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Poisonous Plants of South Africa

Poisonous Plants of South Africa

A photographic guide to indigenous and alien plants that cause human and animal poisoning in South Africa
van Wyk; van Heerden; van Oudtshoorn
22105
978-1-875093-30-4
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Poisonous Plants of South Africa

Authors: Ben-Erik van Wyk, Fanie van Heerden, Bosch van Oudtshoorn
Briza Publications
Pretoria, 2005
ISBN: 978-1-875093-30-4
Hard cover, 17x24 cm, 288 pages, throughout full colour photographs and distribution maps

Poisonous Plants of South Africa Englischsprachiges Buch über die Giftpflanzen Südafrikas. Die Pflanzen werden anhand ausführlicher Portraits, Photographien, Verbreitungskarten und chemischen Formeln charakterisiert. Viele unserer Zimmerpflanzen stammen aus Südafrika, etwa die Wüstenrose (Adenium obesum).


Description:

Poisonous Plants of South Africa is photographic guide to indigenous and alien plants that cause human and animal poisoning in South Africa, including their botany, identification, and toxic ingredients.

Poisonous Plants of South Africa is a comprehensive guide to the most commonly occurring poisonous plants in South Africa.


The book includes:

• Detailed species descriptions of 135 poisonous plants. Each entry includes the following information:

A description of the plant, the type of toxin, the potential toxicity of the plant and its importance in human or livestock poisoning, the poisonous ingredients and their pharmacological effects.

• Distribution maps for poisonous plants that occur naturally in the wild.

• More than 450 excellent full-colour photographs that will assist in the identification of poisonous plants and plant parts.

• Introductory chapters on human and animal poisoning in South Africa, first aid treatment, methods of testing for toxicity, extraction and isolation of toxins, and poisonous principles and their effects.

• Plant lists according to class of toxin and type of livestock poisoning as well as a useful checklist of poisonous plants and a glossary of medical terms.

• Comprehensive references for further reading.

This is an essential reference guide for health professionals, veterinarians, farmers, gardeners or anyone with an interest or involvement in botany.


About the authors:

Ben-Erik van Wyk is a professor of Botany at the Rand Afrikaans University with a research interest in systematic botany and plant utilisation.

Fanie R. van Heerden is an associate professor of Chemistry at the Rand Afrikaans University. She is an authority on the chemistry of medicinal and poisonous plants

Bosch van Oudtshoorn is a retired professor of pharmacy and a pioneer researcher of the medicinal properties of plants. He has many years' experience in the pharmaceutical industry.


Contents:

Acknowledgements
Introduction
Human poisoning in South Africa
Animal poisoning in South Africa
First aid treatment
Methods of testing for toxicity in humans
Extraction and isolation of toxins
Poisonous principles and their effects
Alkaloids
Cyanogenic glycosides
Coumarins
Terpenoids
Saponins
Heart glycosides
Lectins (haemagglutinins, phytotoxins)
Oxalates
Miscellaneous compounds
Indigenous poisonous plants (including naturalised exotics)
Exotic garden plants
Plants listed according to class of toxin
Plants listed according to type of livestock poisoning
Checklist of poisonous plants
Glossary of medical terms
References and further reading
Index


Introduction:

Poisonous plants grow in almost every garden in South Africa and form an important part of our indigenous flora. Since they grow everywhere, it is not practical to eradicate them all - it is far better to learn to identify them and to teach our children about them.

This book is a photographic guide to the most commonly occurring poisonous plants in South Africa. It will hopefully contribute to a better awareness of the dangers of these plants amongst the general public and help health care professionals (traditional healers, nurses, pharmacists and doctors) to quickly identify poisonous plants in an emergency situation.

The only way to prevent accidental poisoning is to learn more about these harmful but often very attractive plants. Infants are especially at risk, and should be kept away from danger until they are old enough to identify and recognise poisonous plants. Plants, unlike animals, cannot run away when threatened, so they have devised cunning chemical defence systems to deter plant-eating animals and to sometimes even kill them.

The harmful substances can either cause superficial irritation or discomfort through contact with the skin, or serious poisoning when ingested in sufficient quantities. Because herbivores (and stock animals) have to eat large amounts of plant material every day, severe poisoning and deaths are quite common.

Most human fatalities occur when poisonous plants are mistaken for food plants. Examples are wild tobacco leaves (Nicotiana glauca) that are sometimes mistaken for traditional spinach or marog, and purging nut seeds Qatropha curcas) that are mistaken for edible nuts

Infants driven by their curiosity may nibble on poisonous plants but they rarely eat sufficient amounts to cause anything more than temporary discomfort or distress. Poisoning through traditional medicine is relatively rare (less common than for orthodox medicine) and usually occurs when herbal medicine is used outside the safeguards of the traditional knowledge system.

Like orthodox medicine, medicinal plants have to be biologically active in order to be effective, so that there is always a danger of poisoning through overdose. According to statistics of the Poison Unit of the Johannesburg General Hospital, plants are responsible for about 6,5% of all poisoning cases (about 500 cases and enquiries per year).

The top 10 culprits in the Johannesburg municipal area are syringa berries (Melia azedarach), elephant's ear leaves (Alocasia macrorrhiza and Colocasia esculenta), oleander leaves (Nerium oleander), arum lily leaves (Zantedeschia aethiopica), delicious monster leaves (Monstera deliciosa), thorn apple seeds or malpitte (Datum species), crab's eyes or lucky bean seeds (Abrus precatorius), dumb cane leaves (Dieffcnbachia species), Jerusalem cherry fruits (Solarium pseudocapsicum) and poinsettia latex (Euphorbia pulcherrima).

For other parts of the country, the following plants can be added to the list: wild tobacco leaves (Nicotiana glauca), castor oil seeds (Ricinus communis), purging nut seeds (jatropha curcas), tung nut seeds (Aleurites fordii), cycad seeds (Encephalartos species), wild granadilla (Adenia digitata), wild cucumber fruits (Cucumis species) and gifappel (Solarium species).

The introductory chapters give a brief overview of the subject, including general discussions of human and animal poisoning in South Africa, the chemical compounds responsible for poisoning and ways in which the plants and their compounds are studied by scientists.

In the main part of the book, the poisonous plants are arranged in two main sections. In the first, nearly 100 genera of indigenous and naturalised exotics are presented. Maps are provided as an additional means of identifying the plants.

In the second section, about 50 of the most common poisonous garden plants are briefly described and illustrated. Finally, lists of poisonous plants are provided as a quick reference to farmers, gardeners, parents, students, health care professionals and anyone else interested in the poisonous plants of South Africa.


Example:

ENCEPHALARTOS LONGIFOLIUS
Zamiaceae
cycads (English)
broodbome, wilde dadels (Afrikaans)

DESCRIPTION: Cycads are distinctive palm-like trees with thick, sturdy stems and very large, frond-like leaves'. The female cones are much larger than the male and at maturity they contain numerous brightly coloured, fleshy seeds, resembling dates. The seeds have a fleshy outer layer surrounding the actual seed kernel or endosperm (technically the female gametophyte)1.

E. longifolius is one of the most commonly encountered cycads and has enormous female cones'. A close relative of cycads is Stangeria eriopus, a fern-like plant with short, thick, underground stems2.

TYPE OF TOXIN: Azoxy compound.

IMPORTANCE: The seed kernels are highly toxic and human fatalities have been recorded34. While the pulp around the seeds is generally considered non-toxic34 it may well contain low levels of toxin. A well-known case of human poisoning occurred during the Anglo-Boer War of 1899-1902, when General Jan Smuts and his commando ate seeds of E. longifolius*.

Only some men were poisoned, and it is likely that those who only ate the fleshy part of the seeds and avoided the kernels were not affected4. The stems of Stangeria eriopus and Encephalartos species are commonly used as traditional medicine4 and there is a risk of acute or chronic poisoning.

POISONOUS INGREDIENTS: The toxicity of cycads is due to the presence of cycasin and macrozamin, two toxic glycosides of methyla-zoxymethanol5. These compounds are known from the seed kernels of both Encephalartos and Stangeria but cycasin was also shown to be present in Stangeria at levels of 0,17% in fresh and 0,21% in dried stem material8.

The emetic use of the stems, however, was ascribed to the presence of high levels of sodium sulphate8. Neurotoxic amino acids are known from Cycas species but their presence in Encephalartos and Stangeria has not yet been demonstrated.

PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECTS: The azoxy compounds cycasin and macrozamin are known to cause severe liver damage in humans and animals and are also carcinogenic.

DISTRIBUTION E.: longifolius occurs mainly in the Eastern Cape Province, but the genus is well represented in the eastern and northern parts of South Africa1. S. eriopus is restricted to sand dunes along the Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal coastline'.

Footnotes:

1. Goode, D. 1989. Cycads of Africa. Struik-Winchester, Cape Town.
2. Dyer, R.A. 1966. Stangeriaceae. Flora of Southern Africa 1: 1-3.
3. Steyn, D.G. 1949. Die Vergiftiging van Mens en Dier. Van Schaik, Pretoria.
4. Watt, J.M. & Breyer-Brandwijk, M.G. 1962. The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa, 2nd edition. Livingstone, London.
5. Altenkirk, B. 1974. Occurrence of macrozamin in the seeds of Encephalartos transvenosus and E. lanatus. Lloydia 37: 636-637.
6. Louw, W.K.A. & Oelofson, W. 1975. Carcinogenic and neurotoxic components in the cycad Encephalartos altensteinii Lehm. (family Zamiaceae). Toxicon 13:447-452.
7. Moretti, A., Sabato, S. & Gigliano, G.S. 1983. Taxonomic significance of methylazoxymethanol glycosides in the cycads. Plrytochemistry 22: 115-117.
8. Osborne, R., Grove, A., Oh, P., Mabry, T.J. Ng, J.C. & Seawright, A.A. 1994. The magical and medicinal usage of Stangeria eriopus in South Africa. /. Ethnopharmacol. 43: 67-72.


Index:

A
aartappel 255
abrin 30, 36, 252
abrine 30
Abrus precatorius 7, 30, 31, 36
Acacia caffra 32, 33
Acacia erioloba 32
Acacia nilotica 32
Acacia sieberiana var. woodii 32, 33
acacipetalin 32
Acalypha hispida 220
Acalypha indica 220
acalyphin 220
acetophenones 182
acetylcaranine 44, 78
5'-0-acetyl-4'-0-methylpyridoxine 40
3-acetylnerbowdine 52
acid metabolites 200
Acokanthera oblongifolia 34
Acokanthera oppositifolia 34, 35
Acokanthera schimperi 34
Acokanthera venetum 34
aconite 22, 23, 232
aconitine 22, 232
Aconitum napellus 22, 23, 232
acovenoside A 34
acute krimpsiekte 76, 212
acute poisoning 10
adelaarsvaring 172
Adenia digitata 7, 36, 37
Adenia glauca 36, 37
Adenia gummifera 36, 37
Adenium boehmianum 38, 39
Adenium multiflorum 38, 39
Adenium obesum var. multiflorum 38
African poison ivy 194
afroside 48
aglycone 26
Aizoaceae 114
ajmalicine 178
ajmaline 178
Albizia tatiganyicensis 40, 41
Albizia versicolor 40, 41
albiziosis 10, 40
Aleurites fordii 7, 9, 221
alfalfa 26
Algerian ivy 241
alkaloids 18, 118
alkylphenol 194, 240, 253
Alocasia macrorrhiza 7, 222
alopecia 66
amadoembie 230
Amaranthaceae 42, 162
Amaranthus hybridus 42, 43
Amaranthus reflexus 42
Amaranthus species 162
Amaranthus thunbergii 42, 43
Amaryllidaceae 44, 52, 70, 78,186
Amaryllis belladonna 44, 45
ambelline 44, 78
amides 28
amidine 225, 247
amine 64, 110, 164
amino acid 138
Ammi majus 2A, 25,112
Ammocharis coranica 44, 45
amygdalin 24, 56, 249
anabasine 158
Anacardiaceae 194, 253
Anacardium occidentale 194, 253
Anagallis arvensis 223
anagyrine 22
andromedotoxin 251
angel's trumpet 224
angelicin 24
anhydrolycorinium chloride 44
annual yellow sweet clover 150
anthranilic acid 20
Antizoma capensis 68
Apiaceae 72,168
Apocynaceae 20, 22, 34, 38, 60, 156, 1
260
April's fool 186
Aquifoliaceae 242
Aquilegia vulgaris 218
Araceae 222, 230, 233
Araliaceae 241
Araujia sericifera 184, 185
Arctotheca calendula 90
Argemone mexicana 46, 47
Argemone ochroleuca 46, 47
Argemone subfusiformis 46
Argyrolobium species 256
armoedbossie 174
arteglasin A 229
Artemisia absinthium 27
Arthrosolen species 120
artichoke 229
arum lily 7, 28, 29
arvenin I 223
arvenin II 223
Asaemia axillaris 50
Asaemia minuta 50
ascaridole 64
Asclepiadaceae 48, 84
Asclepias fruticosa 48, 49
Asclepias physocarpa 48, 49
Asclepidaceae 184
Aspergillus species 148
Asteraceae 22,26,50,58,66,74,90,116,122,136,174,
190, 216, 228, 229
Athanasia minuta 50, 51
Athanasia trifurcata 50, 51
atractyloside 58, 62
Atropa belladonna 18,19, 86
atropine 18, 86
Australiese silwereik 240
autumn crocus 118
aviprin 112
avocado pear 248
avokadopeer 248
azalea 251
azoxy compound 100
B
beetroot 42, 64
begraafplaasblom 60
belhambra tree 170
belhambraboom 170
bella sombra 170
belladonna lily 44
belladonnalelie 44
benzaldehyde 24
benzofuran 98
benzoquinone 223
berberine 46
bergamot 112
bergapten 168, 238
bergseldery 168
Bermuda grass 198
besembossie 80
Beta vulgaris 64
betain 64
beukesbossie 140
bewerasiegras 102
bewerasiesiekte 102
bianthraquinone 128
bietou 24, 25, 90
bird of paradise 226
birdsfoot trefoil 246
bisbenzylisoquinoline 68
bisbenzyltetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids 20, 68
bitter almonds 24, 56
bitterappel 196
bitterbos 11, 66
bitterkaroo 66
black locust 252
black monkey orange 204
black nightshade 22, 255
blind staggers 102
blisterbush 168
bloemiste-aster 229
blomkoolbossie 182
blomkoolganna 182
blouberglelie 188
bloudissel 46
blou-echium 98
bloulupien 245
bloureen 30
blouselblommetjie 223
blouslangkop 188
blousuur 142
blousuurvergiftiging 10, 24, 198
blourulp 152
blue bietou 90
blue echium 98
blue gum 237
blue lupin 245
blue tulp 152
blueweed 98
bobbejaandruifboom 170
bobbejaangif 36
bobbejaantou 84
boesmangif 34, 126
boetebossie 216
bokhaarklawer 150
Bokhara clover 150
Boophane disticha 52, 53
borage 234
Boraginaceae 98
Borago officinalis 234
boslelie 70
bosluisbessie 110
botterblom 176
bovine enzootic haematuria 172
bovine staggers 74
bovoside A 54
Bowiea gariepensis 54
Bowiea species 28
Bowiea volubilis 54, 55
Brabejum stellatifolium 56, 57
bracken fern 172
brain disease 74
brain staggers 74
brandblare 176
brandui 96
Brasiliaanse peperboom 253
Brassica species 24
Brazilian pepper tree 253
bright blindness 172
broodbome 100
Brugmansia Candida 224
Brugmansia suaveolens 224
brunfelsamidine 225, 247
Brunfelsia grandiflora 225, 247
Brunfelsia pauciflora 225
buckwheat 128
Budd-Chiari syndrome 98
bufadienolide 28, 54, 76, 96, 124, 132, 146, 152, 188,
208, 212, 214
bugweed 196
bulbispermine 78
buphanidrine 52
buphanimine 52
buphanisine 52
Burkea africana 88
bush lily 70
bushman poison bulb 52
bushman's poison bush 34
buttercup 176
butterfly delphinium 232
C
cabbages 24
Cactaceae 162
cadaverine 22
Caesalpinia gilliesii 226
calabash 82
Caladium species 230
calcium oxalate 42, 64,162, 222, 230, 233
Californian poppy 236
Californian privet 244
Callilepis laureola 9, 58, 59, 62
calystegines 196
camel thorn 32
canary grass 148
canary ivy 241
candelabra tree 108
Cape poison onion 96
capsaicin 227
Capsicum annuum 227, 254
caranine 44
P-carboline alkaloids 20
carboxyatractyloside 216
carboxyparquin 58, 62
(15:l)-cardanol 253
cardenolide 28, 34, 38, 48,156, 202, 234, 259
cardiac glycoside 10,28,34,38,48,54,76,94,96,124,
132,146,152,156,160,188,202,208,212, 214,234,
259
cardiac glycoside poisoning 10
cashew nut 194, 253
cassaine 106
cassava 24, 25, 246
castalagin 250
Castalis spectabilis 90
castor oil 7, 28,130,180
catharanthine 60
Catharanthus roseus 20, 60, 61
cauliflower saltwort 182
Cestrum aurantiacum 62
Cestrum laevigatum 62, 63
Cestrum parqui 58, 62, 63
Chase Valley Disease 62
Chenopodiaceae 64, 162, 182
Chenopodium album 64, 65
Chenopodium ambrosioides 64, 65
Chenopodium mucronatum 64, 65
Chenopodium multifidum 64
Chenopodium vulvaria 64
cherry laurel 249
chilli pepper 227, 254
Chinese liguster 244
Chinese privet 244
chinkerinchee 160
Chloris gayana 198
christyoside 202
chronic krimpsiekte 76, 212
chronic poisoning 10
chrysanthemum 229
Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium 26, 228
Chrysanthemum indicum 229
Chrysanthemum vulgare 228
Chrysanthemum xmorifolium 26, 229
Chrysocoma ciliata 11, 66, 67
Chrysocoma tenuifolia 66
Cinchona pubescens 20, 21
1,8-cineole 237
Cissampelos capensis 68, 69
Cissampelos mucronata 68, 69
Cissampelos perreira 68
Citrus aurantiifolia 112
Citrus aurantium subsp. bergiama 112
Citrus //mow 112
Claviceps species 148
Clematis species 176
climbing potato 54
Clivia miniata 70, 71
cliviamartine 70
cliviamine 70
clivonine 70
clover 257
Clusiaceae 128
coast coral tree 104
coca plant 18,19
cocaine 18
coccinine 186
cockspur coral tree 104
cocoyam 230
Colchicaceae 96,118
colchicine 118
Colchicum autumnale 118,119
Colocasia antiquorum- 230
Colocasia esculenta 7, 230
comfrey 98, 234
common buffalo grass 210
common carrot 241
common fig tree 238
common fumitory 236
common goosefoot 64
common hook-thorn 32
common ivy 241
common morning glory 243
common oak 250
common pepper tree 253
common periwinkle 260
common poison rope 202
common privet 244
common wild sorghum 198
common yew 258
y-coniceine 72
coniine 18, 72
Conium maculatum 18,19, 72, 73
Consolida ambigua 232
Convolvulaceae 243
cork bush 154
corky monkey orange 204
Cotoneaster species 249
cotton 26, 27
Cotula nigellifolia 74, 75
Cotula nigellifolia var. nigellifolia 7A
Cotula nigellifolia var. tenuior 74
Cotyledon orbiculata 28, 29, 76, 77
Cotyledon species 28, 132
cotyledoside 28, 212
o-coumaric acid 150
coumarin 24, 50,150,166
p-cymene 168
crab's eyes 7, 30
Crassulaceae 28, 76, 132, 212
Crataegus species 249
crazy cow syndrome 196
crinamine 44, 78
crinasiadine 78
crinasiatine 78
crinine 78
Crinum bulbispermum 78, 79
Crinum macowanii 78, 79
Crotalaria burkeana 80, 81
Crotalaria capensis 23
Crotalaria dura 80
Crotalaria globifera 80, 81
Crotalaria spartioides 80, 81
Crotalaria species 22
Crotalaria virgultalis 80
Crotalariosis 80
croton oil 26, 130
Croton tiglium 26, 27
crotonoleic acid 130
Cryptostemma calendulaceum 90
Cucumis africanus 82, 83
Cucumis leptodermis 82
Cucumis myriocarpus 83
Cucumis myriocarpus subsp. leptodermis 82
Cucumis myriocarpus subsp. myriocarpus 82
Cucumis species 7
Cucurbitaceae 68, 82
cucurbitacin 82, 223
cucurbitacin B 82, 223
cumin 168
Cuminum cymicum 168
curare 20, 104
curcanoleic acid 130
curcin 130
curcusone A 130
curcusone C 130
curry bush 128
cyanide 142
cyanide gas 24
cyanide poisoning 237
cyanogenesis 24, 32
cyanogenic glycoside 24,32,36,56,90,142,148,198,
220, 237, 246, 249
cycad 7, 100
cycasin 100
cyclamen 231
Cyclamen persicum 231
cyclamin 231
cynafoside B 84
cynafoside H 84
cynanchosis 10, 84,184
Cynanchum africanum 84, 85
Cynanchum capense 84
Cynanchum ellipticum 84
Cynanchum obtusifolium 84, 85
Cynanchum vincetoxicum 84
Cynodon dactylon 148,149, 198
cytisine 22, 256
Cytisus scoparius 256
D
daffodil 44
Dallis grass 148
Datura arborea 224
Datura cornigera 224
Datura ferox 86, 87
Datura inoxia 86, 87
Datura species 7
Datura stramonium 9,18, 86, 87
Daucus carota 241
dawidjies 68
dawidjiewortel 68
deadly nightshade 18,19, 86
dead-man's tree 206
deguelin 154
dehydrolasiosperman 136
dehydromyodesmone 136
dehydrongaione 136
delicious monster 7
delphinium 232
Delphinium datum 232
Delphinium grandiflorum 232
Delphinium species 22
deltonin 92
deltoside 92
demethylbatatstin 92
Dendranthemum indicum 229
Dendranthemum xgrandiflorum 229
Dennstaedtiaceae 172
4-deoxy-13-O-phenylacetyl-12-O-tiglyolphorbol206
4-deoxyphorbol 108, 206
Derris elliptica 154
Derris species 154
devil's thorn 210
dhurrin 198
Dichapetalaceae 88
Dichapetalum cymosum 88, 89,110
dicoumarol 24,150
dicrotaline 80
Dieffenbachia amoena 233
Dieffenbachia maculata 28, 233
Dieffenbachia species 7, 230
digallic acid 250
digitalis 106
Digitalis purpurea 28, 234
Digitalis species 28
digitoxin 28, 234
digoxin 28
dihydrogriesenin 116
dihydrosanguinarine 236
dikkop 128
dikoor 10, 210
dimethylamine 64
Dimorphotheca cuneata 24, 25, 90, 91
Dimorphotheca ecklonis 90
Dimorphotheca nudicaulis 90
Dimorphotheca spectabilis 90, 91
Dimorphotheca zeyheri 90
dioscin 92
Dioscorea cochleari-apiculata 92
Dioscorea dregeana 92, 93
Dioscorea dumetorum 92
Dioscorea elephantipes 27
Dioscorea species 26
Dioscoreaceae 92
dioscorine 92
diosgenin 26, 92, 210
diosphenols 200
Dipcadi glaucum 94, 95
Dipcadi viride 94, 95
Diplodia species 148
diplodiosis 10
diterpene 26, 200, 206
diterpenoid 26, 58, 62, 108, 120, 130, 166, 216, 221,
251, 258
diterpenoid alkaloid 106, 232
djenkol bean 138
L-djenkolic acid 138
domsiekte 174
drilgras 102
drilsiekte 102
Drimia robusta 96, 97
dronkgras 102, 148
dronksiekte 102
dronk-ui 94
dubbeltjie 210
duinebos 80
dumb cane 7, 28
dun krimpsiekte 76, 212
dune bush 80
dunsiekte 190
dunsiektebossie 190
Duranta erecta 235
Duranta repens 235
durantoside I 235
durantoside II 235
durantoside III 235
duwweltjie 210
E
eburnamonine 260
echimidine 98
Echium lycopsis 98
Echium plantagineum 98, 99
Echium vulgare 98, 99
echiumine 98
elephant's ear 7, 222, 230
elephant's foot 27
ellagitannins 250
Encephalartos longifolius 100,101
Encephalartos species 7
Encephalartos villosus 100,101
endive 229
Englerodaphne ovalifolia 120
English holly 242
English oak 250
Epaltes alata 90
Epalles gariepinia 90
la,2a-epoxyscillirosidin 124
Equisetaceae 102
equisetosis 102
Equisetum arvense 102
Equisetum palustre 102
Equisetum ramosissimum 102,103, 148
Equisetum silvaticum 102
ergine 243
ergot 148
Ericaceae 251
ertjiebos 174
erysotrine 104
erythraline 104
Erythrina alkaloids 20
Erythrina caffra 104,105
Erythrina crista-galli 104,105
Erythrina lysistemon 104,105
erythrophleine 106
Erythrophleum africanum 106, 107
Erythrophleum guineense 106
Erythrophleum lasianthum 106,107
Erythrophleum species 22
Erythrophleum suaveolens 106,107
Erythroxylum coca 18,19
Eschscholzia californica 236
essential oil 64
eucalyptol 26, 237
Eucalyptus cladocalyx 26, 237
Eucalyptus globulus 237
Euphorbia ingens 108,109
Euphorbia mauritanica 108,109
Euphorbia pulcherrima 7, 26, 27, 108
Euphorbia tirucalli 108,109
Euphorbia virosa 108,109
Euphorbiaceae 26, 108, 126, 130, 180, 200, 206, 220,
221, 246
European mistletoe 29
European squill 214
Europese huls 242
F
Fabaceae 22,26, 30, 32,40,80,104,106,142,150,154,
192, 226, 245, 252, 256, 257
Fadogia fragrans 110
Fadogia homblei 110, 111, 164
Fadogia monticola 110
Fagaceae 250
Fagopyrum esculentum 128
falcarinol 241
falling disease 66
false acacia 252
Felicia gariepina 174
fever tea 140
Ficus benjamina 238
Ficus carica 112, 238
Ficus cordata 112
Ficus cordata subsp. salicifolia 112
Ficus ingens 112,113
Ficus salicifolia 112,113
fire sickness 50
fire sickness bush 50
fire-thorn bushes 249
flame lily 118
flax 246
fluoroacetates 28
fluoroacetic acid 88
fluorocitrate 88
fluorocitric acid 88
16(3-formyloxybovogenin A 152
foxglove 28, 234
frangipani 38
fructoside 24
Fumaria officinalis 236
furanocoumarin 24, 112,168, 238
furanosesquiterpenoids 136
G
galanthamine 78
Galenia africana 114,115
gallic acid 250
ganskweek 136
geelbergdraaibos 174
geelbos 114
gecldikkop 10, 140, 210
geeljasmyn 239
geel-oleander 259
geelsuring 162
geeltulp 124
Geigeria africana 116
Geigeria aspera 116
Geigeria burkei 116,117
Geigeria burkei subsp. burkei var. hirtella 116
Geigeria ornativa 116,117
Geigeria passerinoides 116
geigerin 116
geigerinin 116
geilsiekte 10, 24, 32,142,198
Gelsemiaceae 20
gelsemicine 239
gelsemine 20
Gelsemium 20
Gelsemium sempervirens 239
genistein 4'-glucoside 257
Gerbera jamesonii 56
gevlekte stomriet 233
gewone akkerboom 250
gewone gifboom 34
gewone giftou 202
gewone naboom 108
gewone purperwinde 243
gewone taksisboom 258
gewone vyeboom 238
giant alocasia 222
giant elephant's ear 222
giant larkspur 232
giant leucaena 138
giant wattle 138
gifappel 7,196
gifblaar 88,110
gifblaar poisoning 10
gifbol 52
gifboom 126
gifboom 206
gifbossie 190, 208
gifmelkbos 108
gifolyf 166
gif-ui 94
gifueld 88
Ginkgo biloba 40, 253
gitogenin 210
glaziovine 68
Gloriosa simplex 118
Gloriosa superba 118,119
Gloriosa virescens 118
glucose 24
p-glucosidases 32
glucoside 24
glycoside 24
Gnidia burchellii 120,121
Gnidia kraussiana 120,121
Gnidia polycephala 120,121
Gnidia species 26
gnidicin 120
gnididin 120
gnidilatidin 120
gnidilatin 120
gniditrin 120
golden dewdrops 235
gombossie 174
gomdagga 134
gomphoside 48
goorappel 88
Gossypium herbaceum 27
Gossypium species 26
gossypol 26
gousblom 90
gousiekte 10,110,164
gousiekte 88
gousiekte tree 164
gousiektebossie 110
graansorghum 198
grain sorghum 198
grayanotoxin I 251
greater periwinkle 260
green monkey orange 204
'green tobacco sickness' 158
Grevillea robusta 240
grevillol 240
griesenin 116
groenklapper 204
groenlelie 94
grootblaarvalsdoring 40
grootlamsiekte 182
grysappel 110
grysbitterappel 196
guaianolide 229
H
haemagglutinins 28
haemanthamine 186
haemanthidine 186
Haemanthus coccineus 186,187
haemorrhage syndrome 172
hairy gousiektebossie 164
harige gifbossie 120
harige gousiektebossie 164
harman 210
harman alkaloids 20
harmine 20
harpuisbos 120
hartwater 40
hawthorn 249
HCN24
HCN poisoning 198
heart glycosides see cardiac glycosides
heavy metals 28
Hedera helix 2
hederagenin 241
Helichrysum argyrosphaerum 122, 123
Helichrysum cephaloideum 122
heliosupine 98
heliotrine 98
hellebrigenin 132
hellebrigenin 3-acetate 146
hemiterpene 26
hemlock 72
hemlock alkaloids 72
3-(8,ll-heptadecadienyl)catechol 194
heroin 20
Hertia cluytiifolia 174,175
Hertia pallens 174,175
hippeastrine 70, 78
hircinol 92
holly 242
Homeria glauca 124
Homeria miniata 124,125
Homeria pallida 124,125
Homeria species 152
horsetail 102
Hyacinthaceae 54, 94, 96,160,188, 214
Hyaenanche globosa 126,127
Hydrangea macrophylla 218
hydrocyanic acid 246
hydrocyanic acid poisoning 56
hydrogen cyanide 24, 32, 142,148,198
hydrogen cyanide poisoning 10, 142, 198
hydrolysing enzymes 32
4-hydroxyacetophenone 182
10-hydroxyakagerine 204
4-hydroxycoumarin 150
12-hydroxydaphnetoxin 120
3-hydroxyheterodendrin 32
4-hydroxy-3-methoxyacetophenone 182
3fS-hydroxynorerythrosuamine 106
hydroxyphenyl aziridine 182
4-hydroxyphenylaziridine 182
3-hydroxy-4(lH)-pyridone 138
12B-hydroxyscillirosidin 96
hyena poison 126
hyenanchine 126
hyoscine 86, 224
hyoscyamine 18, 86
hypericin 128
hypericism 128
Hypericum aethiopicum 128,129
Hypericum aethiopicum subsp. aethiopicum 128
Hypericum aethiopicum subsp. sonderi 128
Hypericum perforatum 128,129
Hypericum revolutum 128,129
ibonya 146
icterogenin 140
idumbe 230
igibisila 54
ihlmvu 58
ijoyi 86
Ilex aquifolium 242
Ilex chinensis 242
Ilex pubescens 242
ilexolide A 242
iloyi 86
impala lily 38
impalalelie 38
imphewula 76
impila 9, 58
impinda 36
incotha 52
incwadi 52
Indian acalypha 220
indole 20
indole alkaloid 20, 30, 60,260,178,204, 210, 239,243
indongana-zibomvana 96
ingenol 26,108
inguduza 188
inkberry 26, 62,170
inkbessie 62,170
inkunzane 210
insularine 68
integerrimine 142
intermedine 98
Ipomoea purpurea 243
Ipomoea tricolor 243
Iridaceae 124, 152
iridoids 235
irritant lactones 229
isatidine 190
isidakwa 92
isikhumukele 102
isiklenama 96
isisushlungu 60
isodihydrohyaenanchine 126
isoflavonoid 257
isoprene 26
isoquinoline 20
isoquinoline alkaloid 20, 44, 46, 52, 68, 70, 78, 104,
182, 186, 236
ivy 241
J
jaagsiekte 10, 80
jaagsiektebossie 80
jan twak 158
Januariebos 80,120
Japanese pagoda tree 257
Japanse pagodeboom 257
Jatropha curcas 7, 9,130,131
Jatropha multifida 130,131, 246
jequirity 30
Jerusalem cherry 7, 227, 254
Jerusalemkersie 254
jimson weed 18, 86
Johanneskruid 128
Johnson grass 198
jumbie bean 138
K
kaalsiekte 10, 66
Kalanchoe lanceolata 132,133
Kalanchoe rotundifolia 132,133
Kalanchoe thyrsiflora 132,133
Kaliforniese papawer 236
kamam 36
kandelaarsbos 212
kankerblare 176
kankerroos 216
karee 194
Karoo bietou 90
Karoo blue tulp 152
Karoobloutulp 152
kassava 246
kasterolieboom 180
kaurene glycoside 58, 62
kerriebos 128
kersielourier 249
kinaboom 178
Klaaslouwbos 50
klimop 84
klimop poisoning 84
knolklimop 54
Knowltonia bracteata 176,177
Knowltonia species 176
koolganna 182
koorsbossie 140
kouterie 76
kraalbos 114
krampsiekte 84
kraussianin 120
krimpsiekte 28, 76, 84,10,132, 212
krimpsiektebos 212
kruidjie-roer-my-niet 146
kurkbos 154
kuskoraalboom 104
kweek 148, 198
kweek tremors 148
L
lace flower 24, 25, 112
lactone 176
lactone coumarin 24
lakseersiekte 10, 66
lanceotoxin A 132
lanceotoxin B 132
lantadene A 134,140
lantadene B 134
lantana 134
Lantana camara 134,135
Lantana poisoning 10
large cocklebur 216
larkspur 22
lasiocarpine 98
Lasiosiphon species 120
lasiosperman 26,136
Lasiospermum bipinnatum 136,137
Lasiospermum radiatum 136
Lasiospermum species 26
Lauraceae 248
laventelbossie 140
lead tree 138
Lebeckia cytisoides 23
Lebeckia species 22, 256
lebegana 48
lectin 28, 30, 36,104,130,170,180, 252, 257
Ledebouria ovatifolia 188
Ledebouria species 188
Leguminosae 138
lekkerbreek 88
lemmatoxin 170
lemon 112
lereke-la-ntja 48
leshoma 52
lethsowe 86
leucaena 138
Leucaena leucocephala 138, 139
leurosine 60
ligustroside 244
Ligustrum lucidum 244
Ligustrum ovalifolium 244
Ligustrum vulgare 244
Liliaceae 22
lime 112
limonoid 144
linamarin 24, 90, 246
Linum usitatissimum 246
Lippia javanica 140,141
Lippia rehmannii 140,141
Lippia scaberrima 140,141
Lippia species 134
lithospermic acid 98
litjiesgras 102
liver poisoning 10
Loganiaceae 204, 239
Lolium species 148
long chain alcohol 248
lotaustralin 246
Lotononis carnosa 142,143
Lotononis fruticoides 142
Lotononis involucrata 142,143
Lotononis laxa 142,143
Lotus corniculatus 246
love bean 30, 31
lucerne 26, 257
lucky bean 7, 30, 31,104
luisboom 196
lupanine 245
lupin alkaloids 22
lupinine 22
lupinosis 245
Lupinus angustifolius 245
Lupinus digitatus 245
Lupinus luteus 245
Lupinus polyphyllus 245
Lupinus sericeus 245
Lycopersicon esculentum 255
lycorine 44, 70, 78
lysine 22
M
maanblom 224
Maartblom 44
macrocyclic alkaloid 102
macrozamin 100
mad drunk disease 196
Madagascar periwinkle 20, 60
Madeira ivy 241
maize 42,198
makhouw 88
maldronksiekte 10, 196
malkop-ui 94
malpitte 7,18, 86, 87
Manihot esculenta 24, 25, 246
manihotoxin 246
March lily 44
mare's tail 102
marog 7, 42,162
mathlapametse 130
Matricaria nigellifolia 74
Medicago sativa 26, 257
Melanthiaceae 22
Melia azedarach 7,144,145
Meliaceae 144
melianol 144
Melianthaceae 146
melianthugenin 146
Melianthus comosus 146,147
Melianthus major 146,147
melianthusigenin 146
meliatoxin A, 144
meliatoxin A2144
meliatoxin B1 144
meliatoxin B2144
Melica decumbens 148,149
Melilotus alba 24,150,151
MelUotus indica 150,151
Melilotus officinalis 150
Melilotus parviflora 150
Melilotus species 24
melinoon 144
melkbos 48, 108
melktou 184
mellitoxin 126
Melolobium species 256
Menispermaceae 68
Menispermaceae alkaloids 20, 68
Mesembryanthemaceae 162
Mesembryanthemum species 162
N-methylconiine 72
methylpyridoxine 40
4'-0-methylpyridoxine 40
Mexican poppy 46
milkweed 48
millet 198
L-mimosine 138
minnie-minnies 30
Mirabilis jalapa 218
misbeksiektebos 116
misbredie 42
mistletoe 28
mobola plum 110
modeccin 36
modimolo 48
mohlakaphotwane 102
mokhura 180
Molteno disease 190
Molteno disease plant 190
molybdenium 28
Monadcnium lugardii 206, 207
monkshood 22, 23, 232
monofluoroacetic acid 88
monofluroacetate 88
monomethylamine 64
monoterpenoid 26, 64, 168, 228, 237, 244
Monstera deliciosa 7
Monstera species 230
montanine 186
moonflower 224
Moraceae 112, 238
Moraea carsonii 152
Moraea fugax 152
Moraea graminicola 152, 153
Moraea huttonii 152
Moraea polyanthos 152,153
Moraea polystachya 152,153
Moraea rivularis 152
Moraea spathacea 152
Moraea spathulata 152
Moraea species 124
Moraea stricta 152
Moraea tenuis 152
Moraea trita 152
Moraea unguiculata 152
Moraea venenata 152
morphine 20
mothcatcher 184
motsatsa 36
msoba 196
Mundulea sericea 154,155
muswoswo 206
mutungu 184
muwandwe 52
mycotoxicoses 148
Myoporum deserti 136
Myrtaceae 237
N
Namaqua fig 112
naphthodianthrones 128
nastergal 22, 196
Natal yellow tulp 124
nenta 132, 212
nentabos 132
Neorautanenia amboensis 155
Neorautanenia species 154
nerbowdine 52
Nerium oleander 7, 9,156,157
Nerium species 28
neurotoxic amino acids 100
Nicotiana glauca 7, 9,158,159
Nicotiana tabacum 158,159
nicotine 18,158
nierembergia 247
Nierembergia hippomanica 225, 247
nitrate 28, 42, 64,114
nitrite poisoning 42, 64
Nolletia gariepina 174
noors honey 108
norcassamidide 106
norharman 60, 210
norhyoscine 224
norsesquiterpene 172
nthunguyembe 34
nudicauline 232
mix vomica tree 204
O
oats 42
obebioside B 38
Ochna pulchra 88
Oleaceae 244
oleander 7, 9,156
oleandrin 156
oleanoglycotoxin A 26
oleanoglycotoxin-A 170
oleuropein 244
olifantsoor 222, 230
opblaas krimpsiekte 76, 212
opium poppy 20, 21
Opuntia species 162
orange lily 70
orbicuside A 76
orbicuside B 76
orbicuside C 76
Ornithogalum conicum 160,161
Ornithogalum ornithogaloides 160
Ornithogalum prasinum 160,161
Ornithogalum saundersiae 160,161
Ornithogalum tenellum 160
Ornithogalum thyrsoides 160,161
Ornithogalum toxicarium 160, 161
Ornithoglossum species 124
Ornithoglossum viride 96, 97
Osteospermum ecklonis 90
ouabain 28, 34, 202
ouzuwo 38
oxalate 28,114, 223, 230, 233
oxalate poisoning 10
oxalate salts 28
oxalic acid 28,162
Oxalidaceae 162
Oxalis 28
Oxalis latifolia 162,163
Oxalis pes-caprae 162,163
ox-eye daisy 58
oxypeucedanum hydrate 112
P
Pachystigma pygmaeum 110,164,165
Pachystigma species 88
Pachystigma thamnus 164
12-0-palmitoyl-13-0-acetyl-16-hydroxyphorbol221
palustrine 102
Panicum coloratum 210
Panicum maximum 210
Papaver somniferum 20, 21
Papaveraceae 46, 236
paperbark albizia 40
paper-bark thorn 32
papierbasdoring 32
paradysblom 226
Paraserianthes lophantha 138,139
Parinari curatellifolia 110, 111
parquin 58, 62
Paspalum dilatatum 148
paspalum staggers 148
Passiflora species 36, 246
Passifloraceae 36
passion fruit 246
Patterson's curse 98
Pavetta harborii 164
Pavetta schumanniana 164, 165
Pavetta species 110
peach 56
Peddiea africana 120,166,167
Peddiea factor A, 166
Peddiea fischeri 166
Peddiea volkensii 166
Peganum harmala 20, 21
Pegolettia retrofracta 174
perdebos 114, 174
perdestert 102
Persea americana 248
pers-echium 98
Persian lilac 144
persin 248
Peruvian pepper tree 253
Peucedanum galbanum 24,168,169
Peucedanum species 24
Phalaris minor 148,149
phalaris staggers 10,148
phenanthroindolizidine alkaloids 84
phenethylisoquinoline alkaloid 118
phenolic amide 227
phenylalanine 20
Philodendron species 230
Phomopsis leptostromiformis 245
phorbol 26
phylloerythrin 134
physodine A 214
Phytolacca americana 170,171
Phytolacca dioica 170,171
Phytolacca dodecandra 26,170
Phytolacca octandra 170,171
Phytolacca species 26
Phytolaccaceae 26, 170
phytolaccagenin 170
phytotoxins 28
pig's ears 76
pigweed 42
pink nose 134
piperidine 18
piperidine alkaloid 72, 92,180,192
piretrumkrisant 228
plakkie 28, 29, 76,132
platyphylline 22
plum 56
Plumeria rubra 38
Poaceae 148, 198
poinsettia 7, 26, 27, 108
poison apple 196
poison bush 208
poison hemlock 18,19, 72
poison ivy 194
poison leaf 88
poison oak 194
poison olive 166
poison onion 94
poison sumach 194
poison veld 88
poisonous bride's bush 164
poison-pod albizia 40
pokeberry tree 170
pokeweed 170
polyacetylene 241
polyalkyne 241
polyamine 110, 164
Polygonaceae 162
polyhydroxynortropanes 196
polyphenols 250
poprosie 122
Portulacaceae 162
Portulacaria afra 162
potassium nitrate 42
potato 22, 255
powelline 78
prasinoside G 160
pregnane 22
pregnane glycosides 38, 84, 184
prickly pear 162
prickly poppy 46
primin 223
primrose 223
Primula obconica 223
Primula species 223
Primulaceae 223, 231
privet 244
proacacipetalin 32
proaporphine 68
procacipetalin 32
proscillaridin A 188
Proteaceae 56, 240
proteolytic enzyme 233
protoanemonin 176
protoberberidines 20
protopine 46
prunasin 24, 56,142,172, 237, 249
Prunus dulcis var. amara 24, 56
Prunus laurocerasus 249
Prunus species 56
prussic acid 24, 142,148
prussic acid poisoning 10, 24, 32, 90,148,198
pseudoconhydrine 72
Psilocaulon species 162
Psoralea species 112
psoralen 168, 238
ptaquiloside 172
Pteridium aquilinutn 102,172,173
Pteronia pallens 174, 175
purgeerboontjie 130
purging disease 66
purging nut 7, 9,130
pushing disease 10, 74
Pygmaeothamnus species 88
Pygmaeothamnus zeyheri 164,165
pynbos 194
Pyracantha species 249
pyrazine alkaloid 257
pyrethrin I 228
pyrethrin II 228
pyrethrins 26
pyrethrum 228
pyrethrum II 228
pyridine 18
pyridine alkaloid 40,158
pyridoxine 40
pyrogallol 250
pyrrolizidine 22
pyrrolizidine alkaloid 22, 80, 98,190, 142
Q
Quercus robur 250
strophanthin-G 202
Strophanthus gratus 28, 29, 202
Strophanthus kombe 202, 203
Strophanthus speciosus 202, 203
Strychnaceae 20, 204
strychnine 20, 204
Strychnos cocculoides 204
Strychnos henningsii 204
Strychnos madagascariensis 204, 205
Strychnos nux-vomica 20, 21, 204
Strychnos species 20
Strychnos spinosa 204, 205
styfsiektebos 80
Styphnolobium japonicum 257
stywesiekte 10, 80
stywesiektebos 80
Sudan grass 42,198
sugar gum 237
suikerbloekom 237
sunflower 229
suring 162
Swazi ordeal tree 106
Swazi-oordeelboom 106
symlandine 98
symphytine 98
Symphytum officinale 98, 234
Synadenium cupulare 206, 207
Synadenium factor 206
Synadenium grantii 206
Syrian rue 20, 21
syringa 7
syringa tree 144
T
taaibos 194
tamboti 200
tambotie 200
Tanacetum vulgare 228
tannins 250
tansy 228
taro potato 230
Taxaceae 258
taxine A 258
taxol 258
Taxus baccata 258
Tephrosia species 154
Tephrosia vogelii 154,155
tephrosin 154
terpene 26
terpenoid 62
terpenoid alkaloids 22
terpenoids 22, 26, 50,122, 235, 253
tetranortriterpenoids 144
tetraphyllin B 36
Themeda triandra 198
Thesium lineatum 208, 209
Thesium namaquense 208, 209
thesiuside 208
Thevetia neriifolia 259
Thevetia peruviana 156, 259
Thevetia species 28
thevetin A 259
thevetin B 259
thiaminase 102, 172
thiamine 102
'thick ear' 210
thorn apple 7, 9,18, 86,196
thorny bitter apple 196
thujone 228
thyme 168
Thymelaeaceae 26, 120,166
Thymus vulgaris 168
tick-berry 134
12-0-tiglyol-4-deoxyphorbol-13-isobutyrate 206
tjienkerientjee 160
tobacco 19,158
tobacco alkaloids 18
tobacco leaves 7
tomato 22, 255
tonnabossie 164
tontelbos 48
toxalbumin 130
Toxicodendron capense 126
Toxicodendron diversilobum 194
Toxicodendron globosum 126
Toxicodendron radicans 194
Toxicodendron vernix 194
Transvaal bietou 90