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National Monuments in Namibia. An inventory of proclaimed national monuments in the Republic of Namibia

National Monuments in Namibia. An inventory of proclaimed national monuments in the Republic of Namibia

historical beacons, graves, cemeteries, sites, military monuments, military fortifications, churches, historical buildings and the industrial heritage
Vogt, Andreas

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National Monuments in Namibia. An inventory of proclaimed national monuments in the Republic of Namibia

Author: Andreas Vogt
Publisher: Gamsberg Macmillan
Windhoek, 2004
ISBN 9789991605937
Soft cover, 17x24 cm, 252 pages, numerous bw- and colour photos


This inventory presents the national monuments in Namibia, as identified and declared part of the country's cultural and natural heritage by previous and current heritage conservation bodies, namely the Historical Monuments Commission (1948-1968), the National Monuments Council of South Africa (1969-1990) and the National Monuments Council of Namibia (since Namibia's independence in 1990).

A short historical outline of these organisations and a list of their members are presented as well. The focus of the inventory is on national monuments declared between 1950 and 1992, identifying and describing them individually and outlining their environmental, archaeological, historical or cultural-historical significance.

In the case of historical monuments, their inscriptions are cited in full, their exact location in Namibia is indicated, and the way in which they are identified and described in the various declarations published in the Official gazette is given for the researcher.

The inventory dedicates a chapter to each of the following fields in their relation to and as part of Namibia's heritage: geology, palaeontology, natural sites of scenic beauty or ecological importance, botany, archaeology (including rock art), padroes, historical beacons, historical graves, historical cemeteries, historical sites, military monuments, military fortifications, churches, historical buildings and the industrial heritage.

The inventory includes a map indicating the locality of the monuments in Namibia, and the official list of Namibia's national monuments in the sequence of their declaration. Only what is recorded can be protected.

This inventory, therefore, also attempts to give an accurate summary of the hitherto declared monuments in Namibia as a contribution to the present-day discussion on heritage conservation not only in an independent Namibia, but in the region of southern Africa as a whole.

Example: Description of "Stone Tower"

The "Stone Tower" in Outjo is probably the only one of its kind in Namibia that served as a base for a windmill pumping up water from an underground aquifer. It is an excellent example of how simple human needs can be met through local building materials and a bit of ingenuity. The Stone Tower was erected in 1900 and taken into use by the German occupational forces on 1 March 1901. It was built directly over a well made of stone and clay, and measures 9.4 m in height.

A wooden windmill was fixed to the top of the well, which allowed water to be drawn from the well below. The windmill also drove a pump which led the water into a nearby cement dam measuring some 8 m³, and taken from there by way of a 620 m pipeline to the Schutztruppe's stables, the barracks kitchen and the barracks themselves, as well as to the hospital. The windmill has long since perished; today, only the Stone Tower remains.

During the German occupation of Namibia, Outjo served as an important support base for the Schutztruppe. A small fort was built here in 1899, around which a military station complete with barracks, lazaret, officers' mess, etc. developed during the years that followed. The entire military station has since disappeared, and today the central business district is situated approximately where the military station once stood.

The only visible reminders of the Germans' military presence in Outjo during the colonial period are the so-called Franke House (today the Outjo Museum), the Stone Tower, and the small cemetery where the soldiers who fell during the Naulila expedition were laid to rest. The cemetery is within walking distance from the Stone Tower. The Stone Tower in Outjo lies in a small valley behind the Etosha Hotel, from where it is also accessible. It is within walking distance from the Naulila Monument. The district of Outjo is in the Kunene Region. The Stone Tower was officially proclaimed a national monument on 1 August 1957.

Example: Description of Krabbenhöft & Lampe Building, Lüderitz

The Krabbenhöft & Lampe Building is one of a number of prestigious buildings erected during the period of economic prosperity following the discovery of diamonds in 1908. As the relevant Official gazette proclaiming its status as a monument declares, this impressive building is an excellent example of the German Colonial architecture of the beginning of the 20th century. It was erected in 1909 and forms an integral part of the historic centre of Lüderitz.

Friedrich Wilhelm Krabbenhöft (1853-1923) established a trading enterprise in Gibeon in 1880. When diamonds were discovered in Lüderitz in 1908, Krabbenhöft and Oskar Lampe, who had come to the colony in 1898 and partnered Krabbenhöft in his trading ventures, decided to move the core of their trading business to Lüderitz. The structure known as the Krabbenhöft & Lampe Building was erected in 1909 for Oskar Lampe with the purpose of being used as a combined residential and business premises.

It is assumed that the architect was F Kramer and the builder, FH Schmidt. It was probably the firm's original intention to use the building for commercial purposes since the plans were drawn up in the course of 1909. By 16 November that year, the firm was officially registered, with Oskar Lampe and Krabbenhöft as its partners. According to the plans, a three-storeyed building was initially envisaged. Although this idea was abandoned, the building was built in such a way that a third storey could be added later if so desired.

Today, the roof is constructed where the third storey should have been, and the five windows of that unbuilt storey now form the present dormer windows. Some additions were made in the form of annexes in 1913, but the front of the building has never been modified. The bricks for the building were imported by ship from Cape Town. The rafters and roof tiles of the main building originated in Germany. The architectural appeal of the Krabbenhöft & Lampe Building lies mainly in the five roof dormer windows, two of which are decorated with pointed tops.

The building bears neo-Renaissance features in that the building has the appearance of a small Venetian palace (palazzo). The lower storey was plastered in a rustic fashion with the brickwork lines in evidence, while the upper storey is smooth. Minor symmetrical defects are detectable under close scrutiny of the facade, which however do not detract from the overall architectural quality of the building. The Krabbenhöft & Lampe Building is situated on the comer of Berg and Bismarck Streets in Lüderitz, in the Karas Region. The building, given an A Class rating and a score of 81 on the NIA Index was proclaimed a national monument on 20 December 1979.



1. Aims of this inventory
2. The history of heritage conservation in Namibia
3. Notes on the text

1.1 Gibeon Meteorites, Windhoek
1.2 Hoba Meteorite, Farm Hoba West, Grootfontein
1.3 Mukorob Rock, Keetmanshoop

2.1 Dinosaur Footprints, Otjihaenamaparero, Kalkfeld
2.2 Petrified Forest, Khorixas

3.1 Brandberg Area, Uis
3.2 Waterberg Plateau, Otjiwarongo
3.3 Burnt Mountain, Farm Verbrandeberg No. 52, Khorixas
3.4 Fish River Canyon, Farm No. 381, Warmbad
3.5 Gaub Caves, Gaub Farm, Otavi
3.6 Lake Otjikoto, Tsumeb

4.1 Quiver Tree Forest, Farm Gariganus, Keetmanshoop
4.2 Baobab Tree (Baobab No. 1063), Grootfontein

5.1 Relics
5.1.1 Relics of Prehistoric Elephant, Zoo Park, Windhoek
5.1.2 Sites of Veneration, Auas Mountains, Windhoek
5.1.3 Site of Veneration, Bethanie
5.1.4 Musical Stone, Rooipunt Farm, Bethanie
5.2 Rock art
5.2.1 Phillipp's Cave, Ameib, Usakos
5.2.2 Paula Cave, Okapekaha, Omaruru
5.2.3 Rock Paintings and Engravings, Twyfelfontein, Khorixas
1. Rock engravings
2. Rock paintings
5.2.4 Bushman Paradise Cave, Usakos
5.2.5 Rock Paintings, Etemba, Omaruru
5.2.6 Rock Paintings, Farm Rostock-Sud, Windhoek
5.3 Rock engravings
5.3.1 Rock Engravings, Farm Otjitoroa-West, Kalkfeld
5.3.2 Rock Engravings, Farm Kamanjab, Kamanjab
5.3.3 Rock Engravings, Twyfelfontein, Khorixas

6.1 Replica of Original Cross, Cape Cross, Swakopmund
6.2 Site of Original Dias Cross, Lüderitz

7.1 Boundary Post, Kuiseb River, Walvis Bay
7.2 Memorial in the Old Cemetery, Lüderitz

8.1 Edward Cook's Commemorative Stone, Warmbad
8.2 Grave of Jonker Afrikaner, Okahandja
8.3 Grave of Axel W Eriksson, Farm Rietfontein, Grootfontein
8.4 Grave of Kahimemua Nguvauva, Okahandja

9.1 Herero Grave Complex, Okahandja
9.2 Cemetery on Farm Mooifontein, Helmeringhausen
9.3 Cemetery at Nomtsas, Maltahöhe
9.4 Grave of John Ludwig, Klein Windhoek, Windhoek
9.5 "Old Location" Cemetery, Windhoek (Provisional)
9.6 Old Windhoek Cemetery, Windhoek (Provisional)
9.7 Cemetery: Evangelical Lutheran Church Complex, Bethanie
9.8 Cemetery: Nakambale Mission Church, Olukonda
9.9 Cemetery: Rhenish Mission Church, Okahandja

10.1 Battlefield around Franke Tower, Omaruru
10.2 Moordkoppie, Okahandja
10.3 Prisoner-of-war Camp, Aus

11.1 War Memorial, Zoo Park, Windhoek
11.2 Franke Tower, Omaruru
11.3 Eagle Monument, Keetmanshoop
11.4 Monument at Kub, Kalkrand
11.5 Marine-Denkmal, Swakopmund
11.6 Ovikokorero War Memorial, Farm Harmonic, Okahandja
11.7 Okahami War Memorial, Okahandja
11.8 Equestrian Statue Monument, Windhoek
11.9 Naulila Monument, Outjo
11.10 Regimental Badges, Farm Titbit 157, Swakopmund
11.11 Regimental Badges, Farm Badges 158, Swakopmund
11.12 Khorab Memorial, Kilometre 500, Otavi

12.1 Powder Magazine, Otjimbingwe
12.2 Von Francois Fort, Khomas Hochland, Windhoek
12.3 Alte Feste, Windhoek
12.4 Waterfalls, Eros Mountains, Windhoek
12.5 Lookout Post, Eros Mountains, Windhoek
12.6 Fort, Grootfontein
12.7 Old German Fortress, Farm Naiams, Seeheim
12.8 Fort Namutoni, Etosha National Park, Tsumeb
12.9 Fort Sesfontein and Cemetery, Sesfontein (Provisional)

13.1 Evangelical Lutheran Church Complex, Bethanie
13.2 Rhenish Mission Church, Otjimbingwe
13.3 Nakambale Mission House, Nakambale Church and Adjoining Cemetery, Olukonda
13.4 Rhenish Mission Church and Cemetery, Okahandja
13.5 Rhenish Mission Church, Walvis Bay
13.6 Rhenish Mission Church, Keetmanshoop
13.7 Chrisms Kirche, Windhoek
13.8 Evangelical Lutheran Church, Lüderitz
13.9 Evangelical Lutheran Church, Swakopmund
13.10 Roman Catholic Church Building, Tsumeb
13.11 Roman Catholic Cathedral, Windhoek
13.12 Roman Catholic Church, Omaruru (Provisional)

14.1 Public buildings
14.1.1 Hospitals German Lazaret, Gobabis Prinzessin Rupprecht Heim, Swakopmund Elisabeth House, Windhoek
14.1.2 School buildings Old German School Building, Klein Windhoek, Windhoek German Private School Building, Tsumeb
14.1.3 Railway buildings Railway Station Building, Swakopmund Kubas Station Building, Karibib Old Barracks, Swakopmund Station Building, Lüderitz
14.1.4 Police buildings and prisons Prison Building, Swakopmund Old Prison Building, Windhoek Historical Gateways, Warmbad
14.1.5 Government buildings Proviantamt, Karibib Ten-man House, Windhoek
14.1.6 Post offices Old Post Office Building, Keetmanshoop
14.2 Private buildings
14.2.1 Hotels Facade of the Rösemann Building, Karibib Hohenzollern Building, Swakopmund Hotel Zum Grünen Kranze, Karibib Old Hotel Building, Otjimbingwe (Provisional)
14.2.2 Buildings related to trade and commerce Erf 46 and the Hälbich Buildings, Karibib Woermann House, Swakopmund Krabbenhöft & Lampe Building, Lüderitz Erkrath-Gathemann-Kronprinz Facades, Windhoek (Provisional
14.2.3 Buildings related to mining OMEG-Minenbüro, Tsumeb Second Director's House, Tsumeb. OMEG-Haus, Swakopmund
14.2.4 Buildings related to banking Deutsche Afrika Bank Building, Lüderitz
14.2.5 Residences Rhenish Mission House, Omaruru Dorsland Trekker Cottage, Otjitunduwa, Kunene Region Josef Fredericks'House, Bethanie Stone Rondavel, Farm Quellort, Aroab Kreplin House, Lüderitz Two Historic Dwellings, Lüderitz Semi-detached House, Remainder of Erf 269, Lüderitz Haus Wall, Karibib Kramersdorf Building, Swakopmund Magistrate's Residence, Lüderitz Rev. Schmelen's Cottage, Bethanie

15.1 The "Martin Luther" Steam Locomotive, Swakopmund, South West Africa
15.2 Windmill, Otjimbingwe
15.3 Railway Engine No. 652, Walvis Bay
15.4 Kaiserbrunnen, Karibib
15.5 Stone Tower, Outjo