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South Africa's 1940s

South Africa's 1940s

Worlds of Possibilities: 13 contributions about the historic chances of a decade
Dubow, S.; Jeeves; A. (eds.)
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South Africa's 1940s

Editors: Saul Dubow; Alan Jeeves
Double Storey Books
Cape Town, 2005
ISBN: 9781770130012
Soft cover, 14x21 cm, 304 pages


About this publication:

Most people see the 1940s as a decade that led inexorably towards apartheid, but the coming of Afrikaner nationalism was only one of several competing visions for the future.

The decade was in fact marked by a general expectancy that the end of the war would usher in a brave new world.

In the end, these hopes for reform were dealt a death blow, only to be resurrected 40 years later with the demise of white supremacy.

These worlds of possibilities are explored more fully in this volume by a team of distinguished historians.


About the editors:

Saul Dubow is Professor of History at Sussex University and Alan Jeeves is Professor of History at Queen’s University, Ontario.


Contents:

Contributors
Preface

Introduction: South Africa's 1940s
by Saul Dubow

Economic Growth and Transformation in the 1940s
by Nicoli Nattrass

Visions, Hopes and Views about the Future:
The Radical Moment of South African Welfare Reform
by Jeremy Seekings

The Case for a Welfare State: Poverty and the Politics of the Urban African Family in the 1930s and 1940s
by Deborah Posel

Delivering Primary Care in Impoverished Urban and Rural Communities: The Institute of Family and Community Health in the 1940s
by Alan Jeeves

The Grassy Park Health Centre: A Peri-Urban Pholela?
by Howard Phillips

Planning for Leisure in 1940s Natal: Post-War Reconstruction and Parks as 'Public' Amenities
by Shirley Brooks

Changing the Old Guard: A.P. Mda and the ANC Youth League, 1944-1949
by Robert Edgar

Eluding Capture: African Grass-roots Struggles in 1940s Benoni
by Philip Banner

The Politics of the Past and of Popular Pursuits in the Construction of Everyday Afrikaner Nationalism, 1938-1948
by Albert Grundlingh

An Anglo-South African Intellectual, the Second World War, and the Coming of Apartheid: Guy Butler in the 1940s
by Jonathan Hyslop

Yusuf Dadoo: A Son of South Africa
by Parvathi Roman

Christian Reconstruction, Secular Politics: Michael Scott and the Campaign for Right and Justice, 1943-1945
by Rob Skinner

Afterword: Worlds of Impossibilities?
by Shula Marks

Index


Introduction: South Africa's 1940s by Saul Dubow

The decade of the 1940s was a turbulent period in the history of South Africa. It opened with parliament's narrow and bitterly contested decision to enter the war; was rocked by political turmoil and the real possibility of Nazi military victory in Europe; experienced a phase of growing optimism and expectancy fuelled by rapid economic expansion and encouraged by the country's notable role in defeating fascism; only to close with a bang, as well as a whimper, as the forces of Malanite nationalism eclipsed Smuts's tired United Party and set about implementing the doctrine of apartheid.

Packaging the past into 10-year units may be little more than a historical contrivance, yet people commonly think of decades as meaningful spans of time, whether in their personal lives or as a way of making sense of broader political rhythms. For the historian, thinking in historical decades can open new perspectives.

Scrutinising a slice of the past in cross-sectional detail is apt to reveal its complex composition in surprising ways, disclosing homologous elements and patterns in the process. The resonance of such relationships may be amplified all the more clearly by encouraging a group of scholars to address, through structured conversation, a decade from their own specialist viewpoints. This is what we have set out to do in this book.

The 1940s are of particular interest in the country's history since they bisect the century in political as well as chronological terms. In so far as they highlight the mismatch between popular expectations and the capacity of the state to deliver on promises, there are inviting comparisons to be made with the present.

South Africa's 1940s are well suited to this synchronic approach. Most importantly, perhaps, thinking about these years as a whole helps to counter the pronounced tendency to view the period in teleological terms, namely, as the period 'leading up to apartheid'. As this volume amply demonstrates, the 1940s were not defined by any single over-arching narrative structure.

The coming of the Malanites marked the ascendancy of only one of several competing visions of the future, and for many people this outcome was as unexpected as it was unwelcome. In no sense, other than in the minds of its adherents, was the advent of apartheid preordained. Alternative worlds of possibilities were plausibly, if not equally, on offer. One of the main objectives of this book is to identify and examine these competing worlds and to question the teleological assumptions that underlie them.

More than anything it was the war that shook up established certainties and lent the 1940s its remarkable sense of fluidity and flux. In every other British dominion, entry into the war was fulsomely sup-ported by the electorate, and domestic politics duly narrowed to focus on the objective of securing military victory.2 In South Africa, by contrast, parliament's narrow decision to support the Allied effort split the government and brought to the surface an explosive cocktail of political poisons.

The conjunction of war overseas and political turmoil at home proved a powerful stimulus to new thought. Competing visions of the future were articulated in a politically charged domestic environment and developed in the interstices of a government preoccupied with the war effort. Rapid economic expansion and industrialisation created the social conditions in which radical ideas and plans could germinate and take root, albeit shallowly and temporarily in all too many instances.


Contributors:

Deborah Posel is a professor of sociology at the University of the Witwatersrand, and the founding director of the Wits Institute for Social and Economic Research (WISER). She has published widely on various aspects of South Africa's recent history, including The Making of Apartheid, 1984-1961 (1991 & 1997), Apartheid's Genesis (co-edited with Phil Bonner and Peter Delius, 1994), and Commissioning the Past: Understanding South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission (2002).

Philip Bonner is head of the department of history at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, and chairs the Wits History Workshop. He has researched and published extensively on the black urban history of the Witwatersrand, and has more recently made contributions to several public history projects.

Shirley Brooks is a lecturer in geography at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban. A historical geographer by training, she has published on the contemporary politics of conservation and tourism in KwaZulu-Natal. Her doctoral thesis (Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario) provides a cultural history of the Zululand game reserves, grounded in the social and political history of Natal and its contested geographies.

Saul Dubow is professor of history at Sussex University. He is the author of Racial Segregation and the Origins of Apartheid (1989), Scientific Racism in Modern South Africa (1995) and The African National Congress (2000). He is currently completing a study on the 'Commonwealth of Knowledge' in nineteenth- and twentieth-century South Africa.

Robert Edgar is professor of African Studies at Howard University in Washington, DC. He has published numerous pieces on twentieth-century southern African political and religious movements. Among his works is African Apocalypse: The Story of Nontetha Nkwenkwe, a Twentieth-Century South African Prophet (2000), co-authored with Hilary Sapire.

Albert Grundlingh has written widely on Afrikaner social history, South African historiography and the construction of South African heritage. He was professor at the University of South Africa before moving to a similar position at the University of Stellenbosch.

Jonathan Hyslop is deputy director of the Wits Institute for Social and Economic Research at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg. He has published widely on 19th- and 20th-century South African history. His latest book is The Notorious Syndicalist -}.T. Bain: A Scottish Rebel in Colonial South Africa (2004).

Alan Jeeves is professor of history at the Southern African Research Centre in Kingston, Canada, and a research associate at the University of South Africa. His current research focuses on the history of public health in South Africa. Recent publications include the co-edited Communities at the Margin: Studies in Rural Society and Migration in Southern Africa 1890-1980(2002).

Shula Marks is an emeritus professor of the School of Oriental and African Studies, London and distinguished research fellow of the School of Advanced Study in the University of London. A former director of the Institute of Commonwealth Studies, London, she is a fellow of the British Academy and holds honorary degrees from the universities of Cape Town and Natal. She has lectured and written widely on South African history.

Nicoli Nattrass is a professor in the School of Economics and director of the Centre for Social Science Research at the University of Cape Town. She has published widely on inequality, economic policy, unemployment, welfare and AIDS in South Africa.

Howard Phillips is a professor in historical studies at the University of Cape Town. He has been researching, writing and teaching the history of health, disease and medicine in South Africa since the late 1970s. He has recently co-authored The Cape Doctor in the Nineteenth Century: A Social History (2004).

Parvathi Raman is a lecturer in social anthropology at the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. Her research interests include the Indian community in South Africa, political and cultural issues in diaspora studies, and African and Asian communities in Britain.

Jeremy Seekings is professor of political studies and sociology at the University of Cape Town. He is working on a study of welfare policy in South Africa from the early twentieth century to the present. His previous books include The UDF: A History of the United Democratic Front in South Africa, 1983-1991 and (with Nicoli Nattrass) From Race to Class: The Changing Nature of Inequality in South Africa.

Rob Skinner is currently teaching at the University of Sussex. His doctoral thesis examined the role of Christian activists in the development of international anti-apartheid campaigns during the 1950s. His current research focuses upon the relationship between the colonial experience and British social thought, and in particular the influence of Christian missions on 'development' policy.


Index:

Abercrombie, Patrick, 131-3,141
Africa Bureau, 247, 261
African Claims, 3, 12, 186, 254
African Mine Workers' Union, 10,
182-5
African National Congress, 12, 149,
152,155,158,162-4,167,172,180-2,
186-7,241,254-5,262
Youth League, 3,149-69
African nationalism, see nationalism
African Students'Association, 160
Afrikaanse Taal en Kultuurvereniging,
194
Afrikaner Broederbond, 5, 200, 257-8
Afrikaner nationalism, see nationalism
Afrikaner Party, 13
agriculture, prices, 34
Alexandra bus boycott, 256
All-African Convention, 152-3, 156
Andrews, Bill, 270
Anglican Church, 247-53, 262
anti-colonialism, 231
anti-fascism, 232
anti-imperialism, 231
Anti-Pass Action Committee, 183
Anti-Pass Conference, 1946, 182
apartheid, 1-2, 7, 38, 64, 66, 82, 103-4,
119,121,162,240,246,259,261-2
Army Education Service, 8, 268
see South African Army Information
Corps
Atlantic Charter, 3, 13, 52, 186, 253
Attlee, Clement, 238, 244
Baker, Lewis, 178
Ballenden, Graeme, 73
Ballinger, Margaret, 8, 73, 254, 267, 273,
282
Bantu Nutrition Survey, 89
Bantu World, 159
Barlow, Nancy, 111
Barzilay, A.H., 122
Basner, Hyman, 254
Batson, Edward, 45
Beveridge commission, see
Commission on
Social Insurance and Allied Services
black labour, see labour
Black Man's Burden, The, 14
Bokwe, Rosebery, 163
Bopape, David, 183
Bosman, Herman Charles, 220
Brazil, 56-7
Bremer, Karl, 103
Broederbond, see Afrikaner
Broederbond
Brookes, Edgar, 252, 276-7
Burrows, H., 21,45
Butler, Guy, 13, 212-26
Calata, James, 162, 166
Cape franchise, 150
Cape liberalism, 150-3
Carnegie Commission on the Poor
White Problem, 70
Catholic African Teachers' Union, 157
Catholic African Union, 155
Champion, A.W.G., 163
Charter, A.E., 136
cheap labour system, 68, 248
see labour
Christian nationalism, 6
Christianity, 246-66
missions, 4, 5, 71, 246, 249
citizenship, 13, 14, 16-17,49-50, 74, 76,
78,82
civilised labour policy, 230
Clayton, Geoffrey, 8, 247-8, 250-3
colour bar, 28-9, 247
Comintern, 236
Commision on Industrial legislation,
1934,30
Commission on Social Insurance and
Allied Services (Beveridge), Britain,
1942,51-2,58
Communist Manifesto, 186
Communist Party of South Africa, 4,
155-7, 172,178,182-3,186-7, 227,
283
230,232-5,237,241-2,269-70,272,
276
Community Oriented Primary Care,
104
Conference on Urban Native
Delinquency (1938), 70-80
Congress Alliance, 241
Conradie, J.H., 195
Consumer Price Index, 34
Cornelius, Hester, 270
Cornelius, Johanna, 270
. Council for Scientific and Industrial
Research, 9,102
Council of Non-European Trade
Unions, 32, 255
criminality, 174, 186-8
Dadoo, Mohamed, 230
Dadoo, Yusuf, 13, 227-45, 254, 256
Damane, Arthur, 183
De Ware Republikein, 4
decolonisation, 222-4
Defence League, 232
delinquency, urban African, 70-1
Democrat, The, 8
Depression, 65, 196
Dhlomo, Herbert, 5
disease, see particular diseases
Doctors' Pact, 238
dog racing, 200-3
Durban riots (1949), 239
Durban strikes of 1937, 32
Dutch Reformed Church, 200,204
education
African, 71-2, 77-9, 250
medical, 92-3,95,99,101-3,118
Eeufees(1938),5
Election of 1943,44,45
Election of 1948, 10, 38, 66, 79, 81, 278
Electricity Supply Commission, 170
employment, 24-5,174,184, 258
see labour
environmental planning, 10, 129-48
ethnicity, 186
eugenics, 65
Fagan Commission, see Native Laws
Commission
family, 64,67, 70, 72, 75, 251
marriage, African, 68, 72, 76, 79,
83,85
farmers, white, 273
fascism, 231,232, 258
see also anti-fascism
Fighting Talk, 8
First, Ruth, 155
Fischer, Bram, 270, 276
Fort Hare University College, 154, 160-
1,268
Forum, 7-8
Foucault, Michel, 74-5
Gale, George, 88, 96-103,108-11, 123
Gandhi, Mahatma, 230, 237, 239, 242
Gandhism, 227, 236, 240
Garment Workers' Union, 255
Gear, Harry, 94-6, 102
Ghetto Act, see legislation, Asiatic Land Tenure and Indian Representation Act
Gillett, Margaret, 277
Gluckman Commisson, see National
Health Services Commission
Gluckman, Henry, 90, 97
gold industry, 20, 24, 273
gold price, 20
Goonam, Kaisaval, 231
Gordon, Max, 268-9
Grassy Park Health Centre, 15, 108-28
Great Britain, Colonial Office, 52
Great Trek Centennial, 192-200
Greyshirts, 5
Guardian, The, 4, 234, 244, 269
Havenga, Klaas, 13
health, 10, 14,87-128
health assistants, 98-9,101, 111, 113,
119-20
Henson, Jacob, lll-l 8,122
Hertzog, J.B.M., 6-7, 11, 151-2
Hill, Octavia, 131
Hitler-Stalin Pact (1939), 233
Hoernie, Alfred, 7, 8, 11, 248-9, 253
Hofmeyr, J.H., 8, 12, 16, 20-2, 37- 40,
housing, urban African, 78
Huddleston, Trevor, 220
Indian National Congress, 262
Indian South Africans, 229, 236-40
Industrial and Agricultural
Requirements
(Van Eck) Commission, 9, 22-3, 249
Industrial Development Corporation,
24,170
Industrial Legislation Commission
(1934), 27
industrial strikes, 31-2, 182-5
black miners' strike of 1946, 10, 32,
183,276
industrialisation, 2, 11, 24, 97-8, 172,
258-9
influx control, 69, 74, 76, 82
see urbanisation
Inkululeko, 4
Institute of Family and Community
Health, 100-103, 121
insurance, health, 73, 84
Inter-Departmental (Smit) Committee
on the Social and Economic
Condition of the Urban Areas, 9,10,
77-8, 249,275-6
International Labour Organisation,
51-2
Iron and Steel Corporation, 170
Jabavu, D.D.T., 152
Jacobson,Dan,219
Joint Council of Europeans and
Natives, 71
Jones, J.D. Rheinallt, 255-6
Kahn, Ellison, 37
Kark, Emily, 89
Kark, Sidney, 89, 93-4, 98, 101-3
Kenya,53-4,56,62
Keppel- Jones, Arthur, 10, 274
Keynesianism, 23
Klopper, Henning, 194
Kotane, Moses, 162
Koza,Dan,268,271-2
Krige,Uys,219,224
labour
African, 30, 68, 240, 248, 268-72,
276
Indian, 240-1
migrant, 11,172-3,250
skilled, 29-31
white, 30
Labour, Department of, 31
Landau, David, 118
Lansdown Commission see Native
Mine Wages Commission
Latin America, 267
legislation
anti-Indian, 228
Asiatic Land Tenure and Indian
Representation Act, 230, 236
Children's Act (1937), 70
Colonial Development and Welfare
Act (Great Britain), 54
Factories, Machinery, and Building
Works Act, 1941, 28
Hertzog bills (1936) 151,153
minimum wage, 31
National Health Act, 96
Native Laws Amendment Act
(1945),78
Natives Urban Areas Act (1923), 69,
76
Pensions Laws Amendment Act
(1944),47
Urban Areas (Amendment) Act
(1937), 171, 184, 185
Wage Act(1925),30
Lembede, Anton, 3, 149,155-6,159-60
Le Riche, W Harding, 95-6
Lesenya, Mr., 187
Lesolang, S.J.;., 157-8
Letlaka, T.T., 160-1
liberal democracy, 6
Liberal Party, 273
liberalism, 7,66,150-3
liberals, white, 5, 213,215, 220-1, 247-8,
252-3,255-8,261,267-8, 273
literary criticism, 217-20, 221-3
literature, Anglo-South African, 222
Local Government Committee, 69
Mabuya, Harry Don, 178-80,185,187
Mahungela, F., 184-5
Makabeni, Gana, 268
Malan, D.R, 6,13, 151, 195, 196, 239-40
Malherbe, E.G., 9,12-13, 22, 102-3, 215
Mandela, Nelson, 3, 149, 160, 163,
166-7
manufacturing, 26, 34, 273
'marabi' music, 4
Ma-Rashea (Russians), 186-7
Marquard,Leo,12-14, 215,268,273-5,
278
Marxism, 221,231
see Communist Party of South Africa
Matthews, Joe, 161
Matthews, Z.K., 162-4
May, Mildred, 150
Mbobo,V.V.T.,164,166
Mda,A.R, 3,149-69, 278
Mda,G.C.,150,152
Mhlambi,Mr.,187
migrant labour, see labour
Millin, Sarah Gertrude, 273
missions, see Christianity, missions
Mitchell, Douglas, 134, 140, 145
Mji, Dilizantaba, 164
Moerane, Manasseh, 159
Mofutsanyana, Edwin, 254
Mokhehle,Ntsu,161,165
Mokoena, Joseph, 166
Molemi, Silas, 166
Molteno, Donald, 254
Moroka, James, 165-7
Motlana, Ntatho, 161
Msibi,Mrs.,187
Msimang, Selby, 162
Mumford, Lewis, 146, 259-60, 265
Naicker,G.M.,231,238
Naicker, Monty, 227
Naidoo, H.A., 233
Namibia, see South West Africa
Natal, Post-War Works and
Reconstruction Commission, 129,
134-5,137-8, 140-5
National Health Council, 96-7, 100
National Health Services (Gluckman)
Commission, 88, 90,93,108-9, 115,
268
national parks, in Britain, 129-33
National Party, 1, 5, 6, 10, 12-13,48, 61,
82,103,151,162,192,200,205,231-
2,239-41,271-2,275
see nationalism, Afrikaner
National Supplies Control Board, 33
National Trust (Britain), 131
National Union of South African
Students, 154,268
National War Memorial Health
Foundation, 97
nationalism, 230, 236, 240, 249
African,2-5,13,149-69,177-8, 213
see also African National Congress
Afrikaner, 2, 5, 11, 13,192-208, 213,
234,249,258,262,270
see also National Party
Indian South African, 231-3
Native Affairs Commission, 70, 76
Native Affairs, Department of, 31,65,
71,76,171,177,180
Native Economic Commission (1932),
70
Native Laws (Fagan) Commission, 10,
272
Native Mine Wages (Lansdown)
Commission (1943), 10, 58
Natives Representative Council, 10,
157,277
native reserves, 58-9
Nazism, 5-7, 257
New Era, The, 6
New Kleinfontein Mine, Benoni, 183-4
New Order, 232
Ngendane, Selby, 163
Ngubane, Jordan, 159
Nicholls, George Heaton, 134, 145
Njongwe, James, 166
Nokwe, Duma, 161
Non-European United Front, 153,155,
232
Non-European Unity Movement, 161-3
non-racialism, 227-8
see also liberalism, liberals, white
non-violent resistance, 235-6, 239
Ntlabati, L.K., 166
Ntolokwane, Mrs., 187
nutrition, 105
Nuwe Orde, 5-6
old-age pensions, 47-8, 50, 73, 80
Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, 102
Ossewa-Brandwag, 5, 199-200, 214-5,
232
Oxford University, 217-18
Pact government (1924), 230
Palmer, William, 254
Pan-Africanism, 162
Parliament, 1,11,267
pass laws, 69
see influx control, urbanisation
passive resistance, see non-violent
resistance
Paton,Alan,9, 18,58,263
patriarchy, 79,186
Pemba, George, 4
pensions, see old-age pensions
Pholela Health Centre, 15, 89-90, 94-5,
98,108-10,113-14,123
Pienaar, AJ., 207
Pirow, Oswald, 5,6,232
Pitje, Godfrey, 160-2
Planje,Ehrhardt,219
police, see South African Police
poor white problem, 65
post-war reconstruction, 8-10, 129,
133,135,141,170,246,252,255,257,
259,262,277
see state, planning
poverty, 49,55,56,58-61,64,70-3, 115,
195-6, 202, 258
preventive health, 121-2
price controls, 32-3
Producer Price Index, 34
Programme of Action (ANC, 1949), 3
Purified National Party, 151,200
see also National Party
Radebe, Gaur, 268
Reconstruction and Development
Programme, 1994,49
Reddingsdaadbond, 199, 206
regional planning, 10, 130-3,259-60
religion, see Christianity
Rockefeller Foundation, 103,118
Rodseth, Fred, 181
Roman Catholic Church, 155
Roux, Eddie, 11-12
rugby, 203-7
Russians, see Ma-Rashea
Ryle, John A., 96-102, 118, 123
Sachs, Solly, 269-71
Sartre, Jean-Paul, 212
satyagraha, 230
Sauer, H., 10
Scott, Michael, 246-66
segregation, 9, 11, 16, 69, 74, 240,250,
253,256-7, 277
Sekoto, Gerard, 4
Seme,Pixley, 152
Senusi,Mrs., 187
Settlers, 1820, 223-4
Sinaba, Shadrack, 185
Sisulu, Walter, 3, 149,160, 163, 167
Slovo, Joe, 242
slums, urban, 173-175, 268
see urbanisation
Smit Committee, see Inter-
Departmental Committee
Smit, Douglas, 65, 77, 80, 157, 249
Smuts government, 16, 36, 108, 129
Smuts, J.C., 9-12,15-6,44,161-2, 238,
267-8
Sobukwe, Robert, 161-2,164
Socenywa, G.B., 162
Social and Economic Planning Council,
9,22-23,37-38,129,170
social democracy, 2
social welfare, 6-7,14, 16-17, 36, 45-47,
49,50,53-57,61,65-7,70-5, 79-81,
112,116,134,179,248,251,253,268
Social Welfare, Department of, 71, 80
socialism, 230,236
Society of Jews and Christians, 247
Solomon, Bertha, 278
Sophiatown, 254
South Africa
balance of payments, 20
economic performance during
World War II, 20-1
tax levels, 22
South African Army Information
Corps, 214-15
see Army Education Service
South African identity, white, 213,
220-4
South African Institute of Medical
Research, 102
South African Institute of Race
Relations, 79, 220, 248, 275
South African Police, 171,183
South African Sugar Association, 136
South African Trades and Labour
Council, 269
South West Africa, 238
Southern Rhodesia, 53, 55-6
Soviet Union, 215
Springbok Legion, 257
Springboks (rugby), 205
squatter politics, 179-88
St. John's School, Johannesburg, 214
St. Joseph's orphanage, 254
Stals,A.J.,119
state, 65-66, 81, 108
local,69,71,73,75,135-6,170-91
planning, 9-10,14, 23, 31, 75,129-32
see post-war reconstruction
statistics, vital, 90, 112
Stellenbosch University, 203-4, 206
Stoker, H.J., 6
strikes, see industrial strikes
Sullivan, Joseph R., 45-6
syphilis, 87, 91
Tabata, I.E., 161
Tambo, Oliver, 3, 160, 162-3,165-7
Ten Shilling Strike, 183
see industrial strikes
Thema, R.V. Selope, 163, 181
Thibela,Mrs.,184
Tloome, Dan, 166
town planning, 144
trade unions, 269-70
black, 32, 37, 268-9, 276
Transvaal African Teachers' Association
156-8,
Transvaal Garment Workers Union, 270
Transvaal Teachers' Association, 255,
269
Trek, 8
Tsele, Peter, 161
Tsotsi,Wycliffe,161
tuberculosis, 91
Umlindi we Nyanga, 152
United Nations, 237-8, 261, 266, 272
United Party, 1, 5,12, 14, 129, 194-5,
206,231,258,273-4, 275,277-8
University of Cape Town, 117-18, 203,
206
University of Natal, 102-3
University of Pretoria, 206
University of the Witwatersrand, 102,
206,217
urbanisation, 4, 26, 54,64-5, 68-9, 73,
75,78,80-2,170-91,196-7, 272
Van der Bijl,H.J.,170
Van der Byl, Piet, 78, 154, 275-6
Van Eck,J.H.,170
Van Eck Commission, see Industrial
and Agricultural Requirements
Commission
Vandag, 219-20,219
Verwoerd,H.F.,201
Victoria College, 203
Victoria Hospital, 122
Vilakazi, B.W, 150-1
Voortrekker Centennial, 1938, 270
Vrededorp,200, 201
Vusani, M., 161
Wage Board, 28, 30-2
wages,26-8,30-2, 35, 37,73,268
Walker, Ivan, 268
War Measure 9 of 1942, 28, 31
Ward, H.H., 134
Washington, Booker T, 151
Watts, Hilda (Bernstein), 4
Webb, J.B., 254
Weichardt, Louis, 5
welfare, see social welfare
West Indies, 60-1
Western Areas removals, 256
When Smuts Goes, 10, 274
white labour, see labour
White Paper on Social Security, 1945,
women, African, 68-9, 79, 83, 184-8
workers, see labour
working class, Afrikaner, 200-3
Xuma, Alfred, 12, 159, 160, 162-3, 165-
6, 238,254,256
Youth League, see African National
Congress
Zululand, 136-42