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Muthi and Myths from the African Bush

Muthi and Myths from the African Bush

52 compelling tales that lead on a journey of discovery of African plant mythology and its associated healing practices
Dugmore, Heather; van Wyk, Ben-Erik
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Muthi and Myths from the African Bush

Authors: Heather Dugmore; Ben-Erik van Wyk
Briza Publications
Pretoria, 2008
ISBN: 978-0-9584954-9-3
Soft cover, 21x26 cm, 128 pages, richly illustrated with colour photographs

Muthi and Myths from the African Bush In jeder Hinsicht attraktiv aufgemachtes Buch über die Pflanzen der afrikanischen Heilkunde. In 52 Geschichten werden diese in der traditionellen und modernen medizinischen Anwendung vorgestellt.


Description:

In this book are fifty-two compelling tales that will lead the reader on a journey of discovery of the African continent.

It tracks the ancient grail of traditional African medicine or muthi.

The journey takes one year, with one story for each of the fifty-two weeks.

Many of the stories inherited through Africa’s compelling oral tradition are between these covers: committed to paper for the first time ever.

The ancient African people were the first aromatherapists who well understood the effect of plants on the human body, mind and soul.

Innately spiritual, the thousands of lineages of African people across thousands of years have all used plant medicines for healing, always with the blessing of their ancestors.

Knowledge of African plant mythology and its associated healing practices is most certainly a grail because on this great continent we call Africa, knowledge has always been an oral tradition.

Because it was never written down, thousands of years of healing wisdom and intelligence have been lost in the transference from one generation to the next.

This book endeavoures to bring to light the deep history of fifty-two of the thousands of indigenous medicinal plants of Africa, before it is too late.

The focus is towards Southern Africa because this region is a hotspot of cultural and botanical diversity.

Unlike the healing knowledge of other ancient cultures, such as India or China, little of Africa’s healing history is recorded. As you read the stories about fifty-two of the continent’s prominent indigenous plant cures, the authors hope you, too, will experience some of the magnetism, mystery and wisdom of Africa. They hope it will help you understand a bit more about yourself and about our species: the human being.


About the authors:

Heather Inez Dugmore. I am fortunate to have been born an African and to have had the opportunity to grow my Southern African roots. Born and raised in Johannesburg, I moved to the Eastern Cape for my tertiary education, graduating with a journalism degree from Rhodes University in the 1820 Settlers town of Grahamstown where my ancestors once lived.

'We must take root and grow or die where we stand.' my many times great grandfather, Henry Hare Dugmore, who lived in the Eastern Cape, once wrote. I took his advice and took root in this land. Come hell or global warming, this country owns my soul. It is here on the Wild Coast of South Africa that I was called by a san-goma to take shelter in her home.

I was a student at the time and intrigued by her tales of mermaids and guiding spirits, but it took a while before I realised the sequent encounters with traditional African healers have been far and wide, and played a guiding role in my previous book, Big Cats of Mala Mala, which includes an exploration of Iions, leopards and cheetah in African healing and mythology.

Fortune smiled on me once more and I spent extended periods of time in the legendary Mala Mala Came Reserve, which is one of the best places in Africa to see the big cats. Totem animals in African mysticism, they are flagship species of the continent. From here it was a hop and a jump towards Muthi and Myths from the African Bush.

Where to from here? I am still based in Johannesburg but dividing my time between the city and South Africa's vast outback, known as the Karoo. Home here I am writing my next book, a novel, rooted in this and wild natures roam free. Until then, I hope you enjoy Muthi & Myths and the adventures of the mind, body and spirit that it offers.

Ben-Erik van Wyk is a professor of Botany at the University of Johannesburg, South Africa, where he has been based since 1990. He specialises in plant taxonomy (the naming and classification of plants); as well as ethnobotany and medicinal plants.

These interests have taken him to remote corners of Southern Africa, where precious indigenous knowledge is documented in a scientific way to ensure that it will not be lost to future generations. Many of the plant stories recorded in this book came to light during interactions with local people over the last two decades.

Ben-Erik was born in the Cape in 1956. His father, Abraham Jacobus (Appie) is an artist and enthusiastic gardener; his mother (Elise Bodley) was a well-known botanical artist. His last school years were spent in the small Karoo town of Calvinia. After studying professional forestry and nature conservation at Stellenbosch University (1976-1979), Ben-Erik completed an M.Sc. degree in Botany at Stellenbosch University (1983) and a Ph.D. at the University of Cape Town (1989).

He is active as researcher and has been the promoter of several masters and doctoral students. He derives much pleasure from being part of an inspired and dynamic team of research students and co-workers from various parts of the world. As scientific author or co-author, he is credited with more than 200 research papers in scientific journals, more than 300 lectures at national and international conferences and 11 books.

Ben-Erik is married to Mariana van Wyk (a professional botanist) and has a son, Teodor, and a daughter, Signe. In addition to botany, plant photography and gardening, other favourite hobbies include surf angling, wine tasting and travelling.


Example:

Guardian of the Grail

Botanical name: Pelargonium sidoides
Common name: Umckaloabo (Zulu)

Should you be seeking the Holy Grail, head high into the mountains near Wellington in South Africa's Western Cape and there you will find Parceval; the Guardian of the Grail. The Holy Grail, as the story goes, is said to be the mystic chalice containing the mixture of blood and water that poured from Christ's chest when he was pierced with a sword while being crucified.

This liquid is said to have been captured in a chalice and is widely believed that whoever has it in their possession through the ages, inherits the power to perform healing and life-restoring miracles.

"What ails you?-" is the first question you will be asked on locating Parceval. Since something ails all of us - be it physical, psychological or spiritual - I am confident you won't be short of a reply. Not to lead you astray at this juncture, it won't be Parceval in person who asks what ails you, but rather horticulturist Ulrich Feiter, who twelve years ago started a medicinal plant farm in the mountains of Wellington, which he named Parceval.

"I specialise in extracts of medicinal plants," says Ulrich. "When a large German pharmaceutical company called Schwabe approached me in 1996 to grow Pelargonium sidoides - or umckaloabo (ostensibly the Zulu term for 'heavy cough') - I started cultivating it here in Wellington."

The lengthy collaboration between Parceval and Schwabe around this medicinal plant extract -which is widely used today to treat colds, flu, bronchitis and sinusitis - stands out as one of the success stories of an African medicinal plant abroad. Apart from the German market, Ulrich also cultivates Pelargonium sidoides for African-based clients who market it in pharmacies and health stores.

Ulrich prefers not to discuss exactly how much of these plants he currently cultivates because competition between medicinal plant producers and distributors is accelerating each year. What is apparent is that Africa has an extraordinarily rich medicinal plant heritage that is only beginning to receive the recognition it deserves.

Pelargonium sidoides is a member of the geranium family; it has round, velvety leaves, rich purple flowers and swollen tubers. Its wild populations extend from South Africa's Eastern Cape to the Kingdom of Lesotho. It has been used it for hundreds of years as a curative for coughs, upper respiratory tract irritations, gastrointestinal problems and ear infections. Traditionally it is also used to treat diarrhoea in cattle.

It first reached the Western world when an Englishman named Charles Stevens was cured of his tuberculosis when treated in Lesotho with umcka-loabo in 1897. The story goes that Stevens came to Southern Africa because the climate is good for tuberculosis sufferers. During his stay he came across a Basuto sangoma from the Kingdom of Lesotho.

The sangoma prescribed a decoction of umckaloabo roots for his condition and he fully recovered. He returned to England armed with this mysterious African remedy - which subsequently gained popularity throughout Europe as 'Stevens's Consumption Cure".

Then in 1920, a former missionary doctor, Adrien Sechehaye, who had learned of Stevens's cure, published his medical case studies after successfully treating 800 patients for bronchial problems with a homeopathic preparation of the plant.

Apart from its bronchial benefits, Pelargonium sidoides also has strong antibacterial and antiviral properties and it is rich in phytochemicals, vitamins, minerals and amino acids that boost the immune system. Clinical trials have shown that Pelargonium sidoides shortens the duration and reduces the severity of upper respiratory infections. Regarding its tuberculosis-healing properties, only anecdotal evidence exists. Sometimes anecdotal evidence is all that's required to inspire people towards less orthodox cures.

It certainly inspired Ulrich who feels he has found his version of the mystic, healing chalice. "Healing starts with feeling compassion for other human beings and then sharing this compassion Ulrich explains. "This is what we at Parceval strive towards. This is our grail."


Introduction:

1. Love and the Leopard Orchid
Botanical name: Ansellia africana
Common name: Leopard orchid
2. The Invisible-maker
Botanical name: Gasteria croucheri
Common names: Impundu and bosaalwyn
3. Fire is an Ancient Friend
Botanical name: Spathodea campanulata
Common name: African flame tree or nandi flame
4. Doorway to the Life Hereafter
Botanical name: Boophone disticha
Common name: Bushman poison bulb
5. The Knowledge and Wisdom Tree
Botanical name: Adansonia digitata
Common names: Baobab, muvhuyu (Venda)
6. Aphrodisiac of Hope
Botanical name: Nyrnphaea caerulea
Common name: Blue water lily
7. The Heartbeat of Africa
Botanical Name: Ptaeroxylon obliquum
Common names: Sneezewood, umthathe (Xhosa)
8. A Living Fossil
Botanical name: Steganotaenia araliacea
Common name: Carrot tree
9. Eating, Drinking and Talking Bull
Botanical name: Acacia karroo
Common names: Sweet thorn; mookana (Northern
Sotho); moshaoka (Tswana); umnga (Xhosa);
umunga (Zulu); soetdoring (Afrikaans)
10. The Joys of Pregnancy
Botanical name: Gunnera perpensa
Common names: Ugobho, river pumpkin
11. Magic Carpet Ride
Botanical name: Peganum harmala
Common names: African rue, wild rue; harmal
(Arabic), harmel rue sauvage (French)
12. Awakening the Dead
Botanical name: Myrothamnus flabellifolius
Common names: Resurrection plant, uvukwabafile
(Zulu)
13. A Very Sexy Tree
Botanical name: Kigelia africana
Common names: Sausage tree; worsboom,
muvevha (Venda), umfongothi (Zulu)
14. Toothsticks of the Gods
Botanical name: Diospyros lychides
Common name: Bluebush
15. African Aromatherapy
Botanical name: Agathosma betulina
Common name: Round-leaf buchu or boegoe
16. One of the World's Greatest Plants
Botanical name: Aloe ferox
Common name: Bitter aloe
17. Synergy and the Daisy Herb
Botanical name: Osmitopsis asteriscoides
Common names: Daisy herb, belskruie (Afrikaans
18. Warding off Evil
Botanical name: Dichrostachys cinerea
Common names: Sickle bush, Chinese lantern
tree, kalahari Christmas tree
19. The Green Muse
Botanical name: Artemisia afra
Common names: African wormwood, umhlonyane (Zulu),
wildeals (Afrikaans)
20. The Marriage Tree
Botanical name: Sclerocarya birrea
Common names: Marula, maroela, morula
(Tswana)
21. The Wild One
Botanical name: Prunus africana
Common names: Red stinkwpod, inyazangoma-
elimnyana (Zulu), umkakase (Xhosa)
22. Eight Days of Healing
Botanical name: Lobostemon fruticosiis
Common names: Agtdaegeneesbossie,
douwurmbos (Afrikaans)
23. Once Upon A Time In Paradise
Botanical name: Aframomum melegueta
Common names: Grains of paradise, melegueta
pepper, alligator pepper, Guinea pepper.
24. Seed of Faith
Botanical name! Salvadora persica
Common names: Mustard tree; toothbrush tree;
Pfefferkorn der Bibel (German); khoris (Damara)
miswak (Arabic)
25. Guardian of the Grail
Botanical name: Pelargonium sidoides
Common name: Umckaloabo (Zulu)
26. The Birds' Beer
Botanical name: Leonotis leonurus
Common names: Wild dagga, wilde dagga (Afri-
kaans), utshwalabenyoni (Zulu), umhlahlampetu
(Shona)
27. The Shape-Shifter
Botanical name: Protea repens
Common names: Sugarbush, suikerbos
(Afrikaans)
28. The Hoodia Controversy
Botanical name: Hoodia pilifera and
Hoodia gordonii
Common name: Ghaap
29. Too Hot to Lose
Botanical name: Warburgia salutaris
Common names: Pepper:bark tree, isibhaha
(Zulu)
30. Miracle in a Cup of Tea
Botanical name: Centella asiatica
Common names: Pennywort, gotu kola
31. Dicoma's Shadow
Botanical name: Dicoma schinzii
Common name: Kalahari fever bush
32. A Mind and Mood Plant
Botanical name: Catha edulis
Common names: Khat, qat, Bushman's tea
33. Miracle Cure or Marketing Myth?
Botanical name: Hypoxis hemerocallidea
Common name: African potato or imkomfe
(Zulu)
34. The People's Plant
Botanical name: Bulbine frutescens
Common name: Burn jelly plant
35. Extending the Devil's Claw
Botanical name: Harp agophy turn procumbens
Common names: Devil's claw7 tloutaxaba (San)
36. Umathunga to a Hippo
Botanical name: Euqgmis autumnalis
Common names: Pineapple flower; umathunga
(Zulu)
37. Air for the Spirits
Botanical name; Helichrysum odoratissimufn
Common name: Imphepho (Zulu)
38. The Rise and Rise of Rooihos
Botanical name: Aspalathus linearis
Common name: Rooibos tea
39. Unsung Wonder Bush
Botanical name: Sutherlandia frutescens
Common names: Cancer bush, gansies
40. No Safety in Numbers
Botanical name: Merwilla plumbea
Common names: Blue squill, slangkop or inguduza
41. A Very Famous Tea
Botanical name: Hibiscus sabdariffa
Common names: Hibiscus, red-sorrel, roselle,
Jamaica sorrel
42. One-Eyed Honey
Botanical name: Cyclopia genistoides
Common name: Honeybush tea
43. The Happy Hunter
Botanical name: Xysmalobium undulatum
Common name: Ishongwe
44. Chewing on Happiness
Botanical name: Steletium tortuosum
Common names: Kougoed, kanna
45. Worth its Weight in Myrrh
Botanical name: Commiphora myrrha
Common name: Myrrh tree
46. Unukani Under Siege
Botanical name: Ocotea bullata
Common names: Black stinkwood, unukani
(Zulu)
47. Pure African Potency
Botanical name: Pausinystalia johimbe
Common name: Yohimbe tree
48. Breast of a White Woman
Botanical name: Zanthoxylum capense
Common names: Umlungumabele (Xhosa); kleinperdepram
(Afrikaans); small knobwood
49. The Wild and Wonderful Olive
Botanical name: Olea africana
Common name: Wild olive
50. That Darned Elusive Indungulo
Botanical name: Siphonochilus aethiopicus
Common name: Wild ginger, indungulo (Zulu)
51. It Starts With a Kiss
Botanical name: Viscum capense
Common names: Litjiestee, voelent (Afrikaans)
Cape mistletoe
52. Delightfully Dangerous
Botanical name: Coffea arabica
Common name: Coffee tree
Index
Photographic contributions


Index:

abortifacient 35
abrasions 86
absinthe 56, 57
absinthism 56
Acacia karroo 36, 37
ACE enzyme 117
acne 79
Adansonia digitata 28, 29
addiction 106
addiction therapy 107
addictive 123
adrenaline 123
Adrien Sechehaye 69
Aframomum melegueta 64, 65
Africa 32
African cosmology 17,19
African flame tree 11, 24, 25
African mythology 12, 80, 81
African olive 116
African piano 32
African potato 84, 85
African renaissance 81
African rice 116
African rue 40,41
African traders 58
African world view 12
African wormwood 56, 57
Afrikaans 36
Agathosma betulina 48, 49
Agathosma crenulata 48
agdaegeneesbos 62, 63
aggression 83
air 92
akis 36, 37
alcohol 106
alertness 82,123
Alexander the Great 50
alkaloid 27, 30, 41, 63,106,112,
114
allantoin 63
allergies 79
alligator pepper 64
allopathic medicine 89
aloe 50,51
Aloeferox 50, 51, 86
aloe gel 51
aloe lump 51
Aloe vera 50, 51, 86
altered states 82
Alvaro Viljoen 52
amenorrhoea 35
amphetamine 83
analgesic 89
ancestors 10,18, 83, 92, 93
ancestral calling 17
ancient Greeks 35
Angola 32,100
animal parts 13
Anneline Kriel 36
Ansellia africana
20,21
antibacterial 67, 69,
114
antibiotics 76
anti-cancer 102
antidepressants 42
anti-inflammatory 89,
109,114,115,117,121
antimicrobial 14,45,
109
antioxidant 89, 94,101,102,117,
121
antiplaque 67,114
antiseptic 10, 43, 93,109
antispasmodic 41, 94,117
antiviral 69
anti-witchcraft charms 54
anxiety 85, 96,106,107,113
aphrodine 112
aphrodisiac 30, 31, 58, 59, 64,112
appetite loss 101
appetite suppressant 74, 75
Appie van Wyk 9, 48
Arab traders 122,123
Arabia 82,108,123
Arabic 82
arabica bean 123
aromatherapists 10
aromatherapy 48
aromatic bushes 48
aromatic herb 92,109
aromatic plants 10,49
Artemisia absinthium 56
Artemisia afra 56, 57
arthritis 33
ascorbic acid 101
Aspalathus linearis 94, 95
asthma 31, 34, 71, 96
athletes 112
ayahuasca 41
Ayurvedic medicine 78
babies 94
back pain 89
backache 91
baobab 28, 29
Ba-Phalaborwa people 58
bark 28, 61, 76,110,112,113
bats 29, 45
Battle of Islandwana 22
beer 45, 59, 70
belskruie 52
Benjamin Ginsberg 95
Bible 50, 66, 67
bioscope 27
bird 12, 70, 80
birds' nests 9, 48
bites 70
bitter 96,105,109
bitter aloe 50
bitter tonic 57
black wattle 37
black-shouldered kite 12, 80, 81
bladder complaints 33
bladder infections 117
bleeding 63,121
Blikkies Steenkamp 49, 62
Blixen, Karen 44
blood disorders 39
blood pressure 113,117
blood purification 33
blood-cleaning 119
blue squill 98, 99
blue water lily 30
bluebush 46,47
body temperature 80
boegoe 48
boils 70, 83, 99,101
bokboegoe 49
bones, throwing 18
Boophone disticha 26, 27
borage 63
borage family 63
bosaalwyn 22
bossiest wop 72, 73
botanical knowledge 81
botany 102
Botswana 45
brahmi 78
brassieres 114
breast 44,114
breath-sweetener 64
bronchial complaints 69,118
bronchitis 68, 71, 76
buchu 10, 33, 48,49
buchu brandy 48
buchu, oval-leaf 48
buchu, round-leaf 48
Bulbine frutescens 86, 87
Bulbinella 87
burn jelly plant 86, 87
burns 43, 63, 79
Bushman poison bulb 26, 27
Bushman's tea 82
Bushmen 9,11, 48, 82
caapi 41
cabbage family 66
caffeine 75, 94,113,122,123
calming 92
Cameroon 61,112
camphor 43, 52
cancer 79, 81, 84, 94, 96
cancer bush 71, 96, 97
cannabis 70
Cannabis sativa 70
canoes 45
canvanine 96
Cape Colony 13,102
Cape Dutch 52, 53, 63, 81, 96,121
Cape Gum 37
Cape mistletoe 120121
Capsicum annum 25
Capsicum frutescens 25
cardiac glycosides 105
cardiac troubles 33
Carl Linnaeus 13,102,103
Carl Thunberg 13,102,103,114
carpenter bees 103
carpet 40
carrot 34
carrot family 35
carrot tree 34, 35
cat 83
Catha edulis 82, 83
cathinone 83
Catholic Church 93
cave paintings 50, 51
Cele, Protas 15, 20, 23, 38, 39, 76,
99,118
cell division 79
Centella asiatica 78, 79
Central Africa 112
central nervous system stimulant
113
ceremonial incense 93
cerinus cycad 110
Charles Stevens 69
chest complaints 72, 77,119
chest infections 76
chest pains 60
chewing 82, 83,106
childbirth 91
chili peper 25
China 11
Chinese Herbal Medicines:
Comparisons and
Characteristics 109
Chinese lantern tree 54
Chinese medicine 53, 78, 79,109
cholesterol 89
Chopi 32
Christ 10, 68, 69,108
Christ child 93
chromosomes 79
cinnamon 50
circulation 79
circulatory ailments 78,101
circumcision wounds 27,101
CITES 61
citrus family 32,115
clarity of thought 82
clinical studies 89
clinical trials 14, 84,112
cocoa 83
Coffea arabica 122,123
coffee 83,123
coffee bean 122
coffee houses 123
coffee tree 122,123
colds 43, 52, 57, 68, 71, 93,101,
118
colic 94,105
colourant 101
comfrey 63
Commiphora myrrha 108,109
Congo 112,123
conjunctivitis 37,101
consciousness 41
conservation 77, 98, 99,107,110,
111,119
constipation 65, 83, 89
controversy 74
corm 84, 85
cosmetics 45
cough medicine 71
coughs 69, 70, 72, 93,101,118
counter irritant 67
courage 63
creative thinking 11
Credo Mutwa 30, 31, 38, 71, 76,
119
Crouch, Neil 23, 98
CSIR 74
cultivation 23, 77,116
culture
cure 84, 85
cuts 86
cyanogenic glycosides 61
Cyclopia genistoides 102,103
Cyclopia intermedia 102
Cyclopia subternata 102
Cyclops 103
daisy herb 52, 53
Damara 66
De Materia Medica 50
dead 42
death 27
decongestants 115
deodorant 48
depression 42, 79, 83, 85
devil's claw 88, 89
de-worming treatment 56, 57
diabetes 31, 57, 72, 89, 96
diarrhoea 29, 37, 54, 59, 69, 82,
105,121
Dichrostachys cinerea 54, 55
Dicoma anomala 81
Dicoma capensis 81
Dicoma schinzii 12, 80, 81
digestion 64
digestive 57
digestive system 123
Dioscorides 50
Diospyros kaki 47
Diospyros lycioides 46, 47
disease 93
diuretic 34, 81,123
divination 10, 92
DNA 101,107
domestication 116
doorway 26
dopamine 106
dose 27, 30
douwurmbos 62
dragon's blood 109
DRC 112
dreams 18, 78
drug 83,123
drugs 106
Dutch East India Company 51, 73
dye 47
dysentery 37, 82,105
ear infections 69
earache 55
Earle Graven 107
East Africa 82
eczema 70
Egypt 30,100,101,108
Egyptian lotus 30
Egyptian tombs 116
elephant 118,119
elixir 78
elixir of life 84
Elizabeth Joubert 102
emaciation 83
embalming 108
endurance 42, 82
enema 91
energy 82
enlightenment 79
epilepsy 35, 55, 70,121
erection 113
essential oils 48, 49, 52,108,115
Ethiopia 34, 56, 67, 83,108,122
eucalyptol 43, 52
Eucomis autumnalis 90, 91
euphoric 106
European olive 116
European pharmacopoeias 89
evil 54
evil spirits 10, 93
extrasensory perception 40
eye diseases 41
eye drops 34,101
eye inflammation 101
eye lotion 117
eyewash 55
facial surgery 79
faith 66
Faraday muthi market 12,13,
104,118
fat 48
fatigue 79, 82,123
feathers 80
febrile convulsions 80
Feiter, Ulrich 68, 69
female sterility 25
fertility 58
fertility ceremony 92
fertility rites 58
fever 12, 57, 60, 91, 93, 80, 81,115
fever bush 80, 81
finger millet 116
fire 24, 33
firesticks 24
firewood 37, 55, 73
flatulence 64
flavonoids 121
Flora Capensis 102
flu 52, 57, 68, 71, 96
fodder 37
fossil 34
fossil tree 35
fractures 91, 99
frankincense 10, 50, 93,108
free radicals 101
free-radical-capturing 94
Freud 23
fumigator 93
functional food 75
fynbos 24, 73,102
Gabon 112
gansies 96
gargle 109,117
Garland, Ian 118
Gasteria croucheri 22, 23
gastrointestinal problems 69
gel 86, 87
genital disorders 39
genitals 44
Geoff Nicholls 20, 77, 91, 99
geranium family 68
Gerard 65
Gericke, Nigel 82,107
ghaap 74, 75
Ghana 28, 64
Giess 88, 89
ginger 25
ginger family 64
gingivitis 114
Ginsberg, Benjamin 95
gods 28, 46, 72
gold 10, 93,108
gong stones 32, 33
gonorrhoea 35
good fortune 65
good health 65
goose flesh 80
gotu kola 78
gout 89
grail 68
grains of paradise 64, 65
Graven, Earle 107
Great Flu 115
green pepper 25
green rooibos 94
grief 42
guardian 68
Guinea pepper 25, 64
gum 37
gum resins 108
gum trees 73
gums 109
Gunnera perpensa 38, 39
haemorrage 37
hakeas 73
hallucinogenic 41, 56,113
hangovers 91
happiness 106
harmal 40
harmel 40
harmine 41
Harp agophy turn procumbens
88, 89
head colds 55
headache 33, 65, 71, 93,110,117
healing 62
healing rituals 92
health tonic 121
heartache 42
heartbeat 32,105
heartburn 59
Helichrysum odoratissimum
92,93
Herodotus 108
herpes 24
hibiscus 100,101
Hibiscus sabdariffa 100,101
hiccups 29
high blood pressure 71,117
Himba 48
hippo 90, 91
HIV/Aids 71, 84, 94, 96,110
holism 12
holistic 53
Holy Grail 68
holy incense 108
homeopathic 89
Homo sapiens 13
honey 72
honeybush tea 102,103
hoodia 74
Hoodia gordonii 74
Hoodia pilifera 75
hope 30, 42
horehound, white 71
host plant 120
hot 76
Hubert Kurweil 21
hunger 74, 75, 82
hunter 104
hunting dog 104,112
hunting poison 27
hypertension 83
Hypoxis hemerocallidea 84, 85
hysteria 105,121
Ian Garland 118
icimamlilo 24
illegal harvesting 98
imfe-nkwawu 20, 21
immune booster 84, 96
immune stimulant 51
immune system 69, 71, 81, 89
immune system deficiencies 78
imphepho 10, 92, 93
impotence 41,112,113
impundu 22, 23
imvubu 90
incense 10, 78, 79, 92
India 11
Indian medicine 79
indigenous knowledge systems
75
indungulo 118
infant 12, 80
infertility 35
inflammation 11, 24, 79
infusion 100
inguduza 98
inkomfe 84, 85
insect repellant 48
insect stings 54
insomnia 83, 92
intellectual property rights 74, 75
intoxicant 41
intoxicating 123
invisible 22
inyanga 20, 38, 76,118
Inyanga Zikhaele 118
inyazangoma-elimnyana 60
Iran 66
irritability 113
ishongwe 104,105
isibhaha 76, 77
itching 70
Ivory Coast 65,123
Jamaica sorrel 100
James van Putten 95
Jan Schoeman 121
Jan Smuts 12
Joubert, Elizabeth 102
Kalahari 12, 27, 74, 80, 81, 88, 89
Kalahari Bushmen 26
Kalahari Christmas tree 54
Kalahari fever bush 80, 81
Kalahari koorsbos 80
Kaldi 122
kanna 106
Karen Blixen 44
Karkade 101
Karoo 36, 37, 96, 97,120
Kenya 44,123
keurtjie 97
Kew 73
khat 82, 83
Khoi 13, 48, 95, 96, 97,102
Khoisan 11, 26, 27, 50, 53, 62, 74,
121
khoris 66
Khorixas 66
kidney disorders 96
Kigelia africana 14, 25, 44,45
King Cetshwayo 22
king protea 73
King Ramses II 30
Kirstenbosch Botanical Gardens
118
kiss 120
kleinperdepram 114
knowledge 11, 28, 29
koorsbos 80
kougoed 106,107
Kriel, Anneline 36
Kruger National Park 21, 45, 58,
118
Kurweil, Hubert 21
KwaZulu Natal 15
Lake St Lucia 76
Lappiesman 121
laxative 50, 51,101
leather 37
Leipoldt, Louis 95
lemons 33
Leonotis leonurus 70, 71
leopard 20
leopard orchid 14,15, 20, 21
leprosy 78
Lesotho 69, 81
libido 83
life 26, 27
life force 120
life-restoring 68
lightning 119
lime juice 75
limes 33
Linnaeus, Carl 65,102,103
lion's ears 70
lions 70, 71
lipid-lowering 117
litjiestee 120,121
Lobostemon fruticosus 62, 63
longevity 29
Louis Leipoldt 95
love 13,14,15, 20
love charm 15
love dolls 21
love muthi 15
love poppets 14
luck 65
Lunar cycle 19
lung cancer 84
Madagascar 61, 78
magic carpet 40
MaiMai traditional healers
market 17
malaria 59, 60,119
malaria antidote 77
Malawi 123
male erectile dysfunction 112
male infertility 82, 83
male menopause 64
male tonic 112
Malwai 45
Maputaland 76
Marilyn McDowell 16
marketing 84, 85
Marloth, Rudolf 74
maroela 58
marriage 58
marriage tree 58
marula 58, 59
marula fruits 58, 59
marula nuts 58, 59
Masai 67
mating rituals 112
McDowell, Marilyn 16
medicinal plants database 99
Medicinal Plants of South Africa 70
Medicinal Plants of the World 79
medicines 19
meditation 10, 78, 79, 93
Melegueta 64
melegueta pepper 64
menstrual cramps 89
menstrual pains 119
mental 83
mental disorders 34
mental health 83
Merwilla plumbea 98, 99
mesembrine 106
migraines 83
mind 82
mind and mood 113
mind and mood medicines 123
mind and mood plants 83
mind-altering 82
miracle 84
miracle cure 84, 85
miswak 66, 67
modukulo 58
monarch butterfly 105
mood 82
mood lifter 121
mood-enhancer 107
mookana 36
morula 58
moshaoka 36
Mother Africa 38
mouth ulcers 109
mouthwash 114
Mozambique 32, 76
mummification 26
muscular cramps 70
muse 56
music 32
musk 109
mustard seed 66, 67
mustard tree 66, 67
muthi 8, 9,13,14
muthi market 12,15, 99, 90, 91,
104,110, 111
Mutwa, Credo 30, 31, 38, 71, 76,
119
muvhuyu 28
Myrothamnus flabellifolius 42,
43
myrrh 10, 50, 93,108,109
myrrh tree 108,109
myth 84, 85
mythology 31
Nama 70,106
Namaqualand 107
Namibia 32, 35, 48, 66
Nandi flame 24
narcotic 30, 31, 56, 83
nasal plugs 57
nausea 82
nectar 72,103
Neil Crouch 23, 98
nervous disorders 41,110
neurotoxic 56
neurotransmitters 106
Nguni 110
Nguni people 119
Nichols, Geoff 20, 77, 91, 99
Nigel Gericke 82,107
Niger River 64
Nigeria 112
nightmares 119
Nomkhubulwana 92, 93
non-alcoholic drink 123
Nortier, P. le Fras 95
nosebleeds 55
nymph 31
Nymphaea caerulea 30
obstetric disorders 39
Ocotea bullata 110, 111
black stinkwood 110, 111
octopus 117
oil 116
ointments 86
Okavango 31
old man's disease 60
Olea africana 116,117
Olea europaea 116
oleacein 117
oleuropein 117
olive, wild 116,117
Omo region 34
oral history 100
oral hygiene 46, 67
oral rinses 114
oral thrush 37
oral tradition 11
oranges 33
orchid 20
oriental medicine 78
Osmitopsis asteriscoides 52, 53
osteo-arthritis 89
oval-leaf buchu 48
over-exploitation 113
over-harvesting 107
P. le Fras Nortier 95
P57 74
pain 27, 55, 65, 83, 92,109,119
painkiller 41
palaeo-botanical 34
panacea 64
paradise 64
paranoia 83
parapsychology 41
Parceval 68
past life 78
patent 74
Paul Verlaine 56
Pausinystalia johimbe 112,113
peaflower family 97
pearl millet 116
Peganum harmala 40,41
Pelargonium sidoides 68, 69
penis 113
penis enlargement 112
pennywort, 78, 79
Pentanisia prunelloides 24, 25
Peoples Plants 82
pepper-bark 76, 77
pepper-bark tree 76, 77,110 ,
peptic ulcers 89
performance-enhancing 112
perfume 115
Persia 66
persimmon 46, 47
personality problems 83
Pfefferkorn der Bibel 66
Phalaborwa 58
Pharaohs 108
physical 8
phytosterols 61, 84
pineapple flower 90, 91
pinitol 96
Piper guineensis 25
placebo 113
placebo effect 85
placenta 39
plant classification 13
plant fats 84
plant mythology 10
plantains 64
plaster 62, 63, 67, 86
plaster bush 62
plastic surgeons 79
pleasure 106
pleisterbos 62
plum family 60
pneumonia 76
post-operative recovery 91
potatoes 31
potency 112
potsherd 92
poultices 37
pregnancy 38, 39, 99
prisoner of war 88
prostate gland hypertrophy 60
prostatic hypertrophy 84
Protas Cele 15, 20, 23, 38, 39, 76,
99,118
Protea cynaroides 73
Protea rep ens 72, 73
Proteus 72
Prunus africana 60, 61
psychoactive 30, 83
psychoactive vapours 40, 41
psychological 8
psychological charm 111
psychosomatic 43
psychotropic 82
Ptaeroxylon obliquum 32, 33
pumpkin 38
pygmies 113
pyrrolizidine alkaloids 63
qat 82
quiabo da Angola 100
quinones 46, 47
Ragman 121
Ramses II30
rashes 86
red stinkwood 60, 61
red-sorrel 100
reductionist 53
religious rituals 93
respiratory ailments 43
respiratory tract infections 52
respiratory tract irritations 69
resurrection 42
resurrection plant 42,43
rheumatism 33, 79, 89, 96
rhizome 118
Rhus tree 120
ring-barking 110
ringworm 63
ritual incense 92
river pumpkin 38, 39
rock art 50, 51, 89,105
rock engraving 89
Roman Dutch Law 75
rooibos tea 94, 95,102,103
roselle 100
round-leaf buchu 48
royalty agreement 74
Rudolf Marloth 74
rue sauvage 40
Salvador a persica 66, 67
San 12, 48, 49, 62, 74, 80, 81, 88
sangoma 8,16,17, 27, 42, 92,104,
118,
sanguinarine 114
saponins 35, 79
sausage tree 14, 25
sausage tree 44, 45
savannah 25
scar tissue 79
Sceletium tortuosum 106,107
schizophrenia 83
Schoeman, Jan 121
scientific proof 14, 85
scientific research 94
Sclerocarya birrea 58, 59
scorpion stings 54
scurvy 75
Sechehaye, Adrien 69
sedative 105,106
seed 66
semi-parasites 120
serenity 106
serotonin 106
serotonin-uptake inhibitor 106
seven 65
sewing needles 37
sex 44,112
sexual performance 113
sexual problems 113
sexual prowess 13,14
sexual rejuvenation 64
sexual stimulant 41
sexy 14, 44
shadow 80
shape-shifter 72
sickle bush 54, 55
side effects 83
Silverglen Medicinal Plant
Nursery 118
sinus troubles 118
sinuses 77
sinusitis 68
Siphonochilus aethiopicus 118,
119
skin 94
skin cancer 45
skin diseases 70
skin irritations 86
skin lotions 45
skincare products 51
skin-healing 45
slangkop 98
slave trade 65
small knobwood 114,115
smoke 10, 92, 93,110
Smuts, Jan 12
snake 54
snake bites 34, 54, 70
snakebite remedy 115
sneezewood 32, 33
sneezing 33
snuff 33, 77,107,110
soap plants 35
sociability 82
Socotra 50
soetdoring36
Somalia 50,108
soothsayer 58
sorcerers 99
sore teeth 109
sore throat 34,117
sores 44, 63
sorghum 116
Sotho 57
Spanish Flu 115
Spathodea campanulata 24, 25
Species Plantarum 65
spindle poisons 79
spirit 26
spirit world 104
spirits 92,106
spiritual 8, 83
spirituality 16
spitting of blood 29
Spotted Eagle Owl 21
sprains 99
St Lucia Wetland Park 90, 91
stamina-enhancing 112
Steenkamp, Blikkies 49, 62
Steganotaenia araliacea 34, 35
Stevens, Charles 69
Stevens' Consumption Cure 69
stimulant 82, 94,106,112
stings 70
stomach aches 81, 82
stomach ailments 48, 66,104,
110,115
stress 79, 96,107
Sub-Saharan Africa 11
succulent 86, 87,106
Sudan 100
sugarbush 72, 73
suikerbos 72
sunbirds 70
sunburn 86
supernatural forces 104
sustainable 113
Sutherlandia frutescens 71, 96,97
Swazi 119
Swaziland 76
Swedish bitters 51
sweet thorn 36, 37
sweet/sour 101
sweetener 72
symbol of peace 117
synergistic effect 59
synergy 52
syphilis 14, 24, 44, 78, 91
syrup 72
tannin 37, 94, 111, 121
tanning 37
tapeworms 65
taxonomy 102
tea 75, 83,100,102,121,123
teeth 46
telepathine 41
telepathy 41
Tembe Elephant Reserve 76
tension 106
testicular tumours 85
The Flora of South Africa 74
thirst 74, 75
three wise men 10
throat infections 109
thujone 56, 57
Thunberg, Carl, 13,102,103,114
timber 110
tloutaxaba 88
tobacco 106
tonic 35, 51, 81, 85, 71, 84, 96,100,
112,121
tonsillitis 109
toothache 54, 55,115
toothbrush 46, 66, 67
toothbrush tree 66
toothpaste 46,114
toothsticks 46, 47
tortoise shells 9, 48
tourniquet 54
traditional African healer 8
traditional African medicine 16,
89
traditional healers 13, 31
traditional healing 97
trance rituals 26
tranquilisers 42
tuberculosis 47, 55, 69, 89, 96
tumours 99
Twasa 17
ugobho 38
ukuphalaza 33
ulcers 24, 44, 63, 96
Ulrich Feiter 68, 69
umathunga 90
umckaloabo 68, 69
umhlahlampetu 70
umhlonyane 56
umkakase 60
umlungumabele 114
umnga 36
umthathe 32
umunga 36
unf ermented rooibos 94
unukani 110, 111
urinary complaints 29, 33, 60,110
urinary tract disinfectant 48
urinary tract infections 31, 85, 91,
96,101,117
urination 113
urine 84
uterotonic 39
uterus 39
utshwalabenyoni 70
uvukwabafile 42
Uzara 105
Van Gogh, Vincent 56, 57
Van Putten, James 95
Van Wyk, Appie 9, 48
vasodilation 113
venereal diseases 39
Verlaine, Paul 56
vermifuge 65
Viagra 113
Vicks VapoRub 52, 53
Viljoen, Alvaro 52
Vincent van Gogh 56, 57
viral hepatitis 71
virility 44
Viscum capense 120,121
Vitamin A 29
Vitamin C 29, 59,101
voelent 120
volatile oils 10, 33, 92
Volk 88, 89
vomiting 27, 33
Vulindaba 71
war 22
Warburgia salutaris 76, 77
warts 33,121
wasting 96
wattles 73
weight loss 82
West Africa 64,112
western medicine 79
white horehound 71
white woman 114
wild 60,116
wild dagga 70, 71
wild ginger 118,119
wild olive 116,117
wild rooibos 95
wild rue 40
wilde dagga 70
wildeals 56
wisdom 28, 29, 81
wood rose 59,120
World Heritage site 90
wormwood 56
wormwood, African 56
wound dressings 93
wound-healer 67
wound-healing 28, 50, 55, 62, 79,
86,108,109
wounds
wounds 24, 43, 49, 63, 78, 79, 86,
108,109
Xhosa 8, 32, 60,110,114,117,119
xylophone 32, 33
Xysmalobium undulatum 104,
105
yage 41
yams 64
YangYifan 109
Yemen 82
Yifan, Yang 109
yohimbe tree 112,113
yohimbine 112
Zanthoxylum capense 114,115
Zeus 103
Zimbabwe 45
Zingiber officinale 25
Zulu 37, 47, 60, 70, 90,104,110,
117,118,119
Zulu Princess of Heaven 92, 93
Zulu warriors 22, 23
Zululand 90