71,87-9, 147, 179n50,
198,210, 242nll5
guns 224-6, 242nll3
Guye , Henri 222, 246
Guyot, Arnold 44, 125-8, 148nl6
Gwamba 5-6, 71-2, 91, 156-9, 161-5,
172, 174, 176, 179n46, 181nll4
Haddon,A. C. 53,212
Hammond-Tooke, W. D. 2
Haekel, Ernst 143, 186
Haller, Albrecht von 98
Hanyane, 71
Hartland, E. S. 213, 223, 228
Heer, Oswald 102, 128
HertzogJ. B. M. 247, 253
Hlengwe 158, 160, 162, 169, 178n39,
179n56
Hofmeyr, Isabel 193
Hodler, Ferdinand 101
Hoernle, Winifred 223, 255
Hokoza 225-9, 227
Holene, Ruth 69, 79, 198
Hongwana, Andreas 82
Honwana, Raul 147
human sacrifice 42, 111
Humboldt, Alexandre von 44
Hunter, Monica 255
Hutt, W. H. 255
identity: Christian 82; Thonga 2, 5-
6, 117-18, 197, 247, 256, see also
language and identity; Swiss 97ff,
see also Switzerland, patriotism
immorality 42-3, 47-8, 53, 57
Independent Church of Neuchatel 22-
7, 29, 126
Indirect Rule 223, 236-7, 249, 251, 253
infanticide 42, 111,207
Inhambane 87-9
International Institute of African
Languages and Cultures 236, 256
International Organisation for the
Defence of Natives 58, 60, 215, 222
International Red Cross 19, 60
Jacottet, Edouard 3, 52, 64n68,
65nl03, 103
Jacottet, Henri 26, 33n76
Jaques, Alexandre 262; Auguste 207
Javelle, Emile 50
Jeanneret, Philippe 207
Junod, Charles-Daniel 149n24, 150n35
Junod, Henri (snr) 26-7, 63n60
Junod, Henri-Alexandre Hi, 27, 36,
49-53, 57-8, 63n60, 79-80, 83, 96-
7, 102, 248, 261; on natural history
123ff, 134; on languages 160,166,
170-7,774, 181nll5, 185, 187-9,
191, 195; on anthropology 1-2,
207ff, 249-54; on polygamy 80, 231,
242nll8, 251-2
Junod, Henri-Philippe 211, 222, 253-
6, 259n40, 262-264n5
Kant, Immanuel 23, 127, 144,
154nl30, 186, 236
Kern, Helen 1,211,254
Knapp, Charles 206, 240n49
knowledge: local 103, 115, 137-8, 144-
5, 147, see also diviners, nanga;
Swiss peasants 103, 138, 146-7
Koelle, Sigismund 88, 186, 202n23
Kuper, Adam 2, 149nl8, 258nl6
Lacrois, Alphonse-Francois 23, 32n61,
37
Lamarck Jean-Baptiste 126
landscape, of Switzerland 97-101; of
Africa 5, lOlff, 210; views held by
indigenous people 102-3, 119n36;
views held by Swiss peasants 103,
119n40
language: corridor 68, 155; history 44-
5, 47, 173, 179n50, 179n54, 179n69;
and identity xvi, 155-6, 160,
171-3, 175-6, 190, 197,216, 264;
translation and transcription 5, 55,
87-8, 90-1, 94nl09, 154nl60, 156ff,
177, 178n24, 185, 216-17; language
forms 44-5, 167-8, 178n38, 178n39;
oral 64n73, 64n79, 166, 168,
179n69, 198-200, see also folklore
and Gwamba, Hlengwe, Ngoni,
Ronga, Thonga, Tonga, Tsonga;
German 175; Portuguese 171, 176-
7, 247, 263
Leenhardt, Maurice 64n85, 264nl
Liengme, Georges 28-9, 90, 136,
152n84, 193, 198, 210, 222, 224
Lemana college 115, 212
Lesotho 4, 14, 18,104-6, 133,156,
184, 247
Lesquereux, Leo 149nl5
Lestrade, G.P. 168, 265nll
Levy-Bruhl, Lucien 215, 236, 240n50,
Le Zoute, ecumenical mission
conference, (1926) 251, 256,
258nl7, 259n33
Liberals 15-16
Liberal Christianity 21, 25-6
Libombo, Elias Spoon 136-7, 192, 219-
21,231-2
Lovedale college 87, 90, 104, 171, 200
literacy 69, 110, 184ff; and Bible 165;
in Switzerland 182-4, 189; ways of
reading 190-7, 204n77; and politics
200-1
Mabille, Adolphe 3, 18, 22, 31n43, 57,
68, 103, 155, 167, 184
Machado, Joachim 114
MacMahon Award 94nl02, 94nl05
Macmillan, W. M. 256-7, 261
Macmillan publishers 212, 215,
Magude 69-71, 115-16, 160
Mair, Lucy 257, 259n45
Maitin, Joseph 14, 18, 31n22, 32n44
MaKoapa 156, 177nl0
Makhunye, Yonas 85
Malale, Samuel 69, 197, 247
Malan, Cesar 12, 30n8; Major Charles
87
Malinowski, Bronislaw 215, 240n46,
253, 255, 258n25
malume, 230, 243nl22, 250-1, see also
anthropology, kinship
Mandela, Nelson 264n3
Mandlakazi 210
Mandlakusasa, Eliachib 69-70, 85, 191
Mandlati, Timothy 159, 160,
Mapope, Calvin 59, 69, 79-80, 169,
172, 241n62, 247, 248
Mapope, Jonas (Chihoci) 69, 177n20,
247
maps 122nll9, 122nl23
Maputoland 82, 95nl38, 137-8, 163
Mashaba, Robert Ndevu 90, 171-2,
187-8, 263-4
massinguita (revelations) 77-8
Matlanyane, Eliakim 155-6, 158, 184
Mauss, Marcel 211, 214, 220, 258nl6,
264nl
Mavabaze 71
Mavilo, Isaac 82
Mbenyane, Zebedee 72
Mbizana, Jacob 69
McKenzie, Douglas 86
meteorology 113-14, 145-6
Methodists 15, 88, 90, 171, 198, 200
Meuron, Charles-Daniel de 207
Mhalamhala, Yacob 68-71, 85, 158,
160, 169; Yosefa 68-70, 72, 75, 77-8,
85, 158, 160-1, 169
Michaelis, Johann 187
migrant labour 68, 86, 194, 225, 237;
and spread of Christianity 4-5, 82-
3, 86ff, 246
mineral revolution 67-8, 86, 184
Mission (Vaudoise to 1883; Romande
to 1927; then Swiss Mission) 4,
7nl0, 12-14, 18, 20-2, 29, 49,
54-7, 62n21,67-70, 73ff,91nl.
Evangelical Missionary Society
of Lausanne 14; of Neuchatel 23.
Financial base 35-6, 39, 61n31,
41n4, 62nl5, 63n45, 70, 91n8, 261-
2; social base 4, 1 Iff, 27, 36; church
government 12, 22, 197, 246-7,
263-4; native church 4, 73, 247,
263; hymns and songs 37, 54, 60,
63nl8, 113, 116-17, 166, 189, 192,
198-9, 205nll; iconography xv, 38,
40-4, 56, 58-9, 62nl5; literature
37-41, 120n78, 187, 189, 196;
and primitive church 13, 73. As
source of liberty 67, 81-2; wages of
evangelists 84-5
Mizeki, Bernard 86
Molepo, Josias 155,
Monteiro, Rose 131, 150n50
moral reform 13, 35, 43-4, 54, 62nl6,
85. See also anti-slavery, Christian
Union, international organizations,
Sunday observance, Sunday schools,
temperance, World Alliance of
Young Men's Christian Associations
Motsikeri 196,
Mpapele, Gideon 158, 160,
Muller, Max 186
Murimi 232, 243nl37, 250
music 3-4, 52, 65nl01, 77, 96-7,
116-18, 210-11, 239n24. See also
Mission, hymns and songs
naming practices 79, 85, 98, 103, 115-
16, 123-4, 136, 153n96, 156, 177n7,
220, 229,
nanga (herbalist) 83, 138, 140, 147
natural selection, see Darwin
Neff, Felix 10, 12, 183
Neuchatel 13, 22-9, 44-5. See also
Independent Church of Neuchatel
Neuchatel Ethnographic Museum
52-3, 55, 61nl, 153n99, 207, 217,
241n66
Neuchatel, Natural History Museum
127, 130, 135-7, 207
Neves, Tizora 167, 265nl0
Ngoni language, ChiNgoni 163-4,
179notes50, 54 and 57, 234
Njakanjaka 70
Nkuna 160-1
Ntchoungi 228, 229
nyaka (dark, fertile soil) 102, 118, 138
Nyam-Nyam 42, 63n42
NyeletiYaMixo 168, 264n6
Nyoko, James M 87, 200
Oldham, J. H. 213, 222, 236, 251, 256,
258n25
Olivier, Juste 45, 99
ornithology 126
Ousley, Benjamin 87, 163
Overbeck, Franz 25
Pakoule 196, 204n84
palaeontology 3, 44, 47, 127-8, 173
Paris Evangelical Missionary Society
(PEMS) 14, 18, 21-2, 29, 32n58,
61n3, 68, 105, 155-9, 167, 191
pass laws 236, 245nl72
paternalism 19, 74, 81
Pedi 68, 155, 160-1, 164, 177n20, 184
Peringuey, Louis 135, 152n81
Perregaux, Edmond 29; Henri 3
Peters, W. C. H. 78, 162
Phelps-Stokes Commission 236,
258n20
Philafricaine Mission 29
photography 60, 108-9, 112, 218, 228-9
Piaget, Jean 149n24
Pictet, Adolphe 44
pietism 11,24, 62n21, 127
Pilgrim's Progress 168, 193
Pittard, Eugene 214, 241n62, 254
Plakkerswet (anti-squatter law) 81, 90
Pohlenijohn 87
Poungana 76
Pratt, Mary-Louise 146
Price, Sally 53
Prussia 22-3, 208
race 5, 57, 79, 81, 97, 144-5, 234-7,
245nl67, 252-4, 259n30
Radcliffe-Brown, A. R. 240n48, 249-
52, 258nl6
rainmaking83, 111, 147
Rambert, Eugene 50, 99
Ramseyer, Fritz 28-9, 41, 62n30, 206
Religious Tract Society of Great
Britain 13, 30nl4
Renan, Ernest 24, 173
revival, Christian, in Switzerland
3-4, 11, 13-15,49, 64n84, 183; in
Mozambique 4, 73-9, 88, 171; in
south Africa 92n20
revival, Gothic 45, 208, 225
reverse colonization 110, 121n90
Richards, Erwin 87-9, 114, 122nll9,
167, 179n50
Rikatla 70-1, 73-9, 102, 171, 184, 191,
212, 247
Ritter, Karl 125, 208, 235
Rivers, William 213, 223, 228
Robert, Samuel 129
Robertson, H. M. 255
Roman Catholic Church 89
Romanticism 3, 10, 100, 106, 125, 173,
216
Ronga 6, 7, 90, 161, 164, 169-77,
178n38, 180n99, 186, 197
Ross, Edward 222
Rougemont, Frederic de 26, 44, 126,
131, 135
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques 50, 98, 125,
130, 149n25, 207-8, 236
Royal Anthropological Institute 216,
Rubusana, Walter 220
Saint-Imier 26, 44
Sanscrit 186
Schinz, Hans xvi, 132-3
Schlaefli-Glardon, Honore 89, 105,
107, 114, 207
Schleiermacher, Friederich 23, 128
Seligman, Charles 213
Schapera, Isaac 215, 252-5, 257,
258n23, 259n45
Schlechter, Rudolf 133, 151n63
science and Christianity 3, 124-9,144,
188
Schreiner, WP. 220
Segagabane, Asser 155, 158
segregation 6, 201, 233, 237, 247-9,
253-7, 259n33, 262-3. See also
Indirect Rule
sex 48, 111-12, 143,229-31
Shangaan 181nl21
Shiluvane 84, 114, 132-5, 151n68,
211-12, 236
Sikobela, Muti 89, 200, 265nl0
Sioux 14
slaves and slavery 41,71,80, 111,
120n88, 194, 234, 262; liberated
slaves 86, 88, 162; marriage as
slavery 54, 81
Smith, Edwin W. 215, 223, 236,
240n45, 251-2, 256, 258notesl2, 17,
20, 23, 259n25
Smuts, Jan 206, 218, 237 259n25
Smyth, Edmund 86-7
Soderblum, Nathan 231
Sonderbund 16, 20
Songelejohn 68, 184
South African Association for the
Advancement of Science (SAAAS)
212, 249
South Sotho 7, 156-60, 175, 178n27,
184, 191,247
spirit possession 42, 112, 209
Stanley, H. M. 63n40
Stocking, George 63n48
Strauss, David 24
Sue, Eugene 58
Sunday schools 4, 8nl5, 13, 19-20,
27-8, 30nl5, 38-44, 53-4, 60, 61nl,
62n21, 62n31, 63n45, 63n47, 183
Sunday observance 19, 26
Sundkler, Bengt 56, 74
Swazi71, 160, 163
Swiss Confederation, history of 12, 20,
22, 58, 60, 183; and image of Africa
35, 46, 48-58, 60-1; and image of
past 44-7, 60-1, 247; and patriotism
20, 38, 99, 100, 132
Tekeza 162-3
Tembe-Thonga 90-1, 95nl38, 179n50,
179n55
temperance 19. See also alcohol
theatrical sketches 62nl6
theology 78-9, 84, 189; natural
theology 124, 140
Thomas, Samuel 14, 31n39
Thomas, Eugene 71, 160, 176, 196
Thonga6,161-3,166-7,169,172,175-6,
181nll5,186,197,209-10,211,247
Tilo 78-80, 232-3, 243nl33, 243nl42
timetravel 100-102
Tlakula, Hlakamula 68-9
Tonga 88, 167, 174, 178n38, 179n47
Trimen, Roland 140-1
Tribolet, Georges de 214
Tripet, Fritz 126, 129, 131, 133
Tsonga 170, 176, 264
Tswa 6, 87, 163-4, 167, 170, 174, 176,
178n39,180n73, 181nll4, 243nl33,
265nll
Tuskegee system 211-12
Tylor, Edward 223
Umzila71,87
universities, as sources of knowledge
1, 237, 262; University of Basel 15;
Cape Town 249, 252, 256; Geneva
235; Lausanne 216; Neuchatel
214, 181nl 14; Witwatersrand 256,
261. Institut universitaire d'etudes
du developpement 262. See also
'academies'
Valdezia 22, 69-70, 75, 112, 114-15,
150n45, 156, 159, 203n50, 253,
259n28; Valdezia Bulletin 168,
264n6
Van Gennep, Arnold 214-15, 223,
239n41, 240n49
Van Warmelo, N. J. 179n54, 256
Venda 164-65
Verraux, Pierre 151n52
Viguet214,219
Vinet, Alexandre 15, 20-1
Viret, Pierre 12, 20
Vogt, Carl 24, 44, 57, 125, 149nl7,
149nl9, 234-5, 244nl63
Vuilleumier, Samson 17
Voltaire 30n5
Wallace, A. R. 140, 143, 153nll3
Washington, Booker T. 211
watch-making 26-8
Wilcox, William 87-8, 181nll4
Willoughby, W. C. 223, 239n40
witchcraft 40, 42, 59, 83, 111, 207,
220, 250; baloyi (witches) 83
Wood, J. M. 133
World Alliance of Young Men's
Christian Associations 19, 32n45, 60
Ximungana, Jim 71, 73, 79-80, 82,
93n54, 194, 198-9,199; Philemon
799-200; Paulus 799
Zambiki 68
Zidji 120n78, 216, 240n56, 245nl72
Zionism 74, 92n27
Zola, Emile 58
zombies 83
zoology 5, 98, 145, 261
Zulu 163, 192-3