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Structure, meaning and ritual in the narratives of the Southern San

Structure, meaning and ritual in the narratives of the Southern San

A welcome addition to the literature on the place of the |Xam hunter-gatherers in the complex history of South African culture and society
Hewitt, Roger L.
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Author: Roger Hewitt
Publisher: Witwatersrand University Press
Johannesburg, 2008
ISBN: 978-1-86814-470-9
Paperback, 15x22 cm, 256 pages


Description:

"Structure, Meaning and Ritual in the Narratives of the Southern San" analyses texts drawn from the Bleek and Lloyd Archive - arguably one of the most important collections for the understanding of South African cultural heritage and in particular the traditions of the |Xam, South Africa's 'first people'.

Initially appearing in a now rare 1986 edition and here re-issued for the first time, the doctoral thesis on which the book is based became the catalyst for much scholarly research.The book offers an analysis of the entire corpus of |Xam narratives found in the Bleek and Lloyd collection, focusing particularly on the cycle of narratives concerning the trickster ||Kaggen (Mantis).

These are examined on three levels from the 'deep structures' with resonances in other areas of |Xam culture and supernatural belief, through the recurring patterns of narrative composition apparent across the cycle, and finally touching on the observable differences in the performances by the various |Xam collaborators. The exposition of the connections between these levels is cogently argued and richly supported by detailed reference to the ethnographic record specific to the |Xam.

The work also contains two supporting ethnographic appendixes relating to beliefs and practices concerning shamans and girls' puberty observances.Hewitt's text remains the only comprehensive and detailed study of |Xam narrative, and it has become itself the object of study by researchers and Ph.D candidates in South Africa, the UK, Canada and elsewhere.

This new edition at last makes Hewitt's important work more widely available. It will be a welcome addition to the recently burgeoning literature on the place of the |Xam hunter-gatherers in the complex history of South African culture and society.


About the author:

Roger Hewitt is Professor of Sociology and Deputy Director at the Centre for Urban and Community Research, Goldsmiths, University of London.


Reviews:

Andrew Bank, historian, University of the Western Cape:
Roger Hewitt's 'centrally important thesis... was the first to recognize the significance of the [Bleek and Lloyd] archive and give us the inaugural scholarly introduction to it.

Pippa Skotnes, director of the Bleek and Lloyd archive:
This remains a remarkable work of scholarship.


Contents:

Acknowledgements
Introduction
Ethnographic background
Introduction to the narratives: their context, performance and scope
Legends and the stories of! Khwa
Sidereal narratives: the story of the Dawn's Heart and his wife the Lynx
Animal narratives
|Kaggen in belief and ritual
The |Kaggen narratives (1): characters and content
The |Kaggen narratives (2): sequence and structure
|Kaggen in belief, ritual and narrative: a synthesis
Two |Kaggen narratives: compositional variations
The verbal surface: a note on the narrators
Appendix A Girls' puberty observances of the |Xam
Appendix B The shamans of the |Xam
Bibliography
Index


Introduction:

This new edition of Structure, Meaning and Ritual in the Narratives of the Southern San conies some 20 years after its initial printing and 30 after the text, with few differences, was presented as a doctoral thesis to the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London.

Since then there has been a great deal of excellent scholarship that has explored the Bleek and Lloyd collection of |Xam texts, housed mainly in the library of the University of Cape Town (UCT), or has added substantially to what we know of the historical context of that collection and its content.

At the time of my thesis, however, not only was the location or, indeed, the continued existence of Lucy Lloyd's |Xam transcriptions - the largest part of the collection - unknown, but the content of Bleek's own notebooks also remained unexplored and the notebooks themselves barely catalogued.

Thus it was with something of a gamble that I embarked on a thesis designed to be based alone on those as yet 'undiscovered' notebooks. Luckily for me my optimistic digging was rewarded1 and the work that produced this book was able to commence. Naturally the existence of the notebooks did not remain a secret for long, and much useful scholarly work, largely by South African researchers, started to flow.

Much has changed in the intervening years. Even between the presentation of the thesis in 1976 and 1986, when editors from Helmut Buske publishers in Hamburg approached me to ask if they might publish the work, there had grown a greater sensitivity around nomenclature applied to peoples customarily studied by anthropologists. For many years the term 'Bushmen' had been used to describe the hunter-gatherers whose click language was closely related to that of the Khoi herders with whom they also shared much of the Cape.

Both Wilhelm Bleek and Lucy Lloyd referred to theirs as a collection of 'Bushman folklore'. By the late 1970s, however, the Khoi word 'San' became widely adopted to describe the various language groups evident amongst the hunter-gatherers, as well as the people themselves. While anthropologists familiarised the reading public with the specific names of some of these - principally the !Kung, made internationally famous by the Marshall expeditions to the Kalahari desert in the 1950s - the term 'San' became preferred by many in seeming not to have the derogatory connotations that 'Bushmen' might be thought to possess.

It was not long, however, before it was pointed out that 'San' itself was often a derogatory term applied to the hunter-gatherers and was often used simply to mean 'thief. The best nomenclature was clearly not to be found in these terms for the general category, but those used by each specific group to refer to itself. For this reason, as most of the texts collected by Bleek and Lloyd were from one large group of hunter-gatherers, the |Xam, it was possible to use that term in accounts of that people and their language.

However, for anyone except for a very small circle of academics, the name '|Xam' meant nothing. Hence the general terms were often attached, giving 'the |Xam Bushmen' or '|Xam San' and it has not been until very recently that '|Xam' has acquired greater popular currency - certainly within South Africa if not elsewhere - so that it can now be used without explanation. Too late, alas, for the title of this book, which, being republished more or less as it stood, has for the sake of transparency to carry its original title.

Similarly, the text throughout uses both 'San' and '|Xam' in different contexts, reflecting the initial academic need to identify the people within the widest anthropological frame and at the same time be specific. The need to do so continues to be shared with most authors today, and we find the words 'Bushmen' and 'San' in common use alongside '|Xam' in even the most recent texts.

It would be very time-consuming and possibly pointless in the end also to allow the text of this book now to benefit from all the scholarship that has followed - tempting though that might be. This is particularly so because the work is fundamentally an analysis of narratives in relation to their specific ethnographic context insofar as that context is reconstructible from the ethnographic record in many of the texts collected by Bleek and Lloyd and from writings by early travellers, missionaries, local officials and so on.

There is a strong argumentative thread - heavily structuralist - to this book, and its virtues - if virtues it has - will not lie in the comprehensiveness of its scholarship, but in the persuasiveness of its analysis and the logic of its arguments. Furthermore, that scholarship that has emerged since it was written speaks for itself.

Hardly in mitigation of the slow genocidal process by which the |Xam had ceased to exist, but in a miraculous parenthesis to its final stages, the written record of |Xam culture, belief and oral tradition was constructed by the co-operative efforts of several |Xam people - five men and one woman - and the two Europeans, Lucy Lloyd and Wilhelm Bleek. The constructed texts were subsequently explored, written about and partially published by Lucy Lloyd herself, then Dorothea Bleek, but by few others (see below).

Between 1936 and 1973 they more or less disappeared from view. From the 1980s onwards, however, there was a gradual scholarly awakening to the power and uniqueness of the collection. The most important work to appear at that time was by archaeologist Jeanette Deacon, whose scrupulous research produced an outstanding paper that identified the exact location of the homes of Bleek and Lloyd's collaborators: “My place is Biterpits": The home territory of Bleek and Lloyd's |Xam San informants'.2 Other papers by Deacon followed, culminating in a milestone edited book with T.A. Dawson in 1996.3

That publication followed on from an important conference on the collection at UCT in the previous year, and also coincided with an exhibition of art, artifacts and other materials curated by Pippa Skotnes - now director of the Lucy Lloyd Archive, Resource and Exhibition Centre at the Michaelis School of Fine Art, UCT - that confronted the difficult moral and political dimensions of the relationship between the |Xam and the other inhabitants of South Africa and was entitled: 'Miscast: Negotiating the Presence of the Bushmen'. It also involved the production of a book of the same name.4

One of the most important chapters in that book was the one by Tony Traill on the condition of the |Xam language in the last quarter of the 19th century.5 Given the inherent problems of the socio-linguistic reconstruction of that period and place, this was a deeply insightful and scholarly account that has, thankfully, been reproduced in Skotnes' more recent, lavishly illustrated book on the collection, Claim to the Country.6

There has been much work that made excellent use of the collection. Amongst the earliest was David Lewis-Williams' ground-breaking book Believing and Seeing: Symbolic Meanings in Southern San Rock Paintings,7 as well as his more recent popular edited reproductions of many of the |Xam texts: Stories that Float from Afar.8 His early knowledge of the published work originally derived from the collection and subsequently of the collection itself was second to none, and his contribution to scholarship in the field has been immense. Mathias Guenther also drew on the collection in his comparative study of Nharo and |Xam oral traditions.9

Creative writers too have made use of the |Xam texts, and amongst these Alan James' beautiful and informed engagement in The First Bushman's Path stands out above the rest. It is, perhaps, the historians who have recently shed the most light on the important context of the |Xam texts. Firstly, there is Nigel Penn, whose excellent theorisation of the economic and social relations between the |Xam and the colonists in his The Forgotten Frontier10 provides a frame within which to understand the larger processes that brought about the ugly realities of iXam extinction.

Secondly, there is Andrew Bank's brilliant and painstaking research into the minutest details of the relations between Bleek and Lloyd and each of the |Xam individuals who also brought the texts into being. His book, Bushmen in a Victorian World,11 is a masterpiece of detection and exposition.

Perhaps the greatest contribution to the future investigation of the jXam, however, has been made by the tireless efforts and commitment of Pippa Skotnes and her staff at UCT. Thanks to their work, the entire Bleek and Lloyd collection is available on the Web as well as on DVD,12 permitting a whole new generation of researchers to explore this extraordinary and unique archive.


Index:

Aardwolf 124, 129, 145
|A!kungta 5, 8, 35, 46, 193
aged/elderly people 20-21, 36-37, 40,
46-47, 57-59, 100-101, 118, 133,
210
Anansi 124-125
animal narratives 38-40, 43-5, 47, 58,
81-93
language (of animals) 38-39, 41
anteater 21, 38, 41, 43-44, 83, 92-96
anteater's laws 92-95
antelope 19, 24, 28, 43, 67, 83, 173
Anthing, L 31
ants' chrysalids 20, 23, 29, 63, 72, 74,
76, 88, 120
Armstrong, Robert Plant 127
arrows 19, 21-22, 24-27, 52, 63, 98,
100-101, 120, 175, 178-179, 182,
195, 199, 202, 206
invisible 217-218, 220-221
avoidances/preferences (food) 25-26,
58, 60, 99, 102, 206-207
baboon 26-27, 83, 86, 90, 92, 115,
123-124, 127, 146, 166, 185, 187,
201
band/group 14, 16, 130
Bank, Andrew 4, 8
Barrow, J 15
Bascom, William 49, 163
Bennun, Neil 7
Biesele, Megan 36, 119, 128, 131
Bleek, Dorothea 3-4, 6-7, 9, 15-16,
18, 24, 31, 33, 39, 41, 45-46, 50,
52-53, 72, 98, 132, 173, 176, 179,
208, 213
Bleek, WHI 1-8, 13-14, 19, 28-29, 31,
34-35, 40, 43-44, 46-47, 49, 56,
71-72, 92, 98, 103, 110, 112-113,
115, 130-131, 135, 139, 145, 171,
174-175, 177, 182, 193, 196, 200,
214, 218, 222-223
Blue Crane 38-39, 83, 90, 116, 118,
131, 134, 141, 167-169
buchu 24, 58, 60, 66, 161-162,
206-210, 214, 217
Calvinia 5, 9, 13, 31
cannibalism 89-90
cattle 13, 30-31, 46, 103
'chaser of game' 104
clothing 24, 77, 88, 95, 134, 141, 164,
167-168, 179, 188-189, 198
kaross 19, 30, 66, 74, 79, 88, 152,
161, 168, 206, 217, 219-220
cobra 60, 207
Colenso, JW 4
colour/pigment 25, 76-77, 87-88,
103, 183
creation myths/narratives 71, 73
culture/nature opposition
transformation 78, 81, 108-109
Currle, L 175-179
Dakota Indians 124-128
Ikto (trickster) 124-127
dancing 24, 27-28, 30, 75, 79, 81,
102, 207, 216-217, 219, 223
dassie 21, 113, 116-119, 127,
130-131, 140-141
day/night opposition 77-78, 81
Deacon, Jeanette 3
death, origin of 35, 46, 73
decoration (body)
deities 28, 45, 104, 107, 111, 222
?Gao!na28, 111-112
|Gaua 28
Hishe28, 112
Huwe 28, 111
Kauha (god-trickster) 131
Thora 28
devil 103, 175, 177
Dialkwain 5, 8, 46, 56, 59, 65,140,
173-174, 176, 178-180, 183, 194,
202-203
dialect, differences in 8, 13, 202
digging-sticks 22-24, 66, 120, 122,
222
dog 21, 51, 55-56, 95, 189, 208, 210
Douglas, Mary 108, 154
dreaming 122, 132-134, 141-143,
148-149, 153-155, 179, 188, 196,
200-201
earth/sky opposition 77-78, 81
eland 21, 44, 94-95,115, 173-184
as !Khwa 45, 66-67
hunting observances 21, 99-102,
106,160-162, 164-165
creation of 103, 121-122, 141,
157, 173-174, 179-180,
182-183
elephant 43, 57, 83, 116, 121, 123,
127, 187
European colonists/settlers
economic and social relationships
(with San) 3-4, 8, 13-14,
46-47
extermination of San at hands of
13, 30-32, 46
military/'commando' raids (against
the San) 8, 15, 30-31, 46
Evans-Pritchard, EE 131-132
Finnegan, R 128
fire, stealing of 121, 188-189
fishing 22
frogs, transformation into 58-59,
63-67
!Ga ka kum (the frog's story) 34,
61-62
games of strategy 125-126, 150
Gariep River 13, 22, 31
IGaunu-ts'axau 115-116, 121, 123,
141, 167, 185, 201
gemsbok 21, 28, 51, 86, 90, 94-95,
99-100, 103, 158, 182-183, 216
Guenther, Mathias 3
Gusinde, Martin 112-113
|Hang ?kass'o! 8, 17, 35-36, 42, 52,
56-57, 59, 61-67, 74, 76-77,
79-80, 85, 88, 91, 93-94, 113,
132, 134, 139, 155-156, 167,
173-174, 186-190, 194, 197,
199-203
hare 21, 38, 46, 67, 71, 73, 95, 100,
109, 130, 152-153, 158, 188
hartebeest 26, 44, 95, 103-103, 114,
116, 122, 130, 150, 158, 183, 196
and mantis 26, 102, 114, 130-131
'.Haunu and ^Kagara 91
heroes 45, 50-51, 53, 111, 113, 115,
184
Hoernle, Agnes 169
honey 23, 31, 103, 141, 143, 174, 176,
178-180, 182-183
hunter-gatherer groups 1-2, 14, 23-24,
27, 83
gathering/veldkos (fieldfoods)
17, 19-20, 23-25, 27, 29, 33,
53, 60, 72, 76-78, 95, 110,
130-131, 206-207, 214, 221
food-sharing/distribution 23-26,
35, 90-92, 109, 120, 128-130,
145, 152, 184, 186, 206
hunting/observances 19-22,
25, 27, 29, 73, 75, 98-103,
105-107, 109
huts 14-17, 19-21, 23, 36, 52-53,
57-58, 60-61, 64-65, 75, 85, 89,
100-101, 105, 133, 153, 160-161,
164, 166, 186, 188-189, 205-206,
208, 210, 217, 221-222
hyena 40, 57, 74-81, 83-88, 91, 95
Ichneumon 38-39, 41, 116-119, 121,
129, 131, 140, 147, 151-153,
174-176, 178-182, 187, 189,
196-199
illness 20, 29-30, 72, 78-79, 217, 221
curers 30, 213, 221-222
sneezing-out of 30, 216-218
snoring-out of 30, 216-218, 220
imitation/mimicry 27, 33, 38-39, 100,
105, 161, 217
jackal 26, 38, 43, 66, 74, 77, 83-91,
94-96, 220
James, Alan 3
Jupiter (Dawn's Heart) 41, 44, 71,
73-78, 80-81, 83-4, 88
||Kabbo 5, 8, 16-17, 37, 46, 55-56,
65, 67, 72, 74-77, 79-80, 85, 89,
93, 95, 98, 113, 139-140, 167,
173-176, 179-181, 184, 187-191,
194, 196-203
=|=Kagara (and IHaunu) 91
|Kaggen narratives 7, 9, 26, 28-29,
41-42, 45, 47, 55, 60, 67, 71,
73, 95-136, 139-171, 173-190,
194-203, 221
|kain |kain (and young girls) 116, 135,
153-155, 166
Kalahari desert 1
Nyae Nyae region 26
|Kamang 53-54
^Kangara 87
?Kasing 5, 8, 46, 174-176, 178-179,
193
Katkop mountains 5, 8, 56, 202, 213
||keng 28
Kenhardt 7, 13, 31
Khoe-khoen 14, 46, 87, 111, 169, 188
!Khwa 28-29, 45, 47, 49, 58-63,
66-67, 73, 84
as bull/ox 60, 65-66
and girls' puberty observances
28, 45, 58-63, 65-68, 78, 81,
209-210
||Khwai-hem 118, 122, 137, 184-187,
189
!Khwai-!khwai 116, 133, 135, 136,
200-201
Kirby, Percival 7
Kluckhohn, C 184
IKorana 43, 46, 50-54, 188
!Kotta-koe (story of) 51-54
!Kung 1, 6, 17, 26, 36, 43, 91,
111-112, 119
IKweiten ta ||ken 8, 61-66, 89, 93,
193-194
Leach, Edmund, 107-108, 162-163
Lee, Richard 17
left and right, concepts of 122, 131,
165-166, 186-186
legend, historical 34, 42-43, 47,
49-68, 84, 184, 202
leisure 24, 27, 33, 36
leopard 26, 87, 95, 116, 124
Levi-Strauss, Claude 81
Lewis-Williams, David 3, 7
life/death polarity 142-143, 148-150,
154, 156-157, 159, 165-6, 169,
182-183
Lichtenstein, MHC, 8, 15-16, 215
lightning 28, 58-59, 91, 106, 160-161,
206, 209
lion 27, 50, 52, 55-57, 71, 84-87
Haue ta fhou and !Gu (stories
about) 44, 84-86
hunting of 56-57
transformations into 46, 76-78
'lion's hair' of shamans 79
man carried off by 43
lizard 20, 23, 83, 89, 116, 135
Lloyd, Lucy 1-4, 6-9, 13-14, 19,
28-29, 31, 34, 40, 43, 46-47, 49,
71-72, 98, 110, 112-113, 115,
135, 139, 145, 171, 174-175, 177,
193, 196, 200, 214, 218, 222-223
lynx 26, 41, 43-44, 71, 73-81, 83,
87-88, 92-96
male/female roles/division of labour
24, 109, 128, 130-131
mantis 45, 102, 112-114
and hartebeest 26, 102, 114,
130-131
mantis religiosa 112-114
Mantis and His Friends 7, 113-114, 173
manufacture 24
Marks, Shula 46
Marshall, Lorna 26, 29, 91, 111-112
Marshall Expeditions 1, 68
meat 22-23, 25-26, 64-67, 85-86,
89-90, 95, 102, 108, 131,
151-152, 175, 179, 181, 185, 188,
205-208
'marrying meat' 89
medicine men/women 213, 215-216,
222
meercats 143, 174-180
menstruation/puberty/transition rites
18, 28, 44-45, 58-61, 65-68, 74,
78, 81, 105-109, 133, 154-155,
158, 205-210
!nanna-se 158
Meriggi, P 9
Moffat, Robert 26
moon 29-30, 34-36, 38, 41, 44-45,
58, 71-73, 103, 182-183, 197,
199, 205-206
new moon and the dead 29-30
moon and hare story 46, 71, 73
creation of 35, 71, 73, 103-104,
110, 122, 124, 157, 174,
176-177, 179, 181-183, 197
mothers/older women (xoakengu) 18,
58-64, 67, 206, 208, 210
Mowbray 4, 5, 8
Miiller, Fr. 8
Miiller, Max 44-45
music 7, 27-28, 60-61
clapping 27, 102
songs 7, 27-28, 33, 40, 53,
56-57, 96, 102-103, 110, 193,
201-203
musical instruments 27, 40, 60
drums 24, 27
goura 27, 60-61, 215
myth, theory of 44-45, 163
naming (of children) 19
narrative/aetiology (kukummi) 9, 28,
33-36, 40-46, 49, 57, 59, 63, 92
dialogue, use of 34, 41, 53, 56, 92,
96, 199, 202-203
educational/didactic element of
35, 41, 53-55, 67, 119-120,
127-128, 131, 140
formulae 34, 87, 147, 179, 195
functions 35, 54, 59, 74, 96, 119,
135, 144-150, 153, 162-163,
166, 168-169, 171, 178-179,
185-186, 200
humour in 84-85, 170-171
performance/presentation/
narration 5, 9, 31, 33, 35-42,
45, 50-52, 54, 60-61, 65, 68,
77, 84, 96, 113, 139-140, 146,
151, 156, 170, 173, 179-181,
187, 190-191, 193-203
repetition, use of 40, 53, 55-56,
63-65, 87, 89, 120, 183, 185,
195, 198, 200-201
structure/plot 7, 9-10, 34, 45-46,
49, 51-56, 62-68, 71, 73-81,
84, 88, 91-94, 96, 117, 124,
128, 130-136, 139-156,
164-170, 173-191, 193,
196-197, 203
theme 9, 42-43, 46, 60-61, 66,
84-85, 87, 91-92, 102, 135,
148, 157-158, 175-176, 184,
189, 191, 196-197
?Nerru 88, 92, 194
Nharo 3
n!ow 29, 110
oral tradition/literature/composition
2-7, 9-10, 17, 42-43, 50, 54, 67,
90, 113, 151, 168, 190
Bantu 46, 184, 186
ornaments (body) 24, 74-75, 77-79
ostrich 21, 26-27, 53, 57, 83, 87-88,
95, 98, 129, 197, 222
hunting 21, 31, 197
eggs 22-23, 31, 51, 53-54, 197,
205
resurrection of 182
and lion 27
Pager, Harold 113
Penn, Nigel 3-4
people of the first (early) race (!Xwe
||na-so'o !k'e) 34-35, 42-44, 49-50,
52-53, 55, 57-58, 73, 83-84, 95,
194
personal experience, narratives of 9,
42, 50, 57-58
physical secretions as transforming
agents
blood 75, 79-80, 107, 133,
153-155, 207, 210, 216-218
breast milk 74, 79-80, 155
saliva 79, 107, 206, 208
perspiration 74, 29, 107, 134, 141,
167, 207
Planert, W 9
poisons (hunting) 19, 20, 22, 24, 89,
99-101, 175, 182
polecat 83, 89
porcupine 21, 45, 113, 116-119, 121,
140-141, 152-153, 181, 184-186,
189, 209
premonition/presentiment 37, 98
Prieska 6-7, 13, 31
Propp, Vladimir 144
puffadder 60, 101, 109, 158, 207
quagga 21, 43, 83, 85, 88-91, 94-96,
103, 116, 151-152, 182
Radin, Paul 104-105, 111-112, 115,
140, 171
Raglan, Lord 163
rain 14, 21, 28-30, 45, 59, 66, 72-73,
130, 134, 160, 206, 208-210
rain-bull 214
rain-dance 68
rain-makers 30, 209, 213-216,
221-223
ritual 9, 13, 28-29, 58, 60-2, 66, 74,
97
religious beliefs and rituals 6, 9, 13,
28-29, 45, 58, 60-62, 66, 74, 97,
107, 111-113, 157-170
about after-life 30
about celestial bodies 71-72, 157
associated with hunting and game
animals 28-30, 72, 98-101,
105-106, 108, 157-162, 164,
169
isolation/avoidance, rites of 58-59,
73, 100-102, 105-107, 108,
117, 119, 141, 150, 160-161,
164, 169, 206, 208, 210
prayers 29, 59, 72
residence, rules of 16, 18, 208
resources
food sources/rights 17, 73
water 14-17, 20-23, 27, 33, 57-58,
62, 85, 130, 205, 207, 214
resurrection (of part into whole) 143,
185
of ostrich 182
of moon 73
Reynard the Fox in South Africa 46
rhinoceros 83, 87
rock art/painting 3, 7, 102, 173, 114,
214
roots 15, 23, 31, 33, 73-74, 76, 205,
209, 216
Schapera, Isaac 213
Schmidt, Sigrid 112-113
Segal, Dmitry 151
sidereal narratives 47, 67, 71-81
skins (of animals) 22-25, 27, 60, 89,
95, 168, 182, 196
Skotnes, Pippa 3-4
smoking 24-25, 27, 36
social relationships
avoidance 19, 108, 117, 119, 141,
150
family 15-16, 19, 25, 35, 39-40,
44-45, 60, 82, 108, 116-119,
131-132, 140-142, 146-147,
153,178-180
inter-family relationships 15-16,
25, 43, 84, 86-87, 90-92, 127,
130, 134, 140-142
joking relationships/banter 18,
108, 117, 119, 198-199, 202
marriage 15-19, 35, 41, 43, 46,
77-78, 81-82, 84, 86-95, 130,
133-134, 136, 148, 207-210,
216
terms of address 17-19
Specimens of Bushman Folklore 6-7, 9,
36, 55, 74, 182
spirits 29-30, 105, 218, 222
springbok 24, 26-27, 66, 213,
221-222
distribution of meat 25-26
hunting of 21-22, 37-38
in |Kaggen's family 103, 117, 183,
199
in stories 83, 93-95
stars 29, 34-35, 41, 44-45, 57, 67,
71-73, 80, 110
Canopus 29, 72, 103, 110
Corona Australis 67, 71, 73
Milky Way 73
Southern Cross 44, 71-72, 84
Stow, George 7, 19, 104, 114
striped mouse 83, 85, 133, 136
Strontbergen 5, 8
sun 34-35, 44-45, 64-65, 71-3, 110,
174, 197
supernatural/magical 7, 9, 26, 28-30,
34, 42, 45, 53, 58-60, 86, 97-98,
102, 105, 107-112, 114, 121-124,
126-127, 129-130, 133-134, 136,
141-145, 147, 149-154, 158-165,
169, 171, 176, 178-179, 187, 195,
197-198, 207, 209, 213
!gi 28-30, 110
shamans (!gi:xa/!giten) 28-30,
78-79, 81, 85-86, 110, 114,
213, 215-223
sympathetic causality/attunement
to environment/interaction with
nature 37-38, 98-99, 107-108
territory/!xoe (of band) 3, 14, 16-17,
25, 216
thunder 28-29, 59, 91, 160, 209
tick 116, 121-122, 124, 127-128, 139,
143, 145-146, 178, 184, 187-189
tools 24
tortoise 20, 22-23, 38-39, 44, 60, 89,
96, 116, 124, 207, 210
water tortoise 60, 207
trade/barter 24-25, 46
Traill, Tony 3, 9
trance states 30, 78-79, 106, 216,
218-220, 223
transcription, methods of 139, 191,
193, 201
transformation (of people into
animals/stars) 49, 58-61, 67,
75-79, 81, 87-88, 97, 106-107,
130-131, 142-144, 147-150, 155,
164-166, 168-169, 171, 185,
209-210, 220
transformer 104, 157, 162, 164
translation (of |Xam texts) 5-8, 59, 92,
112-114, 116, 194, 213
traps (hunting) 21
trickster narratives 7, 9, 41, 45-46,
55, 67, 96-97, 109, 111, 113,
115, 120, 123-124, 126, 128-129,
131-133, 136, 140, 171
autonomy of 121, 158, 162, 164
Ture (Zande trickster) 131-132
Turner, Victor 160-162, 168-169
utensils (eating/cooking) 24-25, 121,
188-189
van der Merwe, Nicholas 15
van Gennep, A 160
vindication motifs 53-54, 56, 61
Von Wielligh, GR 9, 55, 72, 102, 110,
115, 117, 130-132, 134, 177
water 28, 45, 51-52, 57- 60, 62-67,
89, 107, 134, 141, 143, 145-147,
153, 164-168, 174, 177-178, 196,
198, 209-210
Waterchild 62-64, 193
Werner, Alice 184, 186
wildebeest 83, 95, 116, 135, 182
wind 29, 57, 73, 100, 110, 134, 214
whirlwind 59-65
Winnebago Indians 111, 115, 120, 140
Wodehouse, Sir Phillip 4
|Xabbi-ang 35-36, 183
|Xam orthography 10-11
Zande 131-132
zebra 21, 161, 206, 209
Zu|wasi 28-29, 34, 36-37, 68,
110-111, 119, 128, 130-131, 222