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Popular Resistance and the Roots of Nationalism in Namibia, 1915-1966

Popular Resistance and the Roots of Nationalism in Namibia, 1915-1966

Anti-colonial resistance and nationalism - the social forces and movement of national liberation in Namibia
Emmet, Tony
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978-3-936858-61-7
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Title: Popular Resistance and the Roots of Nationalism in Namibia, 1915-1966
Author: Tony Emmett
Series: Basel Namibia Studies Series 4
Publisher: Schlettwein Publishing
Basel, Switzerland 1999
ISBN 9783936858617 / ISBN 978-3-936858-61-7
Softcover, 17 x 24 cm, 389 pages

Description:

Popular Resistance and the Roots of Nationalism in Namibia (1915-1966) provides readers with original analyses of the Bondelswarts and Rehoboth rebellions, the Garveyite and "troop" movements, the contract labour system and the formation of the first modern African parties, SWANU and SWAPO. Based on extensive research, the study locates the development of resistance within the construction of a racial order in Namibia. It focuses attention on a broad range of formative contextual factors such as ecological and climatic conditions, the dominance of settler agriculture, and the state's redefinition of physical and political space..

Content: Popular Resistance and the Roots of Nationalism in Namibia, 1915-1966

Basel Namibia Studies Series
Note on this edition
Introduction by Patricia Hayes
Acknowledgements
Abstract
Map
Introduction: Nationalism, State and Culture
Nationalism and the state
Nationalism and economic interests - a digression
Nationalism and culture
Race and class
Status, social closure and class
Aims and preview of the dissertation
Namibian nationalism in context
Nationalism and time
Nationalism and space
Structure of the dissertation, limitations and gaps

Section One: The Colonial Context, 1884-1925
1 ECOLOGY AND CONFLICT IN GERMAN SOUTH WEST AFRICA

The relevance of ecology
Pre-colonial economic and political divisions
Pre-colonial production and colonial conflict
The nature of German imperialism
The nature of the colonial state
Colonial society after the 1904-1907 rebellions
2 NAMIBIA UNDER MARTIAL LAW, 1915-1920
The transition from German to South African rule
South African interests in colonizing Namibia
Constraints on South African policy
Changes in colonial policy
Strains and contradictions in colonial policy
Responses of the colonized
3 THE MANDATE AND THE CONSOLIDATION OF THE SETTLER STATE
Economic changes and the realignment of colonial policies
Land settlement policy
The native reserves policy
Contradictions between the settlement and reserves policies
Conclusion
Section Two: The First Phase of Popular Resistance
4 THE BONDELSWARTS REBELLION

The Bondelswarts under German rule
Relations with white farmers
The dog tax and other state measures
Military threats and political constraints
The rebellion in context
5 THE INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL WORKERS' UNION IN NAMIBIA
Formation of the ICU branch in Luderitz
Activities of the ICU, Luderitz
Attitudes of the administration to the ICU
The South West African National Congress
6 GARVEYISM AND RESISTANCE IN THE NAMIBIAN COUNTRYSIDE
The Universal Negro Improvement Association in Luderitz
Garveyism and millenarianism in the interior
Millenarianism in perspective
Garveyism and the generalization of rebellion
7 THE REHOBOTH REBELLION
The significance of the Rehoboth Gebiet
The Majority Party and the Baster Agreement
The rebellion
Aftermath and significance of the rebellion
Reasons for the failure of the first phase of popular resistance
Section Three: Ovamboland and the Contract Labour System
8 CONTRACT LABOUR AND THE COLONIAL ECONOMY

The origins of the contract labour system
Colonial policies and migrant labour
Labour shortages and the decline of the mining industry
Decline of the mining industry
Changing relationships between agricultural and mineral production
The role of agriculture in shaping the contract labour system
Further implications of agriculture's dominance over labour policies
9 THE CRISIS IN OVAMBOLAND
Colonial policy and the preservation of "traditional" structures
The decline of food production and the contract labour system
Pressures on land resources
Taxation and disarmament
The role of missionaries
Political underdevelopment: undermining indigenous authority
Changes in the land tenure system
Conclusion
Section Four: The Contemporary Nationalist Movement
10 ETHNIC AND INDIGENOUS INPUTS: HERERO LEADERS AND THE "TROOP" MOVEMENT
The relevance of indigenous culture
The consolidation of colonial control after 1925
The position of the Hereros in the reserves
Origins of Herero dominance
The Herero indigenous leadership
The Otjiserandu
The Okahandja ceremony
The struggle between the Otjiserandu and indigenous leadership
Damara and Ovambo "troops"
Explaining the "troop" movement
The incorporation issue
11 THE SOCIAL CONSCIOUSNESS OF CONTRACT LABOURERS AND THE FORMATION OF THE OVAMBOLAND PEOPLE'S ORGANISATION
The social position of contract workers
Contract labour and resistance
Economic growth and labour practice after World War II
Alternative employment opportunities and labour mobility
The social consciousness of contract labourers
The formation of the Ovamboland People's Organisation
Sam Nujoma and developments in Namibia
12 THE ROLE OF THE INTELLIGENTSIA AND THE LAUNCHING OF SWANU
Urbanization in the post-World War II period
Education and the development of an intelligentsia
The African Improvement Society
The South West African Student Body
The South West Africa Progressive Association
The South West Africa National Union (SWANU)
The Katutura Removal and Windhoek Shootings
Conclusion
13 EXILE POLITICS AND GUERRILLA WARFARE
The exile environment
Sources of disunity: SWANU and the Chiefs' Council
Sources of disunity: SWANU and SWAPO
International relations and affiliations
The issue of military struggle
Limitations of the SWANU leadership
The beginning of the guerrilla war
Conclusion
The state's role in restructuring space
"Exclusivist" and "inclusivist" nationalisms
Bibliography
List of Tables
Abbreviations
Index (names, organisations, places)


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