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Remarkable Reptiles of South Africa

Remarkable Reptiles of South Africa

Provides a greater insight into the behaviour and the world of snakes, lizards, chameleons, tortoises, terrapins and crocodiles
Jacobson, Niels
22106
978-1-875093-49-6
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Remarkable Reptiles of South Africa

Author: Niels Jacobson
Briza Publications
Pretoria, 2005
ISBN: 978-1-875093-49-6
Soft cover, 21x26 cm, 160 pages, 200 colour photographs


Description:

South Africa has an inordinate wealth of plants and animals. It is a country of superlatives with an entire floral kingdom occurring within its borders.

With a land surface area of only 2 per cent of the global landmass, it contains 10 per cent of the world’s plants and between 6 and 7 per cent of the world’s mammals, birds and reptiles.

Not only does South Africa boast the greatest number of species of land tortoises of any place on Earth, it ranks fifth in the world with regard to overall number of reptile species.

Such an array of reptiles, which at last count numbered 363 species, with more being described annually, shows an incredible range of adaptations enabling these remarkable creatures to live in extremes of climate from the high mountains to desert, from coast to coast and some even adapting to an urban environment.

Despite this, the daily lives of most reptile species remain a closed book. Many species are cryptic, preferring not to be seen, while others display amongst the brightest colours in the animal kingdom.

They range from very small species weighing less than a gram to the giant Nile crocodile, which may achieve a mass of 1000 kg, and include some of the most poisonous species on the planet. It is indeed a treasure house.

Remarkable Reptiles offers a glimpse into the fascinating world of snakes, lizards, chameleons, tortoises, terrapins and crocodiles and hopes to provide a greater insight into the behaviour of these often maligned animals.

Many reptiles, especially snakes, receive unjust treatment because of attacks on humans, while anthropogenic causes, which are far more lethal, tend to be less emphasised.

Hopefully this book will contribute to, and instil respect and interest in the remarkable diversity of reptiles with which South Africa has been blessed.


About the author:

Niels Jacobsen is an ecological consultant with a lifelong interest in plants and animals including reptiles and amphibians. He has worked for southern African conservation departments for 30 years of which 20 were spent as herpetologist of the former Transvaal Chief Directorate of Nature and Environmental Conservation.

Since 1995 he has been working as a freelance ecological consultant throughout southern and central Africa. His interest in all living things stems from an upbringing in a home in which the natural world was always the topic of conversation.


Contents:

Introduction
Taxonomy and relationship to other animals
Reptile skin
Colouration
Skeleton
Hearing
Adaptations
Eyesight
Smell
Brain
Alimentary tract
Respiration and circulatory system
Thermoregulation
Hibernation
Reproduction
Growth and age
Zoogeography

Tortoises, Terrapins and Turtles
Order Chelonia
Skeleton
Food
Hibernation
Sexual dimorphism and reproduction
Enemies

Side- and Snake-necked Terrapins
Suborder PLEURODIRA
The Side-necked Terrapin family
Pelomedusidae

Hldden-neck tortoises and Turtles
Suborder Cryptodira
The Land Tortoise Family
Testudinidae
The Pond Terrapin Family
Emydidae
The Soft-shelled Terrapin Family
Trionychidae

Sea turtles
Suborder Cryptodira
The Leatherback Sea Turtle Family
Dermochelyidae
The Modern Sea Turtle Family
Cheloniidae

Lizards
Order Squamata
Suborder Sauria or lacertilia
Thermoregulation
Anatomy
Smell
Caudal autotomy
Food
Behaviour
Reproduction
Longevity
The Agama Family
Agamidae
The Gecko Family
Gekkonidae
The Chameleon Family
Chameleonidae
The Skink Family
Scincidae
The Lacertid Family
Lacertidae
The Cordylid Family
Cordylidae
The Plated Lizard Family
Gerrhosauridae
The Monitor Lizard Family
Varanidae

Amphisbaenians
Suborder amphisbaenia
The Worm Lizard Family
Amphisbaenidae

Snakes
Order Squamata
Suborder Serpentes
Adaptation
Anatomy
Thermoregulation
Food
Hearing
Behaviour
Reproduction
Locomotion
Diseases and enemies
Myths
charmers
The Blind Snake Family
Typhlopidae
The Thread Snake Family
Leptotyphlopidae
The Python and Boa Family
Boidae
The Burrowing Snake Family
Atractaspididae
The Advanced Snake Family
Colubridae
The Cobra and Mamba Family
Elapidae
The Viper and Adder Family
Viperidae

Crocodiles
Order crocodilia
The Crocodilian Family
Crocodylidae
What of the future?
Bibliography
Glossary
Index


A classification of south african reptiles:

Subclass Anapsida
Order Chelonia or Testudinata (tortoises, terrapins and turtles)
Suborder Pleurodira
Family Pelomedusidae (side- and snake-necked terrapins)

Suborder Cryptodira
Family tmydidae (typical terrapins)
Testudinidae (land tortoises, pond and box terrapins, etc.) Cheloniidae (sea turtles) Dermochelyidae (leatherback turtle) Trionychidae (soft-shelled turtles)

Order Squamata
Suborder Lacertilia or Sauria (lizards)
Family Agamidae (agamas, etc.)
Chamaeleontidae (chameleons)
Gekkonidae (geckos)
Scincidae (skinks)
Lacertidae (sand lizards, mountain lizards, etc.)
Cordylidae (girdled lizards, snake lizards, flat lizards)
Gerrhosauridae (plated lizards)
Varanidae (monitor lizards)

Infraorder Amphisbaenia
Family Amphisbaenidae (worm lizards)

Suborder Ophidia or Serpentes
Family Typhlopidae (blind snakes)
Leptotyphlopidae (thread snakes) Boidae (pythons)
Atractaspididae (African burrowing snakes) (Subfamilies Atractaspininae, Aparallactinae) Colubridae (Subfamilies Lamprophinae, Natricinae, Colubrinae, Psammophinae, as well as the specialised Subfamily Dasypeltinae)
Elapidae (cobras, mambas) (Subfamilies Elapinae, Hydrophiinae (sea snakes)) Viperidae (adders, pit vipers, rattlesnakes, vipers) (Subfamilies Viperinae, Crotalinae)

Subclass Archosauria
Order Crocodilia
Suborder Eusuchia
Family Crocodylidae (crocodiles, gavials, alligators, caimans) (Subfamilies Crocodylinae and Alligatorinae)


The Gecko Family Gekkonidae:

Most people are familiar with the lizards of the family Gekkonidae or geckos. The name gecko is derived from the call of one of these lizards from south-east Asia. There are numerous species which vary greatly in size, from the relatively large Turner's thick-toed gecko, Pachydactylus turneri, and Wahlberg's velvety gecko, Ilomopholis wahlbergi, to the small dwarf and leaf-toed geckos.

Geckos are distributed throughout the warmer regions of the world and number about 760 species of which at present about 59 species and several subspecies occur in South Africa, many of these endemic. They occupy all habitats from tidal marshes to above 2 000 m on the highveld of Mpumalanga.

Geckos are characterised by having a brille covering the eye instead of an eyelid and most species exhibit expanded tips to the digits, which are covered by rows of scales or lamellae. These scales are furnished with minute hairlike projections which fit into irregularities in the surfaces to which the animals cling.

If a sheet of glass is magnified a hundred times these irregularities, which the gecko uses to climb up apparently smooth surfaces, become visible. Some geckos do not have these expanded tips, the digits simply terminating in claws. Dwarf geckos of the genus Lygodactylus have lamellae under the tail tip which assist these arboreal and rupicolous geckos to cling to vertical surfaces.

A very unique adaptation is the webbed feet of the Namib web-footed gecko, Palmatogecko rangei, and the Kaoko web-footed gecko, Kaokogecko vanzijlii. The former just enters South Africa along dunes in the Richtersveld whereas the latter is restricted to the northern Namib.

These geckos possess webbing between the fingers and toes for easy travel across the loose sands of the desert permitting them to climb up steep dunes. They also enable these geckos to dig burrows in loose sand. There are three species of Barking gecko, namely Koch's barking gecko, Ptenopus kochi, Carp's barking gecko, P. carpi, and the Common barking gecko, P. garrulus, the only one to occur within our borders.

These are very quaint lizards, which have a wide distribution in Botswana and Namibia but are restricted in South Africa to the Limpopo and Northern Cape provinces. They live in colonies and are a very vocal species. These geckos do not bark but actually utter nasal clicking calls, which on a quiet night may become deafening when one has established a camp close to a large colony.

They live singly in self-excavated burrows, which are about 30 cm in depth usually with a twist along the way and often with one or more false passages, which terminate just below the surface. The males have a bright yellow throat and when calling lie at the entrance of the burrow, which may help to resonate the call further.

They are most active at dusk but in some areas may call throughout the night. In the Vivo area calls are restricted to the summer months whereas in the Kalahari they call almost throughout the year and are an endearing feature of Kalahari nights. If one sits quietly with a torch near a burrow the animal may come out and feed on insects attracted to the light.

Most geckos are active at night but the dwarf geckos form a group of diurnal species, which are primarily active by day although this may extend into dusk. There are eight species and several subspecies of these geckos in South Africa, five of them endemic, mostly concentrated in the northern provinces.

The most common and widespread of these is the Common dwarf gecko, Lygodactylus capensis, which although being primarily an arboreal or tree-living species also commonly occurs on the walls of houses and on rocky outcrops. However, they are most abundant on trees and dead wood lying about on the ground, especially those with holes and rough or flaking bark under which the animals can take shelter at night or when rain threatens.

They tend to forage from perches close to the base of the tree but also cross open spaces on the ground from one tree to another. These geckos are very cryptic in appearance and behaviour and blend in very well with the bark of trees and dead wood on which they live.

In addition they appear able to lighten or darken their colour to blend in better with the surroundings. Their habit of sitting and waiting for prey makes them difficult to see but they become more visible when they change position. If approached they either flee up the bole of the tree or they move crabwise around the bole of the tree keeping this between the attacker and itself.

They are communal animals living in colonies where the dominant male usually has the best basking, escape and foraging sites. Young individuals appear to be relegated to smaller and less secure habitats within the territory of a dominant male. They may often be seen lashing the tail sideways, usually a signal to other conspecifics (individuals of the same kind) to not approach closer or risk combat with the dominant individual in the group.

The Common dwarf gecko is an inveterate hitchhiker and by taking advantage of humans and their desire to travel has established populations far from its original home, riding in vehicles or other goods and descending where the vehicle stops for any length of time. In recent times populations have been recorded from the Addo National Park, many urban centres such as Bloemfontein and Port Elizabeth and now even in George in the Western Cape. It seems that this species has become a commensal, benefiting from human activities and in time may establish itself throughout the country, perhaps to the detriment of some endemic species.

The largest of these geckos is Methuen's dwarf gecko, L. methueni, which is also at least partly arboreal. It is an attractive velvety olive green in colour with many markings and is only known to date from the Woodbush Forest, an area of roughly 10 000 ha in the vicinity of Haenertsburg in Limpopo Province.

The species appears to lay its eggs in crevices of boulders and the hatchlings have orange-red tails. The South African Red Data Book on Reptiles and Amphibians lists this species as vulnerable, as much of its former habitat was destroyed during commercial afforestation of the region.

All of the remaining species and subspecies with the exception of Bradfield's dwarf gecko, L. bradfieldi, which is also arboreal, tend to be rupicolous or rock living but will ascend trees on rocky outcrops. These include the Ocellated dwarf gecko, L. ocellatus, the Black-spotted dwarf gecko, L. nigropunctatus, Stevenson's dwarf gecko, L. stevensoni, Waterberg dwarf gecko, L. waterbergensis, and the Granite dwarf gecko, L. graniticolus.

Some of these, such as the Waterberg and Granite dwarf geckos, have very restricted ranges in Limpopo Province, occupying the upper slopes of the Waterberg and the granite hills around Makopane (formerly Potgietersrust) respectively. However, both these lizards occur in protected areas and are currently not endangered. [...]


Index:

A
Acanthocercus atricollis 41
Acontias 58
plumbeus 58
Acontophiops 58
lineatus 58
adder, Berg 123
Common night 81, 127
Demon 127
European 122
Gaboon 126, 127
Horned 5, 123
Peringuey's 122, 123
Puff 10, 80, 86, 87, 108, 124, 125, 126, 141
Schneider's 123
Snouted night 127
Aelurognatus 1, 2
Aethomys chrysophilus 127
Afroedura 53
multiporis 53
Agama agama aculeata 45
agama distanti 45
agama atra 46
agama knobeli 46
agama, Ground 45
Distant's ground 45, 46
Rock 46
Tree 41, 44
Agamidae 44
Aglypha 13, 14
alligators 10
Amblyodipsas 93
Amblyodipsas polylepis 93
Amblyomma 15
Amphisbaenia 75, 76
Amphisbaenidae 75
Amplorhinus 95
multimaculatus 107
anaconda 86
Anapsida 3
Androstachys johnsoni 11
Angolosaurus skoogi 11
Anochaetus faurei 69
ants, Driver 88
Matabele 88
Aparallactus 93
capensis 94
Archosauria 3
asp, Bibron's burrowing 94
Duerden's 94
Aspidelaps lubricus 118
scutatus 118
Atractaspididae 92, 93
Atractaspis 93
bibronii 94
duerdeni 94
Atilax paludinosus 135
Aulacephalodon 1, 2
Australopithecus 2
B
barking gecko, Carp's 47
Common 47, 48
Koch's 47
beetle, Darkling 72
Tiger 63
Toktokkie 72
Bitis 122
arietans 80, 124
atropos 123
caudalis 123
gabonica 126
peringueyi 122
schneideri 123
Bloukopkoggelmander 44
boa constrictor 10
Boidae 12, 89
Boomslang 56, 97, 98, 104, 105, 106, 118
Bradypodion 54
transvaalense 56
bullfrog, Giant 86
burrowing skink, Limpopo 57
Montane 57
Bushmaster 11
Bushpig 135
c
Carabidae 63
Caretta caretta 36
Causus defillippi 127
rhombeatus ill
centipede-eater, Cape 94
Chamaeleo 54
dilepis 7, 42
namaquensis 57
Chamaeleonidae 54
chameleon, Common flap-necked 7, 10, 12, 42, 43, 54,
55, 56
Namaqua 56, 57
Chelonia 2, 8, 20
Chefoniidae 36
Chelonia my das 36
Chersina angulata 29
Chirindia langi 76, 77
Chiromantis xerampelina 98
Chondrodactylus angulifer 52
cobra, Black spitting 114
Black-necked spitting 113, 114
Cape 6, 86, 108, 111, 112
Egyptian 111
Forest 112
King 111
Mozambique spitting 113, 114, 141
Snouted 86, 111
Colubridae 95
Cordylidae 5, 66
Cordylosaurus subtessellatus 71
Cordylus aenea 68
catapharctus 66
giganteus 66
jonesi 61
macrolepis 68
macropholis 61
melanotus 68
tasmani 61
vittifer 61
warreni depressus 61
warreni 61
Cottonmouth 121
Cotylosaur 2
crag lizard, Drakensberg 68
crocodile, Nile 11, 128, 130, 131, 136, 139
Saltwater 136
Siamese 136
Crocodilia 2, 128
Crocodylidae 129
Crocodylus nilotkus 9, 128, 130
porosus 136
siamensis 136
Crocuta crocuta 135
Crotaphopeltis hotamboeia 79, 87, 103, 104
Crotalus cerastes 122
Cryptactites peringueyi 53
Cryptoblepharus boutoni 18, 61
Cryptodira 17, 23, 25, 33
Cycloderma frenatum 32
D
Dalophia pistillum 11
Dasypeltis inornatus 102
medici 102
scabra 79, 102
day gecko, Namaqua 53, 54
Deinosuchus 130
Dendroaspis angusticeps 98, 116
polylepis 83, 87, 116
Dermochelys coriacea 34
desert lizard, Shovel snouted 64
Smith's 64
Wedge snouted 64, 65
Dispholidus typus 98, 104
Dorylus sp. 88
dragon, Komodo 71
Duberria lutrix 96
variegata 91
dwarf chameleon, Transvaal 38, 56
dwarf gecko, Black-spotted 49
Bradfield's 49
Common/ Cape 38, 41, 48, 49, 50
Granite 49
Methuen's / Woodbush 50
Ocellated 49, 50
Stevenson's 49
Waterberg 49, 50
E
eagle, Martial 75
Echis carinatus 122
egg-eater, Brown 102
Common 79, 102, 110
East African 102
Elapidae 17, 110
Elapsoidea boulengeri 120
sundevallii 120
Eretmochelys imbricata 21
Eumeces 61
F
Fer de lance 111
flat lizards 66, 68
flat gecko, African 10
Woodbush 53
fly, Tsetse 85
frog, Grey tree 98
G
Galarella sanguined 8 5
gecko, Wahlberg's velvety 47, 51
web-footed 10, 11
Kaoko web-footed 47
Namib 47
Gekkonidae 47
Geochelone 20
Geochelone gigantea 27
pardalis 25
Gerrhosauridae 5, 69
Gerrhosaurusflavigularis 43, 70
major 43, 70
validus 6, 43, 69
Gigantophis 89
girdled lizard, Armadillo 66
Dark 67
Giant 66
Jones' 67
Large-scaled 67
Tasman's 67
Transvaal 67
Warren's 67
Gondwanaland 17, 54
goose, Egyptian 91
Grammomys dolichurus 127
grass lizard 66
Large scaled 68
Transvaal 68
Grewia 70
ground gecko, Giant 10, 41, 52
guineafowl 91
H
Hamerkop 117
Heliobolus lugubris 63
Hemachatus haemachatus 86, 113
Hemidactylus mabouia 38, 50
hinged terrapin, Mashona 25
Pan 25
Serrated 24, 25
Yellow-bellied 25
hinged tortoise, Bell's 31
Lobatse 31
Natal 31
Speke's 31
Holaspis guentheri 62
Homo erectus 2
Homo sapiens 2
Homopholis mulleri 52
wahlbergi 51
Homopus 20
Homopus areolatus 30
boulengeri 30
femoralis 30
signatus 30
Homoroselaps dorsalis 119
lacteus 119
house gecko, Tropical 10, 38, 50, 139
Hyaena brunnea 15
hyena, Brown 75
Spotted 135
I
Ichnotropis capensis 63, 64, 65
squamulosa 64
J
Jararacussu 111
K
Kaokogecko vanzijli 47
Kinixys belliana 31
lobatsiana 31
natalensis 31
spekii 31
I
land snail, Giant 51
Lacerta lepida 62
vivipara 64
Lacertidae 62
Lacertilia 38
Lamprophis aurora 100
fiskii 99
fuliginosus 79, 99
fuscus 99
guttatus 100
swazicus 99
Lanthonotidae 78
leaf-toed gecko, Peringuey's coastal 53
Lebombo ironwood 77
legless skink, Gariep 59
Striped blind 57, 58
Giant 57
Woodbush 58
Lepidochelys olivacea 37
Lepidosauria 3
Leptoptilus crumeniferus 135
Leptotyphlopidae 12, 89
Leptotyphlops longicauda 89
Liasis amethystinus 90
lizard, Bushveld 63
Fringe-tailed 62
Jewelled 62
Viviparous 64
Lycodonomorphus laevissimus 98
obscuriventris 98
rufulus 98
Lycophidion capense 101
variegatum 101
Lycosid spider 41
Lygodactylus 47
bradfiddi 49
capensis 38, 48
methueni 49
nigropunctatus 49
ocellatus 49
ocellatus soutpansbergensis 50
stevensoni 49
waterbergensis 49
Lygosoma sundevalli 59
M
Macrotermes 117
mamba, Black 8, 16, 83, 85, 86, 87, 1 11, 1 16, 1 17, 1 18
Green 97, 98, 116, 117, 118
Marula 52
Mehelya capensis 96
Meroles anchietae 64, 65
ctenodactylus 64
cuneirostris 64
Mesosaurus 2
mice, Multimammate 125
Striped field 125
Woodland 127
moccasin, Water 121
mongoose, Banded 85, 86, 135
Slender 85, 86
Water 137
monitor, Veld 9, 19, 43, 71, 72, 74, 75
Water 9, 13,43,71,72, 73,74
Monopeltis 16
infuscatus 76, 77
Montaspis 95
Mopane 77
mountain lizard, CottrelPs 39
Msimbiti 77
Mungos mungo 135
N
Naja a. annulifera 111
haje 111
melanoleuca 112
mossambica 113
naja 113
nigricollis nigricincta 114
nigricollis woodi 113
nivea 112
Nucras holubi 62
intertexta 62
lalandei 62
o
Opisthoglypha 13, 14
Otomys spp. 25, 127
P
Pachydactylus 50
affinis 51
bibroni 51
maculata 51
turneri 51
padloper, Greater 30
Karoo 30
Lesser 30
Southern speckled 30
Palmatogecko rangei 10, 47
Panaspis 60
maculicollis 60
wahlbergi 60
Pangaea 17
Pelamis platurus 121
Pelomedusidae 24
Pelomedusa subrufa 24
Pelusios castaneus 25
rhodesianus 25
sinuatus 25
subniger 25
Phacocoerus aethiopicus 135
Phelsuma ocellata 54
Philothamnus hoplogaster 91
natalensis 91
semivariegatus 85, 97
plated lizard, Dwarf 71
Eastwood's 69, 70
Five toed 69, 70
Giant 1, 13, 69
Namib 71
Rough-scaled 70
Yellow-throated 43, 70, 71
Platysaurus 68
guttatus 43
Pleurodira 17, 23, 24
Polemaetus bellicosus 15
Potamochoerus porcus 135
Praomys natalensis 125
Prolacerta 1, 2
Prosymna 95, 96
jani 96
sundevalli lineata 95
sundevalli sundevalli 95, 96
Proteroglypha 13, 14
Psammobates 20
geometricus 20,21
oculiferus 29 '
tentorius 28
trimeni 29
Psammophis 109
brevirostris 110
crucifer 109
jallae 109
subtaeniatus 109
Psammophylax rhombeatus 108
tritaeniatus 83, 109
Pseudaspis cana 101
Pseudocordylus 68
Ptenopus carpi 47
garrulus 47
£ocAz' 47
Python anchietae 90
natalensis 9, 82, 90
r<?£«w 90
reticulatus 90
wte 90
python, African 90
Amethystine 90
Ball 90
Reticulated 86, 90
Southern African 9, 13, 82, 90, 91, 92
Pyxicephalus adspersus 86
0
quill-snouted snakes 93
R
rat, Red veld 127
Vlei 125
Rhabdomys pumilio 125
Rhamphotyphlops braminus 16, 89, 139
Khinotyphlops schlegeli 8 8
Rhynchocephalia 2
Rinkhals 66, 86, 113, 114, 115, 121
rough-scaled lizard, Cape 63, 64, 65
sandveld lizard, Delalande's 62
Holub's 62
Spotted 62
Sarchosuchus 130
Sauria 38
Scelotes 51
limpopoensis 51
mirus 51
Scincidae 57
Sclerocarya birrea 52
Scopus umbretta 117
Shovel-snout, Mozambique 96
Sundevall's 95, 96
sidewinder, American 122
skaapsteker, Spotted 84, 108
Striped 71, 83, 108
skink, Black-lined 59, 60
Blue-tailed koppie 60
Cape 61
Eastern coastal 60
Striped 60
Sundevall's writhing 59
Variable 17, 61
slug-eater, Common 96, 107
Variegated 97
snake, American coral 6,111
Aurora house 100
Beetz's tiger 104
Bibron's blind 88
Bicoloured quill-snouted 93, 139
Black file 96
Black water 98
Boulenger's garter 120
Brown house 79, 99, 110, 141
Brown water 98
Cape file 86, 96, 139
Cape wolf 100, 101
Common purple-glossed 93
Coral 118, 119
Cross-marked sand 109
Dwarf crowned 111
Dwarf crowned sand 109
Eastern tiger 104
Fierce 111
Fisk's house 99
Flowerpot 16, 89, 139
Green water 78, 97
Herald 79, 86, 87, 103, 104, 110, 139
Jalla's sand 109
Long-tailed thread 89
Mole 100, 101, 102, 107
Natal green 97
Red-lipped 79, 110
Reed 107, 108
SchlegePs blind 88
Shield-nosed 5, 118, 119
Short-snouted sand 110
Sonoran king 6
Spotted bush 85, 97, 98
Spotted harlequin 119
Spotted house 82, 100, 101
Stripe-bellied sand 109
Striped harlequin 119, 120
Sundevall's garter 120
Swazi house 99
Transvaal quill-snouted 93
Variegated wolf 100, 101
Vine 83, 85, 87, 104, 105, 106, 107
Western black-striped 111
White-lipped water 98
Yellow-bellied house 99
Yellow-bellied sea 121
Zebra 114
snake-eyed skink, Bouton's 18, 61
Spotted-neck 60
Wahlberg's 60
Squamata 2, 16, 38
Solenoglypha 14
stork, Marabou 135
Suncus varilla 95
Sungazer 66
T
Taipan 111
Telescopus beetzii 104
semiannulatus semiannulatus 104
semiannulatus polystictus 104
termite, Harvester 53
terrapin, American red-eared 18, 32
Cape 6, 24
Nile soft-shelled 32
Zambesi soft-shelled 32
Testudinidae 25
Tetradactylus africanus 69
eastwoodae 69, 70
Thelotornis capensis 83, 87, 105
thick-toed gecko, Bibron's 51
Spotted 51
Tiger 51
Transvaal 51
Turner's 10, 12, 51
Van Son's 51
Thrinaxodon liorhinus 1, 2
tortoise, Angulate 29
Geometric 20, 27, 28
Giant 27
Kalahari serrated 29
Knoppiesdop 28
Leopard 17, 18, 25, 26, 27
Mountain 25
Parrot-beak 30
Ploughshare 29
Tent 28
Trachylepis ( = Mabuya) capensis 61
depressa 60
margaritifer 60
punctatissimus 60
striata 60
varia 40, 61
Tracheloptychus madagascariensis 11
Trachemys scripta 32
Trionyx triunguis 32
Tropidosaura cottrelli 39
Tuatara 2, 11, 17
turtle, Green 33, 34
Hawksbill 21, 33, 34
Leatherback 33, 34, 36
Loggerhead 33, 34, 36, 37
Olive Ridley 33, 34, 37
Typhlopidae 12, 88
Typhlops bibronii 88
Typhlosaurus 58
aurantiacus 59
gariepensis 59
lineatus 58
richardi 59
subtaeniatus 59
Varanidae 71, 78
Varanus albigularis 9, 43, 71,
komodoensis 71
niloticus 9, 43, 71
viper, Russell's 122
Saw-scaled 122
Viper a 122
berus 122
russelli 122
Viperidae 110, 121
w
Warthog 137
worm-lizard, Blunt-tailed 77
Dusky spade-snouted 76, 77
Kalahari round-headed 76
Msimbiti 76, 77
X
Xenocalamus 93
bicolor 93
bicolor australis 93
bicolor bicolor 93
bicolor lineatus 93
transvaalensis 93
Zygaspis 11
quadrifrons 11