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Namibia in Jonker Afrikaner's Time

Namibia in Jonker Afrikaner's Time

Namibia in Jonker Afrikaner's Time is a study entirely founded on sources found in various Namibian and South African archives.
Lau, Brigitte
05-0240
0-86976-214-1
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Title: Namibia in Jonker Afrikaner's Time
Author: Brigitte Lau
Series: Windhoek Archives Publication No. 8
Publisher: National Archives, Department of National Education
Windhoek, Namibia 1987
ISBN 0869762141 / ISBN 0-86976-214-1
Original softcover, 15x21 cm, 162 pages, 1 colour image, numerous b/w images

Description:

Good. Very few traces of usage.

Description:

With the present study, the National Archives has realised a long-cherished plan, namely to extend the source publications to include historical manuscripts based on archival research. While the standard rules of scholarly discourse observed in other issues of ARCHEIA, have been followed in this edition as well, the views expressed, and the terminology used, are the author's alone, and do not necessarily reflect the viewpoints or policies of the National Archives. Brigitte Lau's thesis, which was originally submitted to the University of Cape Town for a Masters degree in history in 1982, has been selected for publication primarily because it reflects a period of the country's history which has been hitherto widely ignored by historians. To understand the history of the last century, Brigitte Lau has followed a new approach but bases her arguments entirely on sources found in various local and South African archives and other institutions. Before publication the text was critically evaluated by two scholars, Prof. E. L. P. Stals of the Academy, Windhoek, and Ben Fuller of Boston University.

A. C. Stern, Chief: National Archives July 1987

Content: Namibia in Jonker Afrikaner's Time

Foreword
Editor's Acknowledgement
List of Illustrations
List of Abbreviations
List of Maps and Tables
INTRODUCTION
CHAPTER 1: NAMALAND CA 1800
Archaeology
The name
The Damara in Namaland and Hereroland
Nama myth of origin
Settlement patterns
Size of settlements and cattle posts
Economy and society

Cattle raising
Hunting
Agriculture
Crafts
Political organisation
'Customs', magic and medicine
CHAPTER 2: THE OORLAM MIGRATIONS/INVASION, CA 1810-1840
A new social epoch
The Afrikaners
The Bethany people
Stages of Oorlam migration and conquest

Phase 1: From tolerant trade to military skirmishes
Phase 2: The Oorlam commandos as conquerors
Phase 3: Jonker's sovereignty established
The emergence of new polities and 'commando groups'
Jonker Afrikaner and his people
Amraal Lambert or the Khauas people
The Berseba people
The Witboois
The Swartboois
The Veldskoendraers
The Tseib people
The Kai//khaun or "Red Nation"
The Bondelswarts
On intermarriages
CHAPTER 3: THE SOCIAL ORGANISATION OF COMMANDO GROUPS IN JONKER'S TIME
Numerical strength of a commando
The economics of cattle raiding
Hunting and the commando
New bases of political power and social hierarchy
New directions of Namaland economy

The declining importance of cattle breeding skills
The transition from hunting for local consumption to hunting for the Cape trade network
Clothing
Manufacture of household utensils
Iron work and road building
Agriculture
Distilling and the production of spirits
Pre-Oorlam support systems in Jonker's time
The cattle post system
Women and their work
The oppression of women
Customs, magic and medicine
CHAPTER 4: EUROPEAN MISSIONARIES IN JONKER'S TIME
The importance of missionaries
Missionaries and their functions in mid-19th century commando groups

Churches, bells and permanent settlements
The missionary as specialised Cape trade informant
Christianity as a tool for political control
The missionary as doctor, social worker and religious guide
The rejection of missionaries as colonial agents
A case study: The missionary as a political leader
CHAPTER 5: TRADE AN9 TRADING WITH THE CAPE IN JONKER'S TIME
Contents of trade
Scale of trade
Capitalisation of trade
The profits of traders
The Cape copper ventures
The terms of trade: Namaland rulers vs Cape traders

The credit system
CHAPTER 6: JONKER'S RULE AND NAMALAND POLITICS, CA 1840-1860
The subjection of and alliance to Herero chiefs

The downfall of Kahitjene
Jonker's rule challenged, ca 1840-1852
Jonker's rule challenged, ca 1852-1856: //Oaseb's 'Nama' as against 'Oorlam' mobilisation
The emergence of new frontlines
Treaties and diplomacy in the 1850s
CHAPTER 7: THE DOWNFALL OF THE OORLAM AFRIKANER SOVEREIGNTY, 1863-1370
A challenge to conventional historiography

The position of the ruling Oorlam Afrikaner alliance
The position of Namaland chiefs
The European interests: traders, hunters and missionaries
Herero chiefs and commoners
Social stress and disease in Namaland
The outbreak of lungsickness and Andersson's establishment at Otjimbingwe
Mounting tension between traders and Namaland chiefs
Andersson's first moves to raise military units
The outbreak of open conflicts and the fight at Otjimbingwe, 15 June 1863
The establishment of an alliance with Kamaharero, 1864
The engagement between Andersson's forces and the Afrikaners, 22 June 1864
The destruction of Rehoboth
Andersson's war
The challenge to the Afrikaner alliance in the south: the so-called "Oorlam war", 1865-1867
The 1870 Peace Conferences
CONCLUSION

Summary and outlook
BIBLIOGRAPHY
INDEX


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