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Guide to Garden Succulents

Guide to Garden Succulents

Scientifically accurate photographic guide for gardeners and horticulturalist to easily identify commonly used species of succulents
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978 1-875093-67-0
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Guide to Garden Succulents

Authors: Gideon Smith, Ben-Erik van Wyk
Briza Publications
Pretoria, 2008
ISBN: 978 1-875093-67-0
Hard cover, 17x24 cm, 320 pages, over 500 colour photos

Guide to Garden Succulents Eine weltweite, einmal nicht auf das südliche Afrika beschränkte Auswahl von ca. 300 Sukkulenten nebst Identifizierung- und Pflegehinweisen.


Description:

Succulents and rockery plants have become very popular for their ease of cultivation, diversity of forms and striking colours.

This scientifically accurate photographic guide is aimed at helping gardeners and horticulturalist to easily identify commonly used species from all over the world.

The book includes:

• Descriptions of more than 300 well-known succulent plants and their close relatives

• Details about the main succulent plant families that will allow any reader to quickly determine at a glance the family to which a succulent belongs

• More than 500 excellent full-colour photographs, showing the distinctive shape and colour of the plants

• Introductory chapters on the uses, conservation, cultivation and propagation of succulents, together with a section on ‘gardening with succulents’ that gives useful hints

• The main section deals with all major succulent plant families, how they can be identified and which main groups (genera and species) belong to each of them.


About the authors:

Gideon F. Smith is a well-known authority on succulent plants and an author of several books on the subject. He holds the position of Research Director of the South African National Biodiversity Institute and is a professor of Botany at the University of Pretoria.

Ben-Erik van Wyk is a professor of Botany at the University of Johannesburg. He has a research interest in systematic botany and has written several books on the diversity and uses of plants.


Contents:

Acknowledgements
Introduction
Uses of succulents
Conservation
Cultivation
Propagation
Gardening with succulents
About this book
Guide to the main succulent plant groups (families)
Group 1. Agavaceae (Sisal family, Century plant family)
Group 2. Apocynaceae (Carrion flower family)
Group 3. Asphodelaceae (Aloe family)
Group 4. Asteraceae (Daisy family)
Group 5. Cactaceae (Cactus family)
Group 6. Crassulaceae (Stonecrop family, Plakkie family)
Group 7. Euphorbiaceae (Spurge family, Milkweed family)
Group 8. Mesembryanthemaceae (Ice plant family, Mesemb family)
Group 9. Unusual stem succulents (various families)
Bombacaceae (Baobab family)
Dioscoreaceae (Wild yam family, Elephant's foot family)
Hyacinthaceae (Hyacinth family)
Passifloraceae (Granadilla family,
Passion flower family)
Pedaliaceae (Sesame family)
Vitaceae (Grape family)
Group 10. Unusual leaf succulents (various families)
Geraniaceae (Geranium family)
Lamiaceae (Mint family)
Portulacaceae (Portulaca family,
Spekboom family)
Welwitschiaceae (Welwitschia family)
Zygophyllaceae (Devil-thorn family)
Further reading
Quick guide to garden succulents of the world
Index to scientific and common names


Introduction:

About 3% of the flowering plants of the world are represented by a wealth of succulents of all shapes, sizes and descriptions. This plant life form is distributed over more than 60 different families, but with a significant concentration in about 15 of them.

Furthermore, perhaps with the exception of forests, succulents make up a distinct and conspicuous component of many vegetation types, especially in seasonally dry and arid regions. It is therefore no surprise that they also play an important part in gardening and horticulture.

Writing an identification guide to all the succulents of the world (an estimated 10 000 species) would be a difficult task - there are simply too many to fit into one book! However, the task becomes much easier if we restrict ourselves to those succulents that are commonly grown in gardens.

This unfortunately excludes many of the fascinating and rare gems that succulent plant enthusiasts enjoy adding to their greenhouse collections. Rare succulents are generally well covered in specialist books but the garden succulents are rarely featured as an entity on their own in gardening books.

The first step in identifying garden succulents is to become familiar with the main groups (families and genera). Fortunately, most succulent plant families are so distinctive that they are easily recognised. One need not be a trained botanist or horticulturalist to tell a cactus from a carrion flower or an aloe from an agave.

An attempt is made in this book to show how very different the main families are and how easily they can be distinguished from one another. Once the family or genus is recognised, it becomes much easier to identify the plant to species level.

With this aim in mind, garden succulents are here divided into 10 main groups. The first eight groups correspond more or less to the current botanical classification of the plants. However, many plant families include one or two succulent members or are poorly known in horticulture. These are included in the two artificial groups ("unusual stem succulents" and "unusual leaf succulents") simply to give a wider coverage of genera and species.

The succulents can be classified according to the plant organ (leaves, stems, roots) that is fleshy. For the layperson perhaps the most useful subdivision of succulence is indeed based on these easy-to-observe structures. Therefore, reference is typically made to leaf succulents, stem succulents or caudiciform succulents (where the water-storing tissue is in the stem-root continuum).

Many non-succulent plants, if grown with their fleshy roots exposed, would be referred to as caudiciform succulents. Leaves, stems and roots are not the only plant structures that can be succulent.

Other, less conventional plant parts can also be succulent, such as the wiry but fleshy, twining inflorescence of the climbing onion (Bowiea volubilis). Different types of succulence are not mutually exclusive and plants that combine leaf and stem succulence, for example, are often encountered.


Examples:

HOODIA

Hoodia gordonii (common ghaap, bitter ghaap)
This is the best known and most commonly cultivated species. It has also become famous because it is a source of raw material for numerous weight loss products, claimed to suppress appetite. The erect stems are covered in sharp, somewhat tapering spines. The flesh-coloured and disc-shaped flowers look like small radar antennae.

Hoodia flava (yellow ghaap)
The small-flowered Hoodia flava is just one of several Hoodia species that are suitable for use as rockery plants in dry regions or more often as container plants. Plants grow quite fast and produce numerous small yellow flowers, followed by the typical paired fruits so characteristic of the family.

Hoodia pilifera subsp. annulata (purple ghaap)
It is really very easy to confuse this species with a species of cactus when it is observed for the first time. The plants grow as large clumps not unlike those formed by the cactus Echinopsis spachiana, which is naturalised in parts of the habitat of Hoodia pilifera subsp. annulata.

The stems are carried erectly and they branch and rebranch mainly from the base of the stems. The stems are cylindrical in shape and spiny, with each spine arising from a small swelling on the stem. The flowers are a dark purplish brown colour and are densely arranged along the upper parts of the stems.

Hoodia pilifera subsp. pilifera differs in the shape and colour of the flowers - almost black and without a ring (annulus). The species is fairly easy in cultivation, provided it is protected from excessive rainfall.


ORBEA

Orbea lutea subsp. lutea (yellow carrion flower)

Orbea lutea subsp. lutea has short, curved, semi-erect stems that are a light green colour mottled with purplish flecks. The flowers are uniformly bright yellow and exude a terrible smell of putrid meat. The species is remarkably easy in cultivation and it will grow in almost any type of soil. The short stems that all lean to one side usually indicate the direction in which new growth will form.

This is one of the fascinating tendencies of the species, indeed of many asclepiad species: the plants seem to be able to "walk", as new stems that look exactly like the existing ones grow in the direction of suitable microhabitats. Orbea lutea subsp. lutea grows very easily from stem cuttings planted directly in the desired spot in the garden. For some years Orbea lutea was known under the name Orbeopsis lutea.

Orbea variegata (common carrion flower, Cape fritillary)
This is the well-known carrion flower of Table Mountain. From Cape Town it has been transported all over the world and is today perhaps the most widely cultivated of all the typical asclepiad species, commonly known as carrion flowers. It has fairly thin stems that can reach a length of almost 200 mm, but they are usually somewhat shorter. The stems are a dull, light green colour and are blotched with purple spots.

Flower size and colour vary somewhat, but the flowers of the most commonly encountered forms usually have a light creamy yellow or green background colour adorned with brown, red or purple spots. Flower size varies from 40 to 90 mm in diameter. Although coming from a winter-rainfall area, it grows surprisingly easily in summer-rainfall areas too, without protection. The fruit are paired capsules, resembling the horns of an antelope. At maturity they split open to release numerous small brown fruits crowned with long white hairs.


STAPELIA

Stapelia gigantea (giant carrion flower)
The giant carrion flower must rate as one of the most spectacular gems of the succulent world. The plant has leafless and thornless four-angled stems curling upwards like fingers on a hand. Enormous star-shaped flowers are borne near the base of the plant. They are yellowish to pale brown in colour and beautifully decorated with numerous wavy purple lines.

The plant is easily propagated from cuttings, which should be left out for a week or two to form callus tissue before they are planted. For containers, a mixture of two parts good garden soil and one part sharp, coarse sand will ensure adequate drainage. A fair amount of water is tolerated during the active growth period in summer but the plant should be kept fairly dry during the resting period in winter.

Stapelia grandiflora (purple carrion flower)
This is another popular carrion flower that is cultivated in many parts of the world. It closely resembles the giant carrion flower but the flowers are usually much darker in colour (often a purplish brown) with conspicuous hairs along the rather broad lobes. The specimen shown here is one of many colour forms of the species, previously known as Stapelia flavirostris.

The unpleasant smell emitted by the flowers is not really a problem when the plant is grown outdoors. Notice the blowfly and the numerous blowfly eggs that are visible on the surface of the flower. The flies and blowflies are attracted by the powerful smell and are fooled into thinking that they have discovered a rotting animal carcass. The surface hairs and colour of the flowers contribute to the deception.

Stapelia leendertziae (red carrion flower, aaskelk)
Another gem from Africa, Stapelia leendertziae is indigenous to South Africa and Zimbabwe. The pale green, creeping stems can spread for considerable distances along the ground. The remarkable flowers, almost the size of a hand, are often borne in pairs. They are bell-shaped and dark purple, with elegant, slender lobes.

Succulent enthusiasts all over the world have succeeded in growing this unusual plant. The secret is simple: well-drained but rich soil, limited watering in winter but fairly regular watering during the growing season. Plants in their dormant state can tolerate fairly low temperatures but are easily killed by frost.


Index:

aaskelk 60
Adam's needle 40
Adam's thread 40
Adansonia 204
Adansonia digitata 204, 205
Adansonia gibbosa 204
Adansonia gregorii 204
Adenia 210
Adenia digitata 210, 211
Adenia glauca 210
Adenia pechuelii 210
Adenia spinosa 210
Adenium 42, 48
Adenium boehmianum 48, 49
Adenium boehmianum var. swazicum 48
Adenium multiflorum 43, 48, 49
Adenium obesum var. multiflorum 48
Adenium swazicum 48
adeniums 42
Adromischus 122
Adromischus caryophylaceus 128
Adromischus cooperi 128, 129
Adromischus cristatus 128, 129
Adromischus maculatus 128, 129
Adromischus maximus 128, 129
Adromischus umbraticola 128
Aeonium 122
Aeonium arboreum 123, 130, 131
Aeonium arboreum Atropurpureum'
130, 131
Aeonium arboreum 'Schwarzkopf 130
Aeonium arboreum 'Zwartkop' 130
Aeonium canariense 130, 131
Aeonium haworthii 130, 131
Aeonium manriqueorum 130
Aeonium 'Zwartkop' 131
African bowstring hemp 38
African climbing cacti 214
African dracaena 25, 34
African milk barrel 172, 174
African milk bush 180
African milk tree 19, 176
African wild yam 206, 207
Agavaceae 24, 26
Agave 24, 26, 142
Agave americana 8, 28, 29, 30
Agave americana 'Variegata' 18
Agave americana var. marginata 28
Agave americana var. mediopicta 29
Agave americana var. mediopicta alba 28
Agave angustifolia 30
Agave angustifolia 'Variegata' 31
Agave angustifolia var. marginata 30
Agave attenuata 18, 27, 30, 31
Agave hurteri 25
Agave lechuiguilla 8
Agave parryi 25, 30, 31
Agave salmiana 8
Agave sisalana 8, 9, 25, 28, 29, 30
Agave tequilana 8, 28, 30, 31
Agave victoria-reginae 10, 11, 30, 31
Agave vivipara 30
Aichryson 122
Aichryson xdomesticum 122, 130
Aichryson punctatum 130
Aichryson tortuosum 130, 131
air potato 206
alabaster plant 142
Alluaudia 220
Alluaudiopsis 220
Aloe 10, 64
Aloe albida 64
Aloe arborescens 8, 16, 17, 64, 68, 69,
72
Aloe aristata 68, 69
Aloe barbadensis 80
Aloe barberae 16, 18, 62, 64, 68, 69
Aloe brevifolia 68, 69
Aloe camperi 70, 71
Aloe candelabrum 72
Aloeciliaris 70, 71, 91
Aloe dichotoma 70, 71
aloe family 64
Aloe ferox 8, 64, 72, 73, 76
Aloe ferox x Aloe arborescens 65
Aloe humilis 72, 73
Aloe krapohliana 72
Aloe lineata 75
Aloe lineata var. lineata 74
Aloe littoralis 74, 75
Aloe longistyla 74, 75
Aloe maculata 78
Aloe marlothii 64, 76, 77
Aloe microstigma 76, 77
Aloe myriacantha 64
Aloe pillansii 10, 11, 70
Aloe plicatilis 12, 65
Aloe polyphylla 10
Aloe products 9
Aloe ramosissima 70, 71
Aloe rupestris 78, 79
Aloe speciosa 65
Aloe spectabilis 76
Aloe striata 78
Aloe striata x Aloe maculata 78, 79
Aloe tenuior 78, 79
Aloe thraskii 78, 79
Aloe vanbaleni 13
Aloe variegata 80, 81
Aloe vera 8, 80, 81
Alooideae 64, 68
American aloe 28, 29
American ivy 214
American wild yam 206
Anacampseros 220
Apocynaceae 42
Apocynoideae 42, 48
Aporocactus 100
Aporocactus flagelliformis 100, 108
apricot vine 210
Aptenia 184
Aptenia cordifolia 13, 184, 188, 189
Aprema lancifolia 184, 188, 189
Argyroderma 10, 200
Argyroderma delaetii 201
Argyroderma hallii 201
asbos 8
Asclepiadaceae 42, 94
Asclepiadoideae 44, 54
ash bush 8
Asphodelaceae 64
Asphodeloideae 64, 66, 90
Asteraceae 92
Astroloba 66
Astroloba foliolosa 67, 82, 83
Astroloba herrei 82, 83
Astroloba rubriflora 66, 82, 83
Astrophytum 98
Astrophytum myriostigma 106, 107,
174
Astrophytum myriostigma var. tulense 106
Astrophytum ornatum 106, 107
Augea capensis 224, 225
Australian bottle plant 178
Australian pest pear 116
Avon/a 220
Avonia papyracea 220
baboon poison 210, 211
baby pine of China 140
baby sun rose 188
baby's bottom 200
baby's toes 200
bananadilla 210
baobab 204, 205
baobab family 204
Barbados aloe 80
Barberton daisies 92
barrel cacti 102
bead vine 138
bear's paw 132
Beaucarnea 26, 33
Beaucarnea recurvata 32, 33
Beaucarnea recurvata var. intermedia 32
bergaalwyn 74
bergkambro 54
bergvygies 184
Beschorneria 26, 32
Beschorneria bracteata 32, 33
Beschorneria yuccoides 32
beschornerias 26
bicoloured dewflower 194
big horned euphorbia 170
bishop's cap 106, 107, 174
bitter aloe 64, 72, 76
bitter ghaap 56
black rose 130
bloukobas 214
blue aloe 68
blue barrel cactus 112
blue cobas 214
blue passion flower 210
bokbaaivygie 182, 184, 192
Bombacaceae 204
bonsai crassula 140
Boston ivy 214
botterboom 164
bottle palm 32
bottle ponytail 32
bottle tree 52
bottlebrush aloe 78
Bowiea 208
Bowiea gariepensis 208
Bowiea volubilis 208, 209
bowstring hemp 24, 26
Brachystelma 44
Brachystelma barberae 54, 55
brachystelmas 44
brack mesemb 184, 188
brain cactus 104, 120
brakvygies 184
broad-spined barrel cactus 112
Brunthaler's rock mesemb 192
Bryophyllum 150
Bryophyllum delagoense 150
Bryophyllum uniflorum 154
Bulbine 66
Bulbine frutescens 64, 65, 90, 91
Bulbine frutescens 'Hallmark' 91
Bulbine latifolia 67, 90, 91
Bulbine natalensis 90, 91
Bulbinella 66
bulbines 64
bunny-ears 116
burn jelly plant 90
butter bush 164
button plants 200
buttons 200
buttons on a string 138
cabuya 36
Cactaceae 98, 220
cactus euphorbia 170, 172
cactus family 98
canary creeper 96
candelabra cactus 172
candle bushes 216
candle plant 96
canna 8
Cape aloe 72
Cape aloes 76
Cape cowslip 208
Cape daisies 93
Cape fritillary 58
Camegia gigantea 99
Carpanthea 184
Carpanthea pomeridiana 8, 185, 188
Carpobrotus 9, 184
Carpobrotus acinaciformis 190, 191
Carpobrotus chilensis 184, 190
Carpobrotus deliciosus 190
Carpobrotus dimidiatus 185
Carpobrotus edulis 8, 184, 190, 191
Carpobrotus mellei 191
Carpobrotus quadrifidus 190, 191
Carpobrotus sauerae 190
carrion flower family 42
carrion flowers 44
century plant 24, 26, 28
century plant family 24
Cephalocereus 98
Cephalocereus senilis 106, 107
Cereus 100
Cereus jamacaru 106, 107
Cereus peruvianus 8, 106
Ceropegia 44
Ceropegia woodii 54, 55
ceropegias 44
chain cholla 116
chain-link cactus 116
chalk lettuce 142
chalk mesembs 202
chalky houseleek 162
chandelier plant 150
chenille plant 146
Chiastophyllum 122
Chiastophyllum oppositifolium 122,
132
chin cacti 102
chincherinchee 208
Chinese aloe 80
Chinese jade 134
Chinese orpine 160
Chinese stonecrop 126, 162
Chinese yam 206
Chortolirion 66
Chortolirion angolense 66, 67, 82, 83
Christ thorn 174
Christmas cactus 100, 102, 104, 120
Circandra 10
Cissus 214
Cissus quadrangularis 214, 215
Cleistocactus 100
Cleistocactus smaragdiflorus forma rojoi
101
Cleistocactus strausii 100
Cleistocactus winteri 100, 101
climbing aloe 78
climbing cactus 214
climbing onion 208, 209
cobas 214, 215
cobweb houseleek 162
cochineal insect 116, 117
cocoon plant 93
columnar cacti 13
Combretum 212
common bowstring hemp 38
common carrion flower 58
common echeveria 146
common ghaap 56
common grape vine 214
common houseleek 162
common ivy 214
common kambro 54
common krimpsiek 164
common sour fig 190
common stonecrop 126, 158
common wax plant 56
cone plants 200
Conophytum 200
Conophytum ficiforme 201
Conophytum fulleri 201
Convallariaceae 24
copper leaf 144
copper roses 144
coral aloe 78
coral beads 160
coral star 144
corkscrew 172
corn cob 172
Cotyledon 122, 124
Cotyledon barbeyi 132, 133
Cotyledon orbiculata 123, 132, 133
Cotyledon tomentosa 132
Cotyledon tomentosa subsp. ladismithiensis
132
Cotyledon tomentosa subsp. tomentosa 132
Cotyledon tomentosa var. ladismithiensis
133
Cotyledon undulata 132
cow horn 170
cowboy cactus 12, 99
crab cactus 104, 120
Crassula 122, 126, 164, 222
Crassula alpestris 136, 137
Crassula arborescens 134, 135, 138
Crassula arborescens subsp.
undulatifolia 134, 135
Crassula barklyi 136
Crassula capitella subsp. thyrsiflora
134, 135
Crassula coccinea 134, 135
Crassula columnaris 136, 137, 222
Crassula deceptor 136, 137
Crassula multicava 15, 136, 137, 140
Crassula muscosa 136, 137
Crassula namaquensis 136
Crassula nudicaulis 136, 137
Crassula orbicularis 136
Crassula ovata 15, 134, 138, 139
Crassula ovata 'Basutoland' 138
Crassula ovata 'Crosby's Compact' 138
Crassula ovata 'Dwarf Green' 138
Crassula ovata 'Sunset' 138
Crassula pellucida 123, 138
Crassula perfoliata 138
Crassula perfoliata var. coccinea 138, 139
Crassula perfoliata var. heterotricha 138
Crassula perfoliata var. minor 138
Crassula perfoliata var. perfoliata 138,
139
Crassula perforata 138, 139
Crassula perforata 'Pagoda' 138
Crassula portulacea 138
Crassula pyramidalis 136
Crassula rupestris 123, 138, 139
Crassula sarcocaulis 140
Crassula sarcocaulis subsp. rupicola 140,
141
Crassula sarcocaulis subsp. sarcocaulis
140, 141
Crassula sericea 136
Crassula streyi 136, 140, 141
Crassula tetragona 140
Crassula tetragona subsp. acutifolia 140,
141
Crassula tetragona subsp. robusta 140
Crassula tetragona subsp. tetragona 140,
141
Crassulaceae 122, 224
creeping garden vygie 196
creosote bush 224
crested euphorbia 172
crinkle-leaf plant 128
crocodile-jaws 72
crown of thorns 174
Cuba hemp 36
Cucurbitaceae 10
curly-leaved dracaena 34
curuba 210
cush-cush yam 206
Cyphostemma 214
Cyphostemma cirrhosum 19
Cyphostemma currorii 214, 215
Cyphostemma juttae 12, 214, 215
daisy family 92
dead man's tree 168, 180
Decaryia 220
Delosperma 184, 188
Delosperma brunthaleri 192
Delosperma echinatum 192, 193
Delosperma herbeum 192, 193
Delosperma obtusa 183
devil's backbone 150
devil's claw 212
devil's tongue 24, 26
devil-thorn family 224
dewflower 18, 184, 194
Didierea 220
Didiereaceae 220
Dioscorea 206
Dioscorea alata 206
Dioscorea batatas 206
Dioscorea bulbifera 206
Dioscorea elephantipes 206, 207
Dioscorea sylvatica 206, 207
Dioscorea trifida 206
Dioscorea villosa 206
Dioscoreacae 206
Disocactus 100, 102, 110, 120
Disocactus ackermannii 100, 101, 108,
109
Disocactus flagelliformis 100, 108, 109
Disocactus xhybridus 100, 102, 108,
108, 109
Disocactus martianus 101
dollar plant 10, 11, 15, 138
donkey's ears 150
donkey's tail 158
Dorotheanthus 184
Dorotheanthus bellidiformis 18, 182,
184, 185, 192, 193
Dorotheanthus gramineus 184, 192
Dracaena 24, 26
Dracaena aletriformis 25, 34, 35
Dracaena draco 27, 34, 35
Dracaena fragrans 26, 34
Dracaena transvaalensis 26, 34, 35
Dracaenaceae 24, 26
dragon bones 172
dragon fruit 8
dragon tree 24, 26, 34
dragon tree family 24
dragon's blood tree 34
Drosanthemum 18, 184
Drosanthemum bicolor 183, 185, 194,
195
Drosanthemum candens 194
Drosanthemum collinum 194
Drosanthemum floribundum 194
Drosanthemum hispidum 194, 195
Drosanthemum micans 185, 194, 195
Drosanthemum speciosum 184, 194,
195
Drosanthemum striatum 194, 195
Dudleya 124
Dudleya edulis 142, 143
Dudleya pulverulenta 142
Dudleya virens 142
dune aloe 78
dwarf aloe 72
dwergaalwyn 72
East African aloe 70
Easter cactus 102, 112, 113, 120
Easter lily cactus 110, 111
Echeveria 124, 125, 156
Echeveria agavoides 142, 143, 144, 6
Echeveria 'Black Prince' 146, 147
Echeveria derenbergii 142, 143
Echeveria elegans 142, 143, 144
Echeveria gibbiflora 144
Echeveria gibbiflora var. carunculata 144
Echeveria gibbiflora var. crispata 145
Echeveria gibbiflora var. metallica 144
Echeveria gigantea 144, 145
Echeveria xgilva 144
Echeveria ximbricata 144, 145
Echeveria multicaulis 144
Echeveria pringlei 144, 145
Echeveria pulvinata 146, 147
Echeveria pulvinata 'Ruby' 146
Echeveria secunda 146, 147
Echeveria secunda var. glauca 146
Echeveria secunda var. pumila 146
Echeveria secunda var. secunda 146 ''
Echeveria setosa 146, 147
Echeveria shaviana 146
Echinocactus 100, 176
Echinocactus grusonii 10, 11, 19, 108,
109
Echinofossulocactus multkostatus 120
Echinops multiplex 110
Echinopsis 100
Echinopsis chamaecereus 110, 111
Echinopsis oxygona 110, 111
Echinopsis spachiana 56, 110, 111
edible-stemmed vine 214
erfi/m stahlii 161
elandsvy 190
electrode cactus 112
elephant bush 220
elephant's foot 206, 207
elephant's foot family 206
elephant's foot tree 32
elephant's trunk 30, 52
elkhorn 172
epi's 100, 102, 108
Epiphyllum 100, 100, 102, 108, 120
Epiphyllum anguliger 110, 111
Epiphyllum cultivars 108
Epiphyllum oxypetalum 110
epiphyllums 100, 102, 108
Eragrostis 36
Euphorbia 166, 168
Euphorbia aggregata 176
Euphorbia ammak 172
Euphorbia bupleurifolia 170
Euphorbia caerulescens 169, 170, 171
Euphorbia caput-medusae 170
Euphorbia cooperi 167, 172
Euphorbia curvirama 172
Euphorbia esculenta 169
Euphorbia ferox 172, 176, 177
Euphorbia grandialata 170, 171
Euphorbia grandicornis 170, 171
Euphorbia heptagona 172, 173
Euphorbia horrida 167, 168, 169, 172,
173, 174
Euphorbia ingens 166, 172, 173
Euphorbia lactea 172
Euphorbia kdienii 170, 171
Euphorbia mammilaris 172
Euphorbia mauritanica 167, 174
Euphorbia meloformis 174, 175
Euphorbia milii 174, 175
Euphorbia monteiroi 167
Euphorbia obesa 166, 174, 175
Euphorbia pentagona 172
Euphorbia polygona 168, 172, 174, 175
Euphorbia pulcherrima 166, 167
Euphorbia pulvinata 176, 177
Euphorbia schinzii 167
Euphorbia stellispina 176, 177
Euphorbia tetragona 172
Euphorbia tirucalli 172, 176, 177
Euphorbia triangularis 172, 173
Euphorbia trigona 19, 176, 177
Euphorbia valida 174
Euphorbiaceae 166
fairy crassula 15, 136
fairy elephant's feet 200
falcon feather 80
false agave 26, 36
false cactus 172
false euphorbia 178
fan aloe 65
Faucaria 200
Faucaria tigrina 200, 201
Fenestraria 200
Fenestraria rhopalophylla 200, 201
Ferocactus 102, 176
Ferocactus glaucescens 103, 112
Ferocactus histrix 112, 113
Ferocactus latispinus 103, 112
Ferocactus pilosus 112, 113
finger tree 176
finger vygie 186, 198
fingertips 142
fishbone cactus 110, 111
five-angled cactus euphorbia 172
flaming Katy 150
flopper 150
Fockea 44
Fockea angustifolia 54, 55
Fockea crispa 44, 54, 55
Fockea edulis 54, 55
fragrant dracaena 34
frangipani 46, 62
frilled fan 172
fringed climbing aloe 70
Frithia pulchra 200, 201
Furcraea 26
Furcraea albispina 36
Furcraea bedinghausii 36
Furcraea cabuya 36
Furcraea elegans 36
Furcraea flavoviridis 36
Furcraea foetida 26, 36, 37
Furcraea foetida var. mediopicta 36, 37
Furcraea hexapetala 36
Furcraea longaeva 36
Furcraea macdougalii 36
Furcraea pubescens 36
Furcraea selloa 26, 27, 36, 37
Furcraea selloa 'Marginata' 36
Furcraea stricta 36
Furcraea tuberosa 36
garden aloe 78, 79
garden mesemb 15, 19, 182, 186
garden vygies 18, 186
Gasteria 66
Gasteria acinacifolia 67
Gasteria batesiana 84, 85
Gasteria bicolor 84, 85
Gasteria carinata 84
Gasteria disticha 84
Gasteria excelsa 67, 84, 85
Gasteria excelsa 'Cala' 84
Gasteria excelsa 'Gaika' 84
Gasteria excelsa 'Nqancule' 84
gasterias 66
Gazania krebsiana 92
gazanias 92
Geraniaceae 216
geranium family 216
Geranium species 216
geraniums 216
Gerbera jamesonii 92
gerberas 92
gevlekte aalwyn 76
ghaap 44
ghost plant 148
giant carrion flower 60
giant echeveria 144
giant granadilla 210
giant Mexican cereus 118
giant mountain vygie 198
giant quiver tree 10, 11, 70
giant velvet rose 130
Gibbaeum heathii 183
gingham golf ball 174
Glottiphyllum 183, 200
Glottiphyllum regium 201
golden ball cactus 118, 119
golden barrel cactus 10, 11, 100, 108,
109
golden greenovia 148
golden rat's tail cactus 100
golden stars 114
golden vygie 196
gout plant 178
gouty houseleek 130
granadilla family 210
grape family 214
Graptopetalum 124
Graptopetalum amethystinum 148
Graptopetalum bellum 148, 149
Graptopetalum pachyphyllum 148, 149
Graptopetalum paraguay ense 124, 148,
149
grass aloes 64
green aloe 36
green Mexican rose 144
green-flowered beschorneria 32
Greenovia 124
Greenovia aurea 124, 148
groenaalwyn 70
guavadilla 210
Gymnocalycium 102
Gymnocalycium mihanovichii 102, 112,
113
Gymnocalycium mihanovichii 'Hibotan'
112
Gymnocalycium mihanovichii 'Pink Cap'
112
Gymnocalycium mihanovichii 'Red Cap'
112
Gymnocalycium mihanovichii 'Yellow Cap'
112
Gymnocalycium monvillei 103
hairy-leaf pachypodium 50
halfmens 52
haloed dewflower 194
Hatiora 102
Hatiora xgaertneri 102, 103, 112, 113
Hatiora rosea 120, 121
hat-rack cactus 172
Haworth's garden vygie 196
Haworthia 66, 66
Haworthia attenuata 87
Haworthia attenuata var. attenuata
86
Haworthia cooperi 87
Haworthia cooperi var. dielsiana 86
Haworthia cymbiformis 86, 87
Haworthia glabrata 86, 88
Haworthia maxima 86, 87
Haworthia mutica 67
Haworthia pumila 86
Haworthia reinwardtii 88, 89
Haworthia retusa 88, 89
Haworthia xrigida 88, 89
Haworthia tessellata subsp. tessellata
88
Haworthia tortuosa 88
Haworthia truncata 67, 88, 89
Haworthia viscosa 88, 89
hearts-on-a-string 54
hedera 214
Hedera 96
Hedera helix 214
hedgehog 72
Helianthus annum 92
hen-and-chickens 144, 150
Herero sesame-bush 212
hoary navelwort 132
Hoodia 44
Hoodia flava 56, 57
Hoodia gordonii 17, 56, 57
Hoodia pilifera 43
Hoodia pilifera subsp. annulata 45, 56,
57
Hoodia pilifera subsp. pilifera 56, 57
horse teeth 88
houseleeks 126
Hoya 46
Hoy a carnosa 56, 57
Huernia 46
Huernia hystrix 58, 59
Huernia zebrina 58, 59
huernias 46
hyacinth family 208
Hyacinthaceae 208
Hylocereus species 214
Hylocereus triangularis 99
Hylocereus undatus 8
Hylotelephium 126, 160
Hylotelephium sieboldii 160
Hylotelephium sieboldii var. ettyense 127
Hylotelephium spectabile 160
ice plant 8, 186, 198
ice plant family 182
impala lily 42, 48
Indian fig 116
Indian stonecrop 162
ivy creeper 96
ivy-leaved geranium 216, 217
jackal's food 174
Jacob's ladder 168, 180
jade plant 138
jade tree 138
Japan aloe 8
Japanese ivy 214
Japanese orpine 160
Jatropha 168
Jatropha curcas 168, 169
Jatropha podagrica 168, 178, 179
jellybean plant 160
jewel-leaf plant 148
Jovibarba 124
Jovibarba globifera 124
Jovibarba heuffelii 124, 150
Jovibarba sobolifera 150
Kalahari kambro 54
Kalanchoe 124, 136
Kalanchoe beharensis 150, 151
Kalanchoe blossfeldiana 134, 150, 151
Kalanchoe daigremontiana 150, 151
Kalanchoe delagoensis 150, 151
Kalanchoe fedtschenkoi 152, 153
Kalanchoe flammea 150
Kalanchoe longiflora 152, 153
Kalanchoe luciae 154
Kalanchoe marmorata 152
Kalanchoe pumila 150
Kalanchoe rotundifolia 152, 153
Kalanchoe sexangularis 125, 152, 153
Kalanchoe thyrsiflora 125, 154, 155
Kalanchoe tomentosa 154, 155
Kalanchoe tubiflora 150
Kalanchoe uniflora 154
kalkvygies 202
kambro 44
kanniedood aloe 80
karoo aloe 74
kersbosse 216
Khadi-root family 42
Kleinia 92
Kleinia fulgens 93
Kleinia galpinii 94, 95
Kleinia stapeliiformis 94, 95
klipvygies 184
Kniphofia 64, 65
kobas 214
kougoed 8, 188
krantz aloe 64, 68
krimpsiek 164
krimpsiekte 152
lace aloe 68
Lachenalia 208
Lachenalia contaminata 208, 209
ladies fingers 142
lady finger cactus 114
lamb's tail 132
Lamiaceae 218
Lampranthus 18, 186
Lampranthus amoenus 196, 197
Lampranthus aureus 196, 197
Lampranthus blandus 196
Lampranthus coccineus 196, 197
Lampranthus comptonii 187
Lampranthus coralliflorus 187, 196,
197
Lampranthus deltoides 198
Lampranthus haworthii 196
Lampranthus multiradiatus 196
Lampranthus roseus 15, 196, 197
Lampranthus spectabilis 19, 196
large sour fig 190
large-leaf impala lily 48
Larrea 224
Larrea tridentata 224
Larryleachia marlothii 43
lavender scallops 152
Lenophyllum 124
Lenophyllum pusillum 154
Lenophyllum reflexum 124
Leuchtenbergia principis 99
Limpopo sesame-bush 212
lined aloe 74
lipstick echeveria 142
Lithops 202
Lithops hallii 203
Lithops julii 202
Lithops leslei 202, 203
Lithops olivacea 203
Lithops optica 202
Lithops pseudotruncatella 183
Lithops schwantesii 202
Lithops steineckeana 202
little-pickles 94
live-forever 126, 160
liver plants 202
living baseball 174
living stones 182
Livingstone daisy 18, 182, 184, 192
lobster claws 104, 120
lobster flower 18, 19, 218
lobster's claw 102
Lophophora williamsii 8, 9
Madagascar bottle tree 50
maiden quiver tree 70
Malephora 186
Malephora crocea 186, 187, 198, 199
malvas 216
Mammillaria 102
Mammillaria bocasana 103, 114
Mammillaria camptotrica 103
Mammillaria elongata 114, 115
Mammillaria geminispina 114
Mammillaria gracilis 114, 115
Mammillaria magnimamma 114, 115
many-angled cactus euphorbia 174
Mauritius hemp 26, 36
mauve garden vygie 196
maypop 210
Medusa's head 170
melkbos 174
melon spurge 174
mescal 30
mesemb family 182
Mesembryanthemaceae 182, 224
Mesembryanthemum 186
Mesembryanthemum crystallinum 8,
186, 198, 199
mesembs 182
Mexican fence cactus 118
Mexican firecracker 146
Mexican giant 118
Mexican hens 146
Mexican lily 32
Mexican snow ball 142
milk barrel 172
milkweed family 166
miniature mesembs 182, 200
miniature palm tree 170
miniature pine tree 140
mint family 218
mission lettuce 142
mistletoe cactus 118
molded wax agave 142
Monadenium 168
Monadenium cannellii 178
Monadenium coccineum 178
Monadenium echinulatum 178
Monadenium elegans 178
Monadenium invenustum 178
Monadenium laeve 178
Monadenium lugardiae 168, 169, 178,
179
Monadenium magnificum 178
Monadenium rhizophorum 178
Monadenium richiei 178
Monadenium rubellum 178
Monadenium schubei 178
Monadenium spectabile 178
Monadenium spinescens 178
Monadenium stapelioides 178
Monadenium stoloniferum 178
Monadenium torrei 178
Monanthes 124
Monanthes laxiflora 124, 156, 157
Monanthes polyphylla 124, 125
monk's hood 106, 107
moonstones 156
moss cypress 136
moss rose 220
mother of pearl plant 148
mother-in-law's cushion 108
mother-in-law's tongue 38
mottled spurge 172
mountain aloe 64, 74, 76
mountain kambro 54
mountain vygies 198
Myrtillocactus 104
Myrtillocactus cochal 105, 114
Myrtillocactus geometrizans 114, 115
myrtle cacti 104
myrtle cactus 114, 115
naboom 172
Namaqualand pachypodium 52
narrow-leaf century plant 30
Natal aloes 76
navelwort 126, 164
necklace vine 138
nenta 152
night blooming cactus 102, 110
night blooming cereus 100
nipple cactus 102, 114
Nolina 26, 32
Nolina recurvata 32
Nolinaceae 26
noors 170
Nopalxochia 100
Nopalxochia ackermannii 100, 108
Notocactus leninghausii 118
old man cactus 106, 107
old man of Mexico 106
Oleander family 42
onion aloe 82
Opuntia 8, 9, 104
Opuntia ficus-indica 8, 16, 116, 117
Opuntia imbricata 116, 117
Opuntia macrocentra 117
Opuntia microdasys 105, 116, 117
Opuntia robusta 15, 99
Opuntia stricta 116, 117
orange garden vygie 196
Orbea 46
Orbea lutea subsp. lutea 58, 59
Orbea variegata 58, 59
orbeas 46
Orbeopsis 46
Orbeopsis lutea 58
orchid cactus 100, 102, 104, 108, 109,
120
organ pipes 104
organ-pipe cactus 118
Ornithogalum 208
Orostachys 126
orpine 160
Oscularia 186
Oscularia deltoides 186, 198, 199
Osteospermum jucundum 93
Othonna 92
Othonna amplexicaulis 94
Othonna amplexifolia 94
Othonna arborescens 94
Othonna capensis 94, 95
Othonna carnosa 94
Othonna cherifolia 94
Othonna cylindrica 94
Othonna fitrcata 94
Othonna lyrata 93
Othonna retrofracta 93, 94
Othonna triplinervia 94
omzuwo 48
Pachycereus 104
Pachycereus marginatus 105, 118, 119
Pachycereus pringlei 118, 119
Pachyphytum 126
Pachyphytitm aduncum 127
Pachyphytum glutinicaule 126, 156,
157
Pachyphytum hookeri 127
Pachyphytum oviferum 126, 156, 157
Pachypodium 42, 44
P achy podium geayii 50, 51
Pachypodium lamerei 50, 51
Pachypodium namaquanum 45, 52, 53
Pachypodium saundersiae 52, 53
pachypodiums 44
paddle plant 154
pagoda tree 62
painted lady 142
palm-lily 40
panda plant 154
Pflrorf/fl 104
Parodia herteri 105
Parodia leninghausii 118, 119
Parodia magnifica 99
Parry's century plant 30
Parthenocissus quinquefolia 214
partridge-breasted aloe 80
Passiflora 210
Passiflora caerulea 210
Passi flora coccinea 210
Passiflora edulis 210
Passiflora incarnata 210
Passiflora ligularis 210
Passiflora mollissima 210
Passiflora quadrangularis 210
Passifloraceae 210
passion flower family 210
peanut cactus 110
Pedaliaceae 212
Pedilanthus 168
Pedilanthus tithymaloides 168, 178,
180, 181
Pelargonium 216
Pelargonium peltatum 216, 217
Pelargonium zonule 216
pench tree 176
penny pies 126
pennywort 164
penwiper plant 152
Pereskia 99
Periplocaceae 42
pers brakvygie 188
peyote cactus 8, 9
physic nut 168
pig's ears 132
pigface 184
pincushion euphorbia 172, 176
pineapples 28
pink buttons 138
pink dewflower 194
pink garden vygie 196
pink impala lily 48
pinnas 28
pinwheel 130
pitaya 8
plaid cactus 112
plakkie 132, 224
plakkie family 122
Plectranthus ecklonii 218
Plectranthus fruticosus 218
Plectranthus madagascariensis 218,
219
Plectranthus neochilus 18, 19, 218, 219
Plectranthus saccatus 218
Plectranthus verticillatus 218
Pleiospilos 202
Pleiospilos bolusii 202, 203
Pleiospilos nelii 202
Pleiospilos simulans 202
plover eggs 128
Plumeria 46
Plumeria alba 46, 47, 62, 63
Plumeria rubra 46, 62, 63
Plumerioideae 46, 62
plush plant 146
Poellnitzia rubriflora 82
poinsettia 166
ponytail 32
ponytail palm 26, 32
poor man's lavender 218
porcupine barrel cactus 112
pork and beans 160
pork bush 220
porseleinbos 194
portulaca 220
Portulaca 220
portulaca family 220
Portulaca grandiflora 220, 221
Portulaca oleracea 220
Portulacaceae 220
Portulacaria 220
Portulacaria afra 220, 221
Portulacaria afra Tricolor' 220
Portulacaria afra 'Variegata' 220
Portulacaria afra var. foliis-variegata 220
Portulacaria afra var. macrophylla 220
Portulacaria afra var. microphylla 220
powder puff cactus 114
prickly pear 8, 9, 104, 116
prickly rock mesemb 192
Pringle's echeveria 144
Proboscidea louisianica 212
propeller plant 138
Psilocaulon junceum 8
Pterodiscus 212
Pterodiscus speciosus 212, 213
pulque 8
purging nut 168
purple aptenia 188
purple carrion flower 60
purple dewflower 194
purple garden vygie 196
purple ghaap 56
purple mountain vygie 198
purple pigface 190
purple sour fig 190
purple vygies 186
purple-leaved fairy crassula 140
purslane 220
Quaqua incarnata var. lutea 43
queen agave 10, 11, 30
queen of the night 100, 106, 110
quiver tree 70
rabbit-ears 116
ram's horn 212
ramenas 74
rankaalwyn 70
rankmalva 216
rat's tail cactus 100, 108, 109
rattlesnake crassula 136
red aptenia 188
red cap 112
red carrion flower 60
red Christmas cactus 108, 109
red frangipani 62
red garden vygie 196
red hot pokers 64
red passion flower 210
red-spined barrel cactus 112
rhinoceros grass 38
Rhipsalis 104
Rhipsalis baccifera subsp. mauritiana
118, 119
Rhodiola 126
Rhodiola rosea 127
ribbed cacti 104
Ripsalidopsis xgaertneri 112
Rochea coccinea 134
rock flower 134
rock mesembs 184
roof houseleek 162
rooi brakvygie 188
rooiwortel 90
rope cactus 104, 118
rosary vine 54, 138
rose garden vygie 196
roseroot 126
Rosularia 126
Rosularia chrysantha 126, 156, 157
Rosularia pilosa 126
Rosularia sedoides 126
Rosularia sempervivoides 126
Rosularia sempervivum 156
rubber euphorbia 176
Ruschia 186
Ruschia caroli 198, 199
Ruschia intrusa 183
Ruschia maxima 198, 199
saguaro 12
sandkambro 212
sandstone vy^z'e 186, 198
Sansevieria 24, 26
Sansevieria aethiopica 38, 39
Sansevieria hyacinthoides 38, 39
Sansevieria pearsonii 27, 38, 39
Sansevieria trifasciata 26, 27, 38, 39
Sansevieria trifasciata 'Laurentii' 38
Sarcocaulon 216
Sarcocaulon crassicaule 216, 217
Sarcostemma 46
Sarcostemma viminale 47, 60
Sceletium 188
Sceletium tortuosum 8
Schlumbergera 102, 104, 112
Schlumbergera xbuckleyi 102, 120, 121
Schlumbergera russelliana 120
Schlumbergera truncata 104, 120, 121
sea fig 190
sea urchin cactus 110
Sedum 126
Sedum acre 126, 158, 159
Serfrw; 'Little Gem' 127
Sedum morganianum 158, 159
Sedum nussbaumerianum 158, 159
Sedum obtusatum 127
Sedum pachyphyllum 158, 159
Sedum prealtum 158, 159
Sedum roseum 126, 127
Sedum xrubrotinctum 160, 161
Sedum sieboldii 160, 161
Sedum sieboldii var. ettyense 127
Sedum spectabile 160, 161
Sedum stahlii 160
Sedum telephium 160, 161
Sedum telephium 'Autumn Joy' 160, 161
Sedum telephium 'Herbstfreude' 160
Sedum treleasii 127
Sempervivum 124, 126, 146, 150
Sempervivum arachnoideum 162, 163
Sempervivum calcareum 162, 163
Sempervivum tectorum 162, 163
Senecio 92
Senecio articulatus 96, 97
Senecio barbertonicus 96, 97
Senecio elegans 93
Senecio ficoides 93, 96, 97
Senecio macroglossus 96, 97
Senecio rowleyanus 92, 96, 97
Senecio tamoides 96, 97
sesame family 212
sesame plant 212
sesame-bushes 212
Sesamothamnus 212
Sesamothamnus guerichii 212
Sesamothamnus lugardii 212
Sesamum indicum 212
shoe-lace plant 136
short-leaf aloe 68
showy dewflower 184, 194
silver crown 132
silver dollar 134
silver jade plant 134
silver ruffles 132
silver torch cacti 100
Sinocrassula 126
Sinocrassula indica 162
Sinocrassula yunnanensis 126, 162
sisal 25, 28, 29
sisal family 24
skewer plant 138
smooth-leaf pachypodium 50
snake plant 38, 170
snake vines 210
sour fig 8, 9, 184, 190
sour noors 170
Spanish bayonet 40
Spanish dagger 26, 40
spear plant 38
speckled aloe 76