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Anatomy of South Africa. Who holds the power?

Anatomy of South Africa. Who holds the power?

A vivid, up-to-date picture of how power works in the new South Africa and who really makes the decisions around here

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Author: Richard Calland
Publisher: Zebra Press
Cape Town, 2006
ISBN: 978-1-86872-903-6
Paperback, 15x23 cm, 304 pages


Politics in South Africa is alive and vibrantly so, although the media often fail to reflect this. This book’s main aim is to bring that political world to life. It presents a vivid, up-to-date picture of how power works in the new South Africa and who really makes the decisions around here.

It is people who make politics, and this is a book about personalities as well as the institutions they belong to. Discussing topics such as the presidency, the cabinet and the directors-general, the opposition parties, the parliamentary committees and the ANC alliance partners, Calland takes the reader along the corridors of power, mixing vivid anecdote with solid research.

The result is an accessible yet authoritative account of who runs South Africa, and how, today. The title is borrowed from Anthony Sampson’s seminal work about who ran Britain, Anatomy of Britain, which was first published in the early 1960s. Like Sampson before him, Richard Calland has a fly-on-the-wall, insider’s approach to the people who control the power that affects us all.

• Who are the most influential men and women in South Africa today?
• What actually goes on at high-levelgovernment meetings?
• Who does the president really listen to?
• How influential are spin doctors and the media?
• Just how political are the judges?
• Is big business still running the show?
• Is the ANC in control of government, or is the government in control of the ANC?
• How has the Zuma affair affected the tripartite alliance?
• Who are the front-runners in the race to be the next president of South Africa?

Answering these questions, and many others, Anatomy of South Africa dissects the body politic and exposes it as you’ve never seen it before.

About the Author:

Richard Calland is one of the country’s most incisive and independent political analysts, having led Idasa’s governance-monitoring and transparency campaigns for over a decade. He is also executive director of the Open Democracy Advice Centre, which he founded in 2000, the year in which the Financial Mail described him as the best-known lobbyist in parliament.

A regular commentator in the press and on TV and radio, his column, ‘Contretemps’, in the Mail & Guardian is highly regarded for its original take on politics, based on an extensive range of contacts built up carefully over the years – a reservoir of inside knowledge from which he draws extensively in Anatomy of South Africa. Earlier publications include Thabo Mbeki’s World: The Politics and Ideology of the South African President, which was hailed by the Sowetan as a tour de force.

Media Reviews:

Financial Mail (Richard Steyn)
„A fair-minded and illuminating study.“

Saturday Dispatch (Barbara Manning)
„It is even more highly deserving of its Publishers’ Choice status. Don’t be fooled by the outwardly dry political subject matter - this makes for fascinating reading and once started, I couldn’t put it down. Highly recommended.“


Cracking the Mbeki Code
Inside South Africa’s West Wing
All the President’s Men and Women
Loyal Mandarins?
The Good, the Bad and the Simply Irrelevant
Heart of the Body Politic
Fatal Attraction?
Blind Leading the Blind
More Spinned Against than Spinning?
Politics on the Bench
Touching a Raw Nerve
Money and Power: The New Establishment
APPENDIX A: The Cabinet
APPENDIX B: The Constitutional Court


The title of this book is either stolen or borrowed, depending on your viewpoint, from Anthony Sampson’s seminal book on who ran Britain, Anatomy of Britain. First published in the early 1960s, it was revitalized in May 2004 as Who Runs this Place? The Anatomy of Britain in the 21st Century. Given that Sampson was Nelson Mandela’s biographer and had deep links with this country, perhaps he would not have minded. Sadly, Sampson died in December 2004.

In Anatomy of South Africa, I try to present a vivid, up-to-date picture of who runs South Africa in the second decade of democracy - much like Sampson did with Britain. With the first twelve years of democracy safely under its belt, it is a good moment to reflect on how democracy has changed the face of power and power relations. Or has it? One of the core themes of the book is to examine whether democracy has, in fact, made such a profound difference. In each chapter I try to trace not only the changing power, but also the changing people.

People make politics; institutions are made by the people who inhabit them, something we are all prone to forget. So, this is a book about people, and I have not hesitated to depict individuals as I see them, set against the organizations they work within, and with all the wonderful contradictions that human nature conjures up.

This is an extraordinary country that has beguiled and bewitched me since I first set foot in it. The colours of the Rainbow Nation remain vivid and the stories are many. Despite the media’s failure to capture the vibrant essence and energy of politics in South Africa, it is alive, and luminously so. My main aim with this book, therefore, is to bring that political world to life through a set of mini-narratives. I make no apology for my fly-on-the-wall approach.

Like Sampson before me, ‘I offer myself as an informal guide to a living museum, describing the rooms and the exhibits as I found them, giving basic hard facts and frequent quotations from others, but not hesitating to add my own comments.’

In this, I do want to make one thing very clear: while there are short-comings to the book, which I willingly concede below, it should not be judged as a history book. Its point is not to provide an academically accurate account of what happened; it does not seek to provide a comprehensive analysis of any one or other important event or set of events. Rather, it dips in and out of the trail of events that together comprise the political story of a society in order to serve the primary purpose - namely, to elucidate the way in which power operates in the new South Africa.

Moreover, because it seeks to provide a contemporaneous ‘X-ray’ of power relations at the point at which I signed off on the edited manuscript (July 2006), it is also a hostage to fortune: new events may intercede and change things, perhaps dramatically - not least in relation to Jacob Zuma - and/or people may leave their jobs and move on to new ones.

Even the biggest events, however, are unlikely to seriously undermine the rationale of the book - more than anything, if it is successful, it will be because it provides readers with the tools to assess the nature of political power in South Africa for themselves in the future. In this sense, it is less of a map and more of a compass.

Like Sampson, I too have concentrated on the basic anatomy of power: the brain, the bones and the bloodstream. There are, therefore, omissions. Others can correct them; I would welcome that. This is just one X-ray. Different equipment focused from different angles may provide a different physiology. In particular, I have not tried to capture every part of the politi-cal system. While I focus on the national executive, there is little discussion of the other two spheres of government - provincial and local - except in passing. A future volume would need to remedy this by covering both properly.

Further, the so-called quangos - the quasi-autonomous non-governmental organs of state, such as the Human Rights Commission or the Financial and Fiscal Commission - deserve a full chapter, but are allotted none. Instead, the Introduction provides an overview of the governance system and the main institutions that it comprises.

It sketches rather than analyses a range of institutions whose influence - except perhaps in the case of the National Economic Development and Labour Council (NEDLAC) - does not quite match their constitutional importance. In a future volume or edition, the armed services, the parastatals and the Reserve Bank would all merit proper attention, as would the National Intelligence Agency - and I regret not including a chapter on the NIA, because the spooks continue to interfere with the ‘normal’ operation of power in South Africa, exerting significant influence.

Nor does this book attempt to go much beyond public power, unlike Sampson’s works. Although my Conclusion focuses on the compelling and, as I term it, congealing embrace between public and private power, time constraints have prevented me from giving the corporate world the separate chapter it requires. Other segments of society that are both interesting and important are omitted in this volume: the Churches (except for a brief reference in the chapter on civil society), culture and sport, which plays such a prominent part in South Africa’s psyche, the professions and the universities. Like the quangos, they must wait until next time.

Last in this litany of concessions, I must note that there are constraints that arise from my own background and class. For example, I speak only one language: English. So, in Chapter 8, when I discuss the most influential radio interviewers, I am speaking mainly of my own experiences and making my own assessment. Because I don’t speak isiZulu or isiXhosa, for example, I have not been able to assess interviewers on radio stations that specialize in those languages.

That is one of the problems of such a socially diverse nation, a challenge that Sampson was largely spared with his subject, Britain. I also wanted to make this book a distinctly personal account. Because I have been working in and around politics in South Africa for over ten years, I felt justified in bringing my own experiences and opinions to bear. I hope this approach also helps to personalize and humanize the narrative. At times there is an element of autobiography. I suppose there were certain experiences I wanted to get off my chest; I hope this is neither too self-indulgent nor too intrusive to the reader.

In my determination to bring South African politics vividly to life, I have sought to emphasize its personal, human side, probably at the expense of hard, dry, empirical analysis. Hence, I have limited citations and academic references to a bare minimum so as not to clutter the narrative; in a couple of places I have drawn from my own columns in the Mail & Guardian. A future edition, should there be one, will need to redress this imbalance.

I hope critics will take account of my central purpose when they assess the book’s merit: to provide an accessible keyhole into the working life of politics and the politicians - in the broad meaning of the term - who operate the wheels of power. Personalizing politics is a fairly precarious exercise, and so there are certain risks involved in my approach, especially those places where I have taken a little dramatic licence - again, the purpose is to bring things to life and not to paint an inaccurate picture of some-one or something. In any case, a mark of a strong democracy is its capacity to accept parody and to construct satire.

South Africa does tend to take itself a little too seriously - especially those with power and in power. Hence, if there is more than a touch of irreverence in my observations, I make no apology, but nor do I mean to offend. The ‘fantasy left cabinet’, presented at the end of Chapter 6, is offered in this, more playful, spirit. I greatly respect this country of which I am now a citizen, as well as its people, including - and often especially - those working in the public domain.

One of the more obvious conclusions that I reach is that the African National Congress (ANC) is the key political entity in the country. I was a member of the ANC for a while and worked for the party’s campaign in the Western Cape when I first came to South Africa in early 1994. But I resigned when I joined the Institute for Democracy in South Africa (Idasa) in March 1995, as my role there was to build a specialist parliamentary monitoring capability, and it was therefore essential that I be seen to be impartial, which I have earnestly sought to be.

Therefore, when it comes to the ANC, while I have many good friends in the organization, I am essentially an outsider looking in, with all the attendant advantages and disadvantages of such independence. Those who are ‘on the inside’ will obviously have a much clearer view of how the organization works, but if further light is shed upon this critical organization in response to my account, then so much the better. I realize that, inevitably, some mistakes will be made, and I will be grateful for any corrections from readers that can be incorporated into a later edition.

It is notable that not a single ‘insider’ account of democratic government has emerged since 1994. Unlike Britain, say, where former cabinet ministers and advisors rush to publish as soon as they leave Westminster or Whitehall, there has been no such clamour for self-publicity here. That may be a mark of the greater dignity of politics in South Africa; regrettably, British politics is so media-driven that the urge to expose tends to eclipse the no less important need to respect the confidentiality of government.

I say this not in defence of illegitimate secrecy - on the contrary, I am a strong advocate for government transparency - but because the consequences of such published ‘revelations’ tend to reduce trust within government and, at times, to drive it ‘underground’ for fear that open communication within government will be revealed to the public.

What I am looking for in South Africa is the publication of a sort of grand historical work, such as the British Labour politician Dick Crossman’s famous diaries, or Tony Benn’s three-volume autobiographical studies of life in politics and government in the 1970s and i98os. I would have hoped and expected a Pallo Jordan or Kader Asmal to have contemplated and delivered such a work by now (perhaps they soon will).

The consequence is that very little is really known about how politics, and government in particular, works in practice. Without such accounts, it is hard for ordinary citizens to understand what is going on. The absence of knowledge in the end represents a shortcoming in the democracy as a whole; in darkness, rumours prosper, and sinister and often unflattering accounts of power predominate. This book is an attempt to shed some light and to help allay such perceptions.

Like Sampson’s last version of Anatomy (his 2004 volume), this book is written ‘with urgency’. I share the angst of British human rights lawyer Helena Kennedy when she writes in the Preface to her book, Just Law: ‘Whenever I was studying for exams I used to find myself saying, "Dammit, if only I had more time." I feel that about this book.’

My book is about people with power at a time when power is definitely changing hands as a part of South Africa’s ongoing transformation as a society. It does not deal with people who do not have formal political power - the so-called ‘ordinary people’. Indeed, the principal question for us all is this: Having won the vote in 1994, do the people have power and do they govern?

Regrettably, despite the dramatic change of 1994, the great majority of South Africans remain marginalized from real power and excluded from full participation in society due to chronic unemployment and poverty. Thus, I say, all the more reason to understand better who does control the power that washes over and around them.

I want to thank and acknowledge a number of people: first of all, my brilliant wife Gaye Davis, and my two charming, witty children, Jack and India Jane, whose company I enjoy as much as I love them. I wrote the first draft of this book in 2004 while continuing to honour all my other work commitments; I was only able to summon the necessary time and focus to complete the final draft by taking a sabbatical in Cambridge in late 2005 and early 2006 (accordingly, I would also like to thank Jean September of the British Council: Southern Africa for helping to make the sabbatical possible, as well as the Lauterpacht Research Centre for International Law and Robinson College, Cambridge University, and John and Saskia Barker of each Cambridge institution, respectively).

Even though it thus meant sacrificing precious time with my family, they were understanding and very supportive. When I first met her, Gaye was a leading political journalist, and one of the best; despite her sojourn into ‘talk radio’, there is still no one I know with a better instinctive feel for politics in this country. She provided the initial guidance through the minefield of South African politics, and I would not have made it through without her.

Second, I wish to acknowledge all the people who lent me their valuable time so that I could pick their brains about the issues I cover in the book. All of them are busy and important people, including several past and present members of the cabinet. Almost all spoke to me on a background basis for ease of discussion, applying ‘Chatham House’ rules, which meant that I had to go back to them to secure their agreement to use the quotes that I attribute to individuals. Except where I have provided a specific reference, the source of the comments attributed to any individual is my interview with them.

Towards the end of the book I express my optimistic assessment that those in power are becoming more open in their attitudes and more comfortable with their power, as greater security in tenure is found. That is a very good development, if it is true (although it was an outlook that was being shaken by the waves of division and paranoia that washed around the succession battle as this book went to print). People in politics tend to be very cautious and somewhat nervous about what they say publicly.

Though it is easy for me to say, I think perhaps they are too cautious and fearful. Skins are thicker than they may think; the debate can afford to be more robust. I hope I am right about this, and that no one suffers any sort of reprisal as a result of this book. If there were real justification for tearfulness, then that would be a very bad sign indeed.

Third, I must thank Zebra Press for wanting to publish a book about politics, and specifically Steve Connolly, Marlene Fryer, Robert Plummer and the book’s excellent editor, Ronel Richter-Herbert (and, in passing, thanks too to my old mate Dan Ford, now founder of the Two Dogs publishing label for facilitating at Steve’s behest my first meeting with him in my favourite local, the Fireman’s Arms, in January 2003).

Showing considerable vision, they have seen that there is a market for accessible books about public life. The fact that so few people buy books in this country is an outrage. For me, it is not the illiteracy statistics that are so alarming - horrifyingly high though they are - it is the literacy figures: if 4000 represents a ‘good’ sales figure for a book, then there is something seriously wrong.

The ‘affluent masses’ - a wonderful phrase I heard on the radio recently - don’t buy books. They don’t read! I suspect that this poverty of the mind is as much a danger to democracy in South Africa as the abject material deprivation that afflicts around a third of the population.

Fourth, certain friends and colleagues deserve specific mention. Researcher Jonathan Faull and his manager at Idasa’s Political Information and Monitoring Service (PIMS), Judith February, kindly agreed to tailor certain research conducted by Jonathan on parliament, and the cabinet in particular, in such a way that it was directly useful for this book. Jonathan, one of the country’s most astute young analysts, provided valuable, incisive commentary on the first draft.

My dear colleague Judith was also very helpful in reviewing the chapter on the judges. Also, another excellent PIMS researcher, Ralph Mathekga, enthusiastically and skilfully filled the gaps that needed filling as the final deadlines loomed. My researcher, Catherine Musuva. also helped with final research queries, along with Andrew Schalkwyk, as did Bianca Valentine, Joe Fine and Helen Watkinson with much earlier ones. My thanks also to Professor Harry Boyte and my British friends, Dr Fernanda Pirie of Oxford University, and Jonathan Oates.

My superb personal assistant, Use Toerien, carefully stored chapter drafts in her sub-file marked ‘Richard the Author’, organised appointments and the checking of quotes by interviewees - and persuasively reassured them that their refinements would be heeded - and generally held the world at bay. I would not cope without her.

My sincere thanks and acknowledgements therefore go to my principal employers, Idasa, and my current boss, our executive director Paul Graham, whose wisdom and skill as a leader are evidenced at least partly by giving me a sufficiently long leash to enable me to pursue projects such as this one! His and Idasa’s trust in me is something I am profoundly grateful for. Coming to work for Idasa in 1995 changed my life completely and has provided me with the greatest opportunity that anyone could wish for. For all that its detractors may have to say, Idasa is an extraordinary organization doing extraordinarily varied work across the continent of Africa, with many extraordinary staff members - it is a privilege to work with them.

I would also like to thank my great friends Lawson Naidoo, Sahra Ryklief and Ebrahim Fakir, as well as Sean Jacobs, not just for reading and comment- ing on either the whole draft manuscript or certain chapters, but for the significant guidance they have provided in relation to the pitfalls of South African politics over the years. And thank you to Ronald Segal for his words of wisdom and encouragement over the years, especially when I first decided to come to South Africa.

Six of my most significant interviewees also kindly gave me even more of their valuable time and read and commented on certain chapters. They know who they are, but it is probably best that they remain nameless lest they are unfairly associated with the shortcomings of the book, which are entirely my own responsibility.

Finally, while I remain an outsider here, I have very rarely been made to feel like one. People are incredibly warm and generally very kind. In fact, I feel far more at home here than in Britain; in an uncomplicated way, I feel far freer. Before I came to South Africa in early 1994, I was a barrister in London, with a growing yet strangely unsatisfying practice in human rights law, and an even more frustrating experience as an active member of the Labour Party. The intellectual corruption of the British legal system, a microcosm of the suffocating constraints of the deep-rooted class ruts of wider society, was beginning to suck me in. The shades of grey were oppressive. Though it is painful to miss my parents and oldest friends, I have never once regretted moving to South Africa. I have learnt so much, and my life is far richer.

Hence, this book is dedicated simply, and with humility, to the people of South Africa. I can never repay my debt to them and to this country, but if this book makes even the slightest contribution to a collective understanding of democratic politics and to enhancing people’s participation in public life as active citizens, then I would be very glad indeed.


Aboobaker, Goolam 27, 35-8,
Accelerated and Shared
Growth Initiative of
South Africa (ASGISA)
53,150, 295
ACDP 102,227,266
Achmat, Zackie 125, i6i, 201,
250,251, 259,269, 272
Ackerman, Justice Laurie 235
ministerial 9, 63-7, 69, 270
presidential 8, 27-35,41,
Advocates for Transform-
ation (AFT) 242
Africa Legends Energy 99
African Muslim Party 170
African National Congress
see ANC
African Renaissance 20, 33,
African Union (AU) 287
Algoa Sun 203
alliance see tripartite alliance
Allied Electronics Group
(Altron) 198-9
Ambrosini, Mario 182
AM Live 196,199-200
Amnesty International 252
ANC 10,12, l8,51-2, 66-7, 8l,
115-32, 271-3
and civil society 246-9,
formal structures 118-24
and judiciary 206,210,
218-23, 226-8,231
and Mbeki 16-17, 20-21,
40, 117, 120-21, 123, 125,
127-9,192, 274
modernization 125-32
and opposition parties
176-8, l8o-8i, 183-5
and parliament 87-8,
and tripartite alliance
lo-ll, 140-41,143,144-6,
I49-51, V^’S, 270
ANC Women’s League 70,
123,282, 287, 288,289,
ANC Youth League 123,126,
261, 263, 294
Andisa 98
Andrew, Ken 165
Anglo American 40,51, W,
AngloGold 269
Anti-Eviction Campaign 247
anti-globalization protests
Anti-Privatization Forum
(APF) 247,248,249
Anti-Terrorism Bill 112,133,
apartheid i, 7,10, 23, 68,73,
77, 89, 92,126, r?1, y6,
165,192, 223-4, 244-5,
249,259,268,272, 278-9,
arms deal 4,12, 97, ^-S, 107,
109, ll3, "7, y?0! I77, ^o,
Asmal, Kader 31,43, 44, 47,
54, 55, 59-6o, 90,122,126,
183,i88,193, 282,285
Auditor-General 105, lo6
Azanian Student Convention
(AZASCO) 283
AZAPO 32, 71,183,184, 296
Bagehot, Walter 62
Balfour, Ngconde 283-4
Barn, Dr Brigalia 265-6
Baqwa, Selby 12
Barak, Ehud 175
Barrell, Howard 117-18,194,
197, 20l
basic income grant (BIG) 4-5,
Battersby.John 195
Beeld 203
Bell, Brian 108
Belot, Sakhiwo 99
Bengu, Sibusiso i88
Beukman, Francois 108
Bhe case 241
Bhengu,G 108
Biko, Steve 253
Bill of Rights 62,138,224,
229,232-3, 240
Billiton 269
Bizos, George 217, 220, 237
Black Consciousness 27, 276,
283,287, 292,296
Black Consciousness
Movement of Azania
(BCMA) 296
black economic empower-
ment (BEE) 34, 99,199,
263,264, 265
Black Sash Trust 4
Blair, Tony 19, 43, 44,125,129,
Blaustein, Mr 182
Blue IQ initiative 286
Bodibe, Oupa 135
Boeremag 252
Boesak, Allan 30
Bond, Patrick 16, 247
Botha, PW 23, io8
Boyle, Brendan 196
BP 49
Brey, Afzal 65
British Aerospace (BAE) 105
Brown, Karima 196
Bruce, Nigel io8
Brutus, Dennis 247
Bua Komanisi 149,263-5
Budlender, Geoff 235
Burdett, Sally 199-200
Burger, Die 196,203
business n,61-2,261-5,270,
Business Day 194,196,200,
201, 202, 203
Business Report 203
Buthelezi, Mangosuthu 44,
70, 87, l66,179-82, 266,
cabinet 43-(‘2, 86, 212, 269
authority and role 46-8,
clusters 36,37,44,47,54,
gender and ethnic
composition 44-6
members of 281-99
see also Treasury
CaltexSA 99
Cambridge University 104
Camerer, Sheila 104, io8,171,
2i7, 255
Cameron, Justice Edwin 198,
Campbell, Alastair 19
Capa, Rosemary 100
Cape Argus 203
Cape Talk 199
Cape Times 19,119,189, 203
Carrim, Yunus 10,114, i6o-6i
Carter, Jimmy 201
Carter Center 201
Cashdan, Ben 198-9,246
Castro, Fidel 143
Caxton 203
Centre for Civil Society (CCS)
Centre for Policy Studies 201
‘Chapter 9’ institutions 106,
Chaskalson, Justice Arthur
207,225, 230,232,234,
237,239, 240,242, 304
Chavez, Hugo 29
Chemical, Energy, Paper,
Printing, Wood and
Allied Workers Union
Chiba, Laloo 107,109
chiefwhip 109-10
Chikane, Frank 15, 27,28,119,
Chiluba, Frederick 275
Chohan, Fatima 104,114
CIA ll7
Citizen 203
City Press 194,196,198,199,
civil society n, 243-60,
270-71, 272, 279
see also new social
movements; TAC
Clelland-Stokes, Nick io8,
169, i7i, 193
Clinton, Bill 33,175
Coca-Cola 265,266-7
Cockrell, Alfred 230
CODESA 2, l4i, 289, 292, 302
Coetzee.JM 22
Coetzee, Ryan 166-8,169,170,
Coleman, Neil 4,133,134-5,
137, l41,144, y2-?, l6o
Columbia University 58
committee system 88-94,
see also justice committee;
Commonwealth Heads of
Government 20-21
Communication Workers
Union (CWU) 142
Congress of South African
Trade Unions see
Consolidated Mining
Management Services
Constitution 7-8, n, 46,53,
62, 8o,88-9,9i-2, 94, ^i
2l6, 2l8, 220, 224-5, 227,
Interim Constitution 73,
184,217, 224, 225,239,
Constitutional Assembly 8o,
Constitutional Court 8,
105-6,137, 208, 209,210,
213-15, 2l6, 217, 2l8, 220,
221-35, 238-42, 250-51,
270, 272, 273, 279
future of 238-42
members of 241, 301-10
political disposition 221-4
political power 224-32
and socio-economic justice
see also judiciary
Coordination and
Implementation Unit
(CIU) 24,35
COSATU 4, lo-n, 33, 40,47,
6l, 112, 121-2, 124, 132,
152-3, l54-6l, 248, 249,
Cronin, Jeremy 58,125,126,
Cronje, Hansie 216
Crystal, Russell 169
CTP Publishers 203
DA 4, 31, i02,104, lo8,153,
Dada, Dr Yasmin 37
Daily Dispatch 203,295
Daily News 203
Daily Star 164
Daily Sun 195, 202, 203
Daily Telegraph 164
Daily Voice 203
Da Silva, President Lula 143-4
Davidson, lan 108
Davies, Rob 101,160
Davis, Dennis 218, 223
De Beers 34,28i
De Klerk, FW 23, 87
De Lange, Johnny 9, 31, 85-6,
89-91, 92, 93-4,95,101,
i02,104, li3, ii4, r^, 168,
207,208,237, 254-6,291
De Lille, Patricia 175-8,183,
Delmas Treason Trial 284,
Deloitte & Touche SA 98
Delport, Tertius 108
Democratic Alliance see DA
Democratic Nursing
Organization of South
Africa (DENOSA) 142
Democratic Party (DP) 88,
173,183, 225-6
Denel 99
department of finance see
department of public service
and administration
(DPSA) 12,23,24,25,
6o-6i, 67, 69,74,77,79,
departments see cabinet,
public service, National
deputy president, role of
Desai, Ashwin 247
Dexter, Phillip 4,13,146, i6o
see also DA
Didiza, Thoko 44, 6i, 122,
126, l6l,276,28i, 294-5
Dingani, Zingile 98
Dipico, Manne 34, 61, ill,
Dirceu.Jose 143
Directorate of Public
Prosecutions no
directors-general 9, 54, 64,
see also public service
Direko,Redi 198
Disraeli, Benjamin 276
DIamini-Zuma, Nkosazana
35,44,53,54,74, 276
Dludlu,John 195
Docrat, Old Man (AK) 248
Doidge, Geoff no
Dor, George 247
DP Youth 166
Du Plessis, Justice 234
Durban Institute for
Technology 247
Dyasopu, Macvicar 142
Ebrahim, Ebrahim 99
Economist, The 194
Eglin, Colin 165
Egoli 2000 157
Ehrenreich, Tony i6o
election results 173
Electoral Institute of
Southern Africa 120
Ellis,Mike 165
Enron 261
ePolitics 184
Equity Aviation 99
Ernstzen, Johan 217
Erwin, Alee 4-5, 28, 44, 51-2,
57, 6l, 72,124,126,139,
i6o, l6l, 171, 271, 293-4,
e.tv 99, 200
Evans, Rusty 73
Eveleth, Anne 247
executive see presidency,
Fairlady magazine 200
Fakir, Ebrahim 246, 250, 252
Fankomo, Felix 108
Faull, Jonathan 184
February, Judith 201
Federal Alliance (FA) 102,103,
Federation of South African
Trade Unions
(FOSATU) 293
Feinstein, Andrew 104-6, lo8,
109, in
Finance Week w8
Financial and Fiscal
Commission 27,192
Financial Mail 188,193,194,
First, Ruth 66
FleetBoston Financial 144
floor-crossing 103,170, i8o,
see also parliament
Food and Allied Workers
Union (FAWU) 142
Forum of South African DGs
(FOSAD) 76
Foundation for Peace and
Justice 30
Fraser-Moleketi, Geraldine
12, 54, 6o, 61, 76, 79, 8l-2,
122,157, 293, 294
Freedom Front Plus 102, 217,
Freedom Park Trust 98
Friedman, Steven 201, 223
Frye, Isobel I, 3-5,7
Furlan, Luiz 144
Gaundett, Jeremy 206
‘Gautrain’ project 156
GEAR 4, 57,128,140,144-6,
Geffen, Nathan 201
Gender Commission 12,125
General and Allied Workers’
Union 292
George, Mluleki 200, 284
Gerwel, Jakes 22, 26-8,36,
Gibson, Douglas 167
Gilbertson, Brian 269
Gilder, Barry 39,70
Ginwala, Frene 90,105, ill,
Gloppen, Siri 234
Godsell, Bobby 269
Goldberg, Prof. Denis 65
Golding, Marcell 99
Goldstone, Justice Richard
229,235, 240
Goniwe, Mbulelo no
Gordhan, Pravin 9, 8o-8l, 89,
92, 93, 95, 98,159
Govender, Pregs 97> "8
Government Communica-
tion and Information
Service (GCIS) 37,49,
Government of National
Unity 23, loi, 184, 282,
GQ 55, i88,189
Graham, Paul 236
Green, Pippa i88,197
Greenberg, Stan 174-5
Greyling, Lance 176,177
Griffith, John 211-12,214,242
Grootboom case 215,233-4
‘groupthink’ 25,169
Growth, Employment and
Redistribution see
Guardian 163
Gumbi, Mojanku 8,19, 27,
28-9,30-3I, 32,33, 41, 6i,
Gumede, William i8,145
Gwagwa, Thembeka 142
Gwala, Xolani 199
Habib.Adam 174,201
Haffajee, Ferial i88,194,195,
handlangers 18-19, 63, i77,
Hanekom, Derek 51
Hangana, Elizabeth 101
Hani, Chris 153,295
Hani, Limpho 98
Harding, Avril 167,177
Hardwick, Stephen 90, no
Harmony Gold 99
Hartley, Wyndham 196
Harvard University 58
Haysom, Fink 22, 27,30
Hazell, Anthony 168
Heard, Tony 19, 38,189,190,
Heath, Justice Willem 105
Hefer, Justice Joos 216
Hefer Commission 216,258
Hendricks, Prof. Denver 72
Hendricks, Lindiwe 217,292,
Herald 203
Hersh, Seymour 262
Heywood, Mark 202
Higginbotham, Hon A Leon,
Jr 306
Higher Education Bill 47
Hindle, Duncan 72
Hirsch, Alan 28, 37,197
HIV/AIDS 4, i3,17,41,75,
97, ll7, i57, l6", 161,
189-91,223,230, 250-52,
Hlophe, Justice John 205-7,
Hobbes, Thomas 244
Hofmeyr, Willie 34, n0
Hogan, Barbara 10, 59,107-8,
Holomisa, Bantu 101,108,
175, 228
Holomisa, Parekile 114
homelands 272
Hoosein, Haniff 176
Hopkins, Harry 19
Hosken Consolidated
Investments 99
House of Lords (UK) 212
Howard, Randall 139,142
Howie, Justice Craig Telfer
Human Rights Commission
12,13,22,125, 273, 302
Human Sciences Research
Council (HSRC) 194,
201, 266
Hutton, Will 58
Idasa 29,31, ll9,130,150,164,
167,170,177,184, i88,194,
200, 201, 203, 228, 236,
241, 244,245,246,252-7,
IFP 32,70,71,102, io6,107,
184,227,258, 283, 285
Ilizwi 203
Imvume 12
Independent Democrats (ID)
184,198, 227, 266
Independent Electoral
Commission (IEC) 31,
68,239,265-8, 304
Independent News and Media
(South Africa) Ltd 203
Independent Newspaper
Group 195
Indy Media SA 247
Inkatha Freedom Party see
International Court of
Justice 228
International Covenant on
Economic, Social and
Cultural Rights 232-3
International Labour
Organization (ILO) 137,
Investec 106
Jacobs, Sean 202-3, 204
Jaffer, Zubeida 195
Jafta, Loyiso 37
Jagwanth, Saras 234-5
Jali Commission 283
James, Wilmot 253-4, 257
Jara, Mazibuko 189
JCI 263
JCI Gold 263
Jeffrey, John (‘JJ’) 34,110-11,
Johnnic 268
Johnnic Communications
195,203, 268
Johnson, Lyndon 157
Johnson, RW 222-3
Johnson, Shaun 119
Jordaan, Willem 196
Jordan, Pallo 49, 63, 64, l22,
126,l6l, 281-2
Jordan case 234
Jubilee South 247
Judges’ Remuneration and
Conditions of
Employment Act 216
judicial commissions 216
Judicial Service Commission
(JSC) 207, 212, 216-22,
Judicial Service Commission
Amendment Bill 237
judiciary II, 86, 205-42, 270
independence vs
accountability 236-8
power of 211-16
selection process 216-21
transformation of 206-11,
see also Constitutional
Court; Supreme Court
of Appeal
justice committee 9, 31,85,
102-4, ii4
see also parliament
Karrim, Alt 92
Kasrils, Ronnie 15-16,126,
127-8,157, 290
Kathrada, Ahmed 22
Kebble, Brett 261-3, 265
Kebble, Roger 261, 263
Kekana, Nat 95, 98
Kennedy, John F 15
Kganyago, Lesetja 70,72,74
Kgositsile, Prof. Keorapetse 65
Khampepe, Justice Sisi 216
Khampepe Commission 216
Khanyile, Vusi 191
Khumalo, Bheki 21, 34,50,
Khutsong demarcation
dispute 156
King, Justice Edwin 207,216
King Commission 216
Klaaren, Jonathan 223
Kliptown conference 285
Kotsoane, Itumeleng 72
Kriegler, Justice Johann 229,
Krumbock, Greg 169,171-2
Kumba 167
Labour Court 210
Labour Party (UK) 117,125,
Labour Relations Act 139,
Labour Research Service 152
Laetoli Investments
Corporate 82
Land Claims Court 210
Landless People’s Movement
(LPM) 247,248
Landsberg, Chris 201
Langa, Pius 207,209, 217,220,
222, 230, 232, 234, 238-40,
Lategan, Braam 268,269
Lawrence, Gilbert 68-9
Lebogo, Oupa 142
Leeuw, Serake 108
Legal Resources Centre 235-6
legislature see parliament
lekgotlas 48,124, 238
Lekota, Mosiuoa Patrick
‘Terror’ 63, 64, ii2,121,
123-4,l6l, 226,284
Lembede Investment
Holdings 262
Lenin, Vladimir 125,147-8
Leon, Tony 55, 87, lo8,164,
Levin, Prof. Richard 72
Liberal Party (UK) 180
Liberty Group 98
Liebenberg, Sandra 233
Locke.John 244
Lombard, Hennie 175
London School of Economics
74, 2ll
Lorimer, James 169
Love, Janet 98
LTTE (Tamil Tigers) 39
Luyt, Louis 30,222
Mabandia, Justice Brigitte
205, 217, 290-91
Mabe, Louisa 108
Mabope, Mr 65
Mabudafhasi, Rejoice 285
Macozoma, Saki 98,126, 262
Madala, Justice Tholie 224,
Madisha, Willie 151,158
Madonsela, Vusimuzi 72
Maduna, Penuell 12,49, 83,
Mafolo, Titus 33, 99
Mahlangu, MJ 113
Mahlangu, Mninwa Johannes
Mahlungu, Qedani 221
Mail 6r Guardian 12,117, l20,
202,203,249,26i, 270
Majola, Fikile 142
Makgetia, Neva 141,159
Makhanya, Mondii 194,195
Makhaye, Dumisani 121,123
Makweda, Thabang 117, 220
Malala, Justice 200
Mandela, Nelson 22, 23, 26-8,
30,36,37,38, 43,5°,72,
87, 88, 93, III, II9,120-21,
199, 220, 222, 237, 253, 257,
26i,282, 286,287,288,
Mandela, Winnie 120,122,
Mandelson, Peter 19,173,
200, 272
Mangcu, Xolela 200
Mangena, Mosibudi 71,183,
Mankahlana, Parks 22,27,
Mantashe, Gwede 142,159
Manuel, Trevor 1-5, 7, i6,19,
44, 48, 51, 53, 54-6o, 6i,
119,122,124,152,l6l, 171,
189,197, 246, 271, 276,
Manzini, Manala 72
Maphai, Prof. Vincent 23,
Maphai Commission 23-6,
Mapisa-Nqakula, Nosiviwe
100,123, 288-9
Maqetuka, Mzuvukile Jeff
Marais, Peter 33, 68,172
Marcus, Gilbert 223, 238
Marcus, Gill 10, 57, 89, 95, loi
Marshoff, Beatrice 100,108
Martin, Paul 276
Marxism 11,50,127-8,159,
Masebe, Thabo 189
Maseko, Themba 49
Masemola, Danny Boy 142
Masemola, Katishi 142
Maseda, Billy 290
Mashiya, Mthimkhulu 142
Masilela, January Boy 70, 72
Masiteng, Kefiloe 37
Masithela, Neo 106,108
Masutha, Adv. Tshililo
Michael 217
Mathe, Themba 72
Mathekga, Ralph 145,150,
Matona, Tshediso 72
Matsepe-Casaburri, Ivy 52,
Matshikiza, John 261
Matshiqi, Aubrey 201
Matthews, Joe 285
Matthews, Prof. ZK 285
Max, Lennit 176
Maxwell, Robert 261-2
Maya, Yolisa 65
Maynier, David 169,170
Maytham,John 199-200
Mbalula, Fikile 123,126, 263
Mbeki, Govan 125
Mbeki, Thabo
advisors 8, i8-20, 27, 28-35,
38-9, 4l, 67, 99,271
and African Renaissance
and alliance 40,137,138,
and ANC 16-17,20-21, 40,
117, 120-21, 123, 125, 127-
and big business 262, z68
and cabinet 2,27, 40-41,
43-5, 48,54, 59-60,
economic policy n, 51,52,
56-7,128,145, 268
andHIV/AIDS 117-18,
and judiciary 206, 221, 235,
leadership 15-17, 40-41,
43-4,53, 54,59-6o,
Letter from the President
and the media 166,190,
and opposition 164,179
and parliament 87,114,164
presidency compared to
Mandela’s 22-8
and public service 70,73,
79, 8l, 83
and spin doctors 187-93
and succession 274-6
and Zimbabwe 20-21,191
see also presidency
Mbete, Baleka 111-12, 253
Mbongwa, Masiphula 72
Mboweni, Tito 51, 55, 275, 291
Mbuli, Vuyo 199
Mchunu, Prof. Mandia 31
McKinley, Dale 141, 247
Mdladlana, Membathisi 291-2
MDM (Mass Democratic
Movement) 66
media ll, 119,194-204,270
Media24 203
Medical Research Council
Meersman, Brent 175-6
Meirelles, Henrique 144
Meiring, General George 93
Meiring report 302
Mercury 203
Merrifield, Andrew 37
Metrorail 139
Mfeketo, Nomaindia 177
Microphone-in 254
ministers see cabinet
Mjwara, Dr Phil 72
MK 70, 92, 288, 290, 295, 296
Mkalipi, Boy 65
Mkhabela, Justice
Mpumelelo 196,205
Mkosana, Dr Mbuyisela
Vanguard 72
MIambo-Ngcuka, Phurnzile
44, 45,52-3, 6i, 101, no,
122, 126, 271, 275, 299
Mmaku Mining 268
Mncwango, Albert 181,182
Mngxitama, Andile 247
Modderklip case 214-15
Modise, Joe 45,105,123
Modise, Tim 199
Moerane, Marumo 221, 228
Moeti, Samuel 98
Mohai, Freddie 142
Moja, Dr 65
Mokaba, Peter 101,121,123
Mokgoro, Justice Yvonne
220, 222, 224, 235, 240,
Mokoena, ML 217
Molefe, Portia 72
Molekane, Rapulane loo
Moleketi,Jabu I, 61,154,157,
i6i, 286
Molewa, Edna (nee Sethema)
Molopa, Letty 220-21
Molusi, Connie 268
Moodley, Sethe 65
Moorane, Adv. Morumo
Tsatsi Khabela 217
moral regeneration
campaign 53
Morales, Evo 28-30, 56
Morgan, Geoffrey 66
Morning Star 163-4
Morobe, Murphy 27, 33,189,
Moroka, Adv. Kgomotso 217,
Mosala, Prof. Itumeleng 70,
Moseneke, Justice Dikgang
Mosieleng, Dr Percy 37
Mossad 262
Mothoagae, Percylia 108
Motlana, Ntatho 130
Motlanthe, Kgalema 123,
Motsepe, Patrice 130, 268, 272
Mpahlwa, Mandisi 54>Ioc),
Mpofu, Dali 71,198-9
Mpofu, Mpumi 71,72
Mseleku, Thami 71
Mseleku, Thamsanqa 72
Lindiwe 72
Msimang, Mendi 123, 288
Mthembi-Mahanyele, Sankie
Mthincso, Vukani 65
Mthombothi, Barney 195
Mti, Linda 70,72, ioo
Mtintso, Thenjiwe 92
MTN 201
Mufamadi, Sydney 61,
Mugabe, Robert 20,126,134
Mulchay, Martin 65
Mulder, Dr Corne 217
Mullin, Chris 117
Multi-Party Negotiations
Forum 302
Muluzi, Bakili 275
Munnik, LAPA 172
Mureinik, Prof. Etienne 31
Murphy, Nigel 254,255-6
Murray & Roberts 98
Murray, Prof. Christina 91-2,
ii2, 234-5
Mushwana, Lawrence 12
Musicians Union of South
Africa (MUSA) 142
Mvoko, Vuyo 197
Myburgh, James 193
Naidoo.Jay 51
Naidoo, Lawson 90, i68
Naidoo, Phyllis 248
Naidoo, Prishani 247
Naidoo, S 108
Naidoo, Vino 77
Nair, Billy 107,109
Napoleon 197
Naspers Group 196, 203
Natal Indian Congress 310
National Assembly see
National Council of
Provinces (NCOP) 12,
96, 97,112-13, II5-l6,
136-8,172, 212, 2l8,
National Council of Trade
Unions (NACTU) 33
National Democratic
Convention (NADECO)
National Director of Public
Prosecutions 105
National Economic
Development and
Labour Council see
National Education Crisis
Committee 291
National Education Health
and Allied Workers
Union (NEHAWU)
National Empowerment
Consortium 203
National Institute of Crime
Prevention and
Reintegration of
Offenders (NICRO) 98,
National Intelligence Agency
(NIA) 39, 70, ioo, 290
National Intelligence
Coordinating Com-
mittee (NICOC) 70
National Labour and
Economic Development
Institute (NALEDI) 135
National Party (NP) 44, 87,
National Security Council
(NSC) 39
National Treasury 2, 9, 48,
55-9,6l, 269,271
National Union of Metal-
workers of South Africa
(NUMSA) 142
National Union of
Mineworkers (NUM)
129,142,159, 293
National Youth Commission
Act 18
‘Native Club’ 33
Ncube, Trevor 203
Ncwana, Lunga 263
Ndebele, Njabulo 273
Ndzuzo, Sipho 142
NEDLAC 2-3,4,7,13, 47,48,
Neethling, Prof. Johann 217
Nel, Andries 108, no
NEPAD 33,148,287
Netshitenzhe, Joel 8-9,22, 28,
35,37,48-51,6l, 72, 94,
124,128, l6o,189,190-91,
194,195,198, 248, 271, 275
New Africa Investments
Limited (NAIL) 98, 223
new establishment 11,265,
272, 273,274,276, 279
new intelligentsia 271-2,273
New Labour Party (UK) 125,
New National Party see NNP
New Partnership for African
Development see
new social movements 185,
Ngcobo, Justice Sandile 222,
224,229, 234, 235,240,
Ngcuka, Bulelani 89, i88,
216, 253
Ngcukana, Cunningham 33
Ngema, Vincent 179
Ngoasheng, Moss 51
Ngoepe, Judge President
Bernard 207,217,273,304
Ngonyama, Smuts 123
Ngugi wa Thiong’o 21
Ngwane, Trevor 246-7,249
Ngwema, Sipho i88
Nhlanhla,Joe 290
Nhlapo, Welile 38
Nhleko, Nathi no
Niehaus, Carl 98, 255-6
Nijzink, Dr Lia 91-2
Njobe, Bongiwe 70
Nkabinde, Justice Bess 224,
235,241, 305
Nkanunu, Silas 217
Nkomo, Sokhaya Abraham
Nkosi, Duma 99
Nkuhlu, Andile 263
Nkuhlu, Wiseman 33
NNP 31,44, 68, 87, l02,103,
104,108, l66,167,171,172,
Nobel Peace Prize 251
Nogxina, Adv. Sandile 72
Nolingo, Welile 142
Nondwangu, Silumko 142
Nose-week 236,262-3
Nqakula, Charles 34,54, no,
i33,138, l57, i6o, 275,
Nthai, Adv. Seth 217
Ntsaluba, Dr Ayanda 72,74-5
Ntsebeza, Dumisa i6o
Nujoma, Sam 275
Nupen, Dren 120
Nxesi, Thulas 142
Nzimande, Blade 9-10,51, 8i,
89, 92, 93, 96, 98,143,
146,156,159, l89,255
Nzo, Alfred 123
Oasis Asset Management 236
Oates, Jonathan 180
Oelschig, Shaun 142
‘Oilgate’ scandal 12,13
Oliphant, Godfrey 159
Olver, Dr Crispian 71
Omar, Dullah 31, 94,123,
Open Democracy Advice
Centre 4,245
Open Democracy Bill 31-2
Open Democracy Campaign
Group 31, 35
Open Democracy Task Force
Operation Khanyisa
Movement (OKM) 249
Operation Vula 290, 295,310
opposition n, 163-85,193,
see also parliament
O’Regan, Justice Kate 220,
221-2, 224, 229, 234, 240,
241, 306-7
O’Reilly, Tony 203
Organization of African
Unity (OAU) 296
Orkin, Dr Mark 266
Otter, Steven 176
Our Times 203
Oxford University 71
PAC 19,102,177,239
Pahad, Aziz 21, 35,73
Pahad, Essop 18-20, 29,34-5,
38, 87,106, no, II7,125,
157, l66,189,262,271, 293,
Palocci, Antonio 144
Pan African Parliament in
Pan Africanist Congress see
Pandor, Naledi 112,284-5
parliament 7,10, 34,46,59,
85-114, II5-I8, l65, 212,
brain drain io, 94-102
chief whip 109-10
committee system 88-94,
floor-crossing 103,170, i8o,
justice committee 9, y, 85,
102-4, il4
proportional represen-
tation 109-10,182-3,
Speaker 90-91, m-l2
standing committee on
public accounts
(SCOPA) 104-8,109,113,
tricameral 89
see also National Council of
Provinces; opposition
Parliamentary Information
and Monitoring Service
(PIMS) 257
parliamentary vs presidential
systems 46
Patel, Ebrahim 40,142,159
Paton, Carol 196
People Against Gangsterism
and Drugs (PAGAD)
Performing Arts Workers’
Equity (PAWE) 142
Perlman,John 199
PetroSA 12
Phetoe, Solly 197
Phillips, Dr lan 65, 92
Phillips, Dr Sean 65,72
Phosa, Mathews 17,200,
Pillay, Dr Punday 35-8
Pityana, Barney 273
Pityana, Sipho 82
Police and Prisons Civil
Rights Union
(POPCRU) 142,283
Policy Coordination and
Advisory Service (PCAS)
36,38,47, 49
portfolio committee on
justice and constitu-
tional development see
justice committee
power, theories of 6-7
presidency 8,15-41,48, 269,
advisors 8, 27-35, 41, 49,
Mbeki compared to
Mandela 22-8
policy unit 8-9, 35-8, 41,
presidential councils 40,
Presidential Support Unit
(PSU) 38-40
presidential vs parliamentary
systems 46
Pretoria News 203
Princeton University 192
Programme for Land and
Agrarian Studies
(PLAAS) 189
Progressive Federal Party
(PFP) 165,166,172
Promotion of Access to
Information Act 31-2
proportional representation
109-10,182-3, 227
see also parliament
Protection of Constitutional
Democracy Against
Terrorists and Related
Activities Bill see
Anti-Terrorism Bill
Public Finance Management Act (PFMA) 57-8,75
Public Information Centre
Public Protector 12,105,125
public service 63-83, 270
directors-general 9, 54, 64,
68-76,82-3, 270
hierarchy and bureaucracy
special advisors 9, 63-7,
transformation of 9,76-9,
see also department of
public service and
Public Service Commission
(PSC) 12,25
Quintal, Angela 195
Rabie, Pierre 108
Rabkin, Sue 63,64-6,83
Radebe, Bridgette 268
Radebe, Jeff 22,124, i26,157,
268,293, 298-9
Radio 702 167,199
Ramagoma, Mike 65
Ramaphosa, Cyril 17, 95> 97i
122, 129, 130, 200, 254,
268,277,282, 287
Ramashia, Adv. Rams 49,7I>
Ramos, Maria 2, 3, 52, 57-8>
Ramphele, Mamphela 253-41
Rapport 203
Rasool, Ebrahim 68-9
RDP 4, 57,7i, 99, loo, 140,
Reconstruction and
Programme see RDP
Reserve Bank 51,70, 95, loi,
Reuters 196
Rickard, Carmel 205, 217
Robben Island Museum 97
Robbie, John 199
Roberts, Ronald Suresh 193
Robinson, William 268
Rodrik, Danny 58
Ronnie, Roger 142
Roosevelt, Franklin Delano
Roux, Theunis 234
Ruiters, Alastair 71-2
Ryklief, Sahra 152,158
SAAB 105
Saatchi & Saatchi 138
SABC 17,197-8, 203, 254,259,
SA Breweries 70
Sachs, Justice Albie 218-20,
222, 223, 224, 229, 230,
234, 240,241, 307-8
SACP 4, io-ll, 19,40,47, 8l,
96, 98,121-2,125,127,132,
157-9, l6l, 163,189, 247,
248, 249, 263, 270, 281,
294, 295, 297, 298-9
SADF 193
Safika Holdings 98
SAfm 45,196,199-200, 254
Sampson, Anthony 117, 268,
Sarafina II controversy ill,
SARS 80-81, 95, 98,159
SASBO: The Finance Union
Sasol 99
Schlemmer, Lawrie 175
Schoeman, Manie n8
Schroeder, Gerhard 175
SCOPA see standing
committee on public
Scorpions 188,216
Scott, Mpho 99
Seaton, Sybil 108
Section 76 bills 112-13
Seepe, Sipho 201
Seife, James 163,164, i66,167,
Seligson, Adv. Milton 217
Senkge, Kagisa 142
Serote, Mongane Wally 98
Setona, Tsietsi Simon 217
Sexual Offences Act 234
Sexwale, Tokyo 17,130,200,
Shaik, Mo 262
Shaik, Schabir 142,262
Shaik trial 153
Shakespeare, William 22
Shamir, Yitzhak 262
Sheehan, Helen 126
Shilowa, Mbhazima 135,146,
156, l89, 275
Shope-Mafole, Lyndall 72
Sibanyoni, Jonas Ben 217
Siemens 34,190
Sigcau, Stella 45, 52, 28l, 283,
Silva, Marina 143
Simelane, Adv. Menzi 72
Sindane, Jabulani 72
Sisulu, Lindiwe 61,100,
Sisulu, Max 97, 99, no
Sisulu, Walter 125
Skosana, Ben 283
Skulu, Bones 142
Skweyiya, Sayo Nomakhosi
Skweyiya, Justice Thembile
224,234,241, 308
Skweyiya, Zola 23, 66,126,
Skweyiya Commission 290
Smith, Vincent 106
Smuts, Dene 165,171
Social Democratic Party
(Sweden) 131
Sonjica, Buyelwa loo, 292,
Soobramoney case 229,233
South African Agricultural Plantation and Allied Workers Union
South African Airways 248
South African Broadcasting
Authority 71
South African Clothing and
Textile Workers Union
(SACTWU) 142
South African Commercial,
Catering and Allied
Workers Union
South African Communist
Party see SACP
South African Democratic
Nurses’ Union
(SADNU) 142
South African Democratic
Teachers Union
(SADTU) 142,291,292
South African Football
Players Union (SAFPU)
South African Medical
Association (SAMA) 142
South African Municipal
Workers Union
(SAMWU) 142
South African Revenue
Service see SARS
South African Rugby
Football Union
(SARFU) 30,222,283
South African Secret Service
(SASS) 70
South African State and
Allied Workers Union
(SASAWU) 142
South African Students’
Organization (SASO)
South African Transport
and Allied Workers
Union (SATAWU) 139,
Southern African Develop-
ment Community
Sowetan 195, 202, 203
Soweto Electricity Crisis
Committee (SECC) 247
Soweto uprising 290,298
Sparks, Allister 198-9
Spaull, Rob 193
Special Investigating Unit 34,
105, no
Spicer, Michael 40
spin doctors 33,187-93
Spin Doctors’ Cricket Club
85, i68
Stalin 197
Standard Bank of South
Africa 98
Standard Group 98
Stanlib 98
Star 203
Stiglitz,Joe 58
Stofile, Rev. Makhenkesi 88,
99, no, 253-4,296-7
Strategic Defence
Procurement Package
see arms deal
Stremlau, Prof. John 201
succession 11,128,153-4,259,
274-7, 278
Sunday Independent 119
Sunday Sun 203
Sunday Times 30,139,194,196,
Sunday World 203
Supreme Court of Appeal
(SCA) 210, 213,214-15,
217,238, 305
Surty, Enver 285
Suttner, Raymond 89, 93, 99,
Suzman, Helen 165
Tabane, Rapule 196
Taljaard, Raenette 108,
Tambo, Oliver 125
Tang, Mr 180
tax see SARS
Telkom 95, 98, 223
Terreblanche, Prof. Sample
II, 21
Thatcher, Margaret 57
"Third Wa/ 190
ThisDay 200
Thomas, Glen 72
Thulare, Dr Aquina 142
Time magazine 191
Times, The 163
Tisani, Mandia 265, 266-7
Titus, Zam 65
Trahar, Tony 40,269
judiciary 206-11, 2i8
public service 9,76-9,
Transnet 2, 52, 98, 99,139,195
Transvaal Indian Youth
Congress 297
Traverse, Justice Jeanette 206
TRCAct 207
Treasury see National
Treatment Action Campaign
(TAC) 125, i6i, 201-2,
Tregenna, Fiona 134,145
Trengove, Wim 218-19, 228-9,
Trew, Tony 22,37
tripartite alliance 10-11, 96,
see also ANC; COSATU;
Truth and Reconciliation
Commission (TRC) 160,
207,258, 306
Tsedu, Mathatha 194,195,
Tsenoli, Solomon 100
Tshabalala-Msimang, Manto
54, 56,75, ioi, i66,
Tshwete, Steve 17,123,200,
Turok, Ben 59
Tutu, Desmond 283
UDF 7i27, 30,35, 66,190,
191-2, 249,283,284,286,
new UDF 249-50
ultra-left 141,146-9,247-8,
Umkhonto we Sizwe see MK
UNISA 273, 301
United Christian Democratic
Party (UCDP) 102,103
United Democratic Front see
United Democratic
Movement (UDM) 97,
184,227,228,231, 266
United Nations 39i 234
United Nations’ Development
Programme (UNDP)
Unity Movement 294
University of Cape Town
(UCT) 112, l68,169, 234,
University of Coventry 71
University of Stellenbosch 11,
University of Sussex 35
University of the Western
Cape 35-6,189
University of the Witwa-
tersrand 99,167,169,
2oi, 223, 244, 247
Univest 99
Uys, Pierre 108
Uys, Pierer-Dirk 175
Vale, Peter 73
Valli Moosa, Mohammed 191,
Vally, Salim 247
Van der Merwe, Jacobus
Hercules 181,217
Van der Merwe, Sue 29-30,
35, no
Van der Westhuizen, Justice
Johann 224, 235,241,
Van Dyke-Roberts, Hanlie 65
Van Heerden, Dr Frik 217
Van Heusden, Peter 247
Van Niekerk, Phillip 194
Van Onselen, Charles 167
Van Onselen, Gareth 167, i68,
Van Reenen, Justice Dennis
Van Schalkwyk, Marthinus
44, 68, 87,169,193, 226,
Van Schoor, Adv. Empie 31
Vavi, Zwelinzima 40,133,135,
Veriava, Ahmed 247
Viljoen, Conscand 269
Villegas, Carlos 29
Volksblad 203
Volkswagen SA 98
Von Klemperer, Julian 217,
Vorster, BJ 127
Vorster, Dr Shaun 65
Weber, Max 13
Weekend Post 203
Western Cape Anti-Eviction
Campaign (WECAEC)
Westminster 10,18, 69,115,
Williams, Moegsien 119
Witbooi, Abbey 142
Woods, Gavin 106,107,
World Bank 253
World Trade Organization
(WTO) 159,246,287,
Wort, Logan 189
Xingwana, Lulu 101, 281
Xinwa, Leslie 65
Yacoob, Justice Zak 222, 223,
229, 235, 240,309-10
Yako, Pamela 72
Yengeni, Tony 92-3, 97, In5,
Young Women’s Christian
Association (YWCA)
Zaaiman, Dr Andre 39
Zama Resources 263
Zapiro 226
Zikalala, Snuki 197-8
Zille, Helen 169-70,176
Zondi, Musa 179, l8o-8l
Zulu, Thami 218
Zuma, Jacob n, 16,17,34,40,
53, ioi, no, 123,126,153-6,
l8l,258,262, 266,270,
274,276,277,289, 299
Zwelethini, King Goodwill